Crash Report Libertor A.N.925, 18 February 1942 (3 of 3)

Crash Report Libertor A.N.925, 18 February 1942 (3 of 3)

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Crash Report Libertor A.N.925, 18 February 1942 (3 of 3)

Crash Report for Liberator A.N.925 on 18 February 1942 (page 3 of 3)

F/O Claydon and A.C. Owen being in attendance, for transmission to the Stranmillis Military Hospital. On arrival, however, admission was refused despite remonstrations, the reason being that no beds were available for officers, so accepting the decision resignedly, no further time was wated in conveying them to the 31st General Hospital. The Aldergrove 'Albion' ambulance with the three sergeants on board (L.A.C. Underwood in attendance) left for the 31st General Hospital at 07.45 hours.

The hospital authorites were waiting for the casualties who were promptly put to bed and made as comfortable as possible.

W/Cdr Gates, S/Ldr Kerr, A.C. Gilbert and myself revisted the scene of the crash at 07.45 hours and found the badly charred bodied of the three remaining members of the crew lying around the debris. They were unidentifiable, even their position did not help, and it was only through some small piece of personnel clothign in the immediate vicinity of Pilot Officer Fuller which enabled the indentity of his remains to be established.

Looking back on the event, it may be counted as a piece of good fortune that the casualties approached us rather than for us to have had to search the burning wreckage for them, particularly in view of our close proximity coincident with the violent explosion.

From the medical point of view everything possible to alleviate the pain and suffering of the patients was done and it seems that our part of the business was efficiently handled in every department. The scene may have appeared to have been chaotic - and indeed it was- but all the personnel knew what was expected of them, knew just what to do, and strained every nerve to attend to the casualties so thoroughly as to have them transported to hospital within three hours of the accident.

In passing Squadron Leader Noble and R.C. Padre were quickly on the scene, and S/Ldr Noble in particular rendered some very valuable assistance.

To close the narrative, two small measures of appreciation should be recorded. The first from Colonel Heath of the 31st General Hospital, who remarked - 'He would like his appreciation passed on to the Orderly staff as he considered the condition in which the patients arrived at the hospital reflected credit on the personnel concerned'. The second came from FLight Sergeant Werry who was a patient in Sick Quarters at the time. He said 'He considered the personnel had performed a remarkably efficient job of work particularly insofar as the first casualties were being treated in the Crash Theatre within 20 minutes of the alarm being given'.

It is hoped that the reports quoted above do no make our position egotistical and they have only been reproduced in fairness to the personnel as true appreciation of what they did; also to dispel the idea abroad which is apt to harbour in other peoples thoughts that we do have a very easy measure of Service life, even to bordering on the side of inefficiency. These people may now appreciate the fact that we can aspire to great heights as and when the occasion demands.

Many thanks to Peter Claydon for sending us these pictures, which belonged to his father, C.W.J. Claydon, who spent much of the war serving as a medical officer with No.120 Squadron at Ballykelly, Northern Ireland.

487th Bomb Group

The insignia of the 487th Bomb Group. N.B. The nickname "Gentlemen From Hell" has only been used in connection with the Group since the 487th Bomb Group Association was formed in 1967. It was not an official wartime nickname. The "Gentlemen From Hell" patch was used by a very few members of the 487th Bomb Group at Alamogordo, New Mexico during training Jan–Mar 1944, and during the early days of operations at Lavenham, England. Most veterans of the 487th Bomb Group knew nothing about it during the war. This looks like a postwar reproduction. Mr. Freeman probably obtained it from a 487th Bomb Group veteran after 1967. It definitely was not the insignia of the 487th Bomb Group. There was no official 487th Bomb Group insignia.

The nose art of a B-24 Liberator nicknamed "Fluxuatin' Kate" of the 487th Bomb Group.

Lieutenant Colonel Frank P Bostrom, Lieutenant Colonel Beirne Lay Jr , Philippa Ludwell Lee and Lieutenant Colonel John Veerling of the 487th Bomb Group at a party in the Officers Club. (Photo also in the collection of Leo M. Burbridge, 487BG Adjutant)

This is Mayfield R. Shilling (16 Jul 1918 – 28 Jul 1997), U.S. Army Air Corps, of Texas. He was a pilot, operations officer, and air leader in the 838th Bomb Squadron of the 487th Bomb Group (Heavy), based at Army Air Forces Station 137, Lavenham, Suffolk, England, in 1944–1945. On the 8th Air Force mission of December 24, 1944, he was the Deputy Air Leader of the 487th Bomb Group, flying with the crew of Lt John H. Edwards in B-17G 44-8021. The Air Leader was Brig Gen Frederick W. Castle, who flew with the crew of Lt Robert W. Harriman in B-17G 44-8444. Captain Shilling took over the lead of the 487th Bomb Group after General Castle was shot down with Lt Harriman’s crew (Missing Air Crew Report 11552). Captain Shilling was later promoted to Major. After the war he lived at Kerrville, Texas, where he was employed by Ideal Basic Industries. He was also an interim Chairman of the Board of the Denver and Rio Grande Railroad. He died at Kerrville, Texas, and is buried at Fort Sam Houston National Cemetery in San Antonio, Texas. Handwritten caption on reverse: 'Mayfiled Shilling, Houston, Texas.'

Edmund F "Misch" Auer, Mayfield R Shilling, Francis C "Eb" Eberhart and Ralph R Searle of the 487th Bomb Group outside the 838th Bomb Squadron operations room at Lavenham, 1944. This photo was probably taken soon after the 487th Bomb Group arrived in England in April 1944.

Colonel William Kemp Martin. He was Commanding Officer of the 487th Bomb Group from December 28, 1944 to May 29, 1945.

The nose art of a B-24 Liberator (serial number 41-29483) nicknamed "Gashouse Gus" of the 487th Bomb Group.

Captain Edmund F. Auer of the 487th Bomb Group in front of a B-17 Flying Fortress. Handwritten caption on reverse: 'Misch' This is Captain Edmund F. 'Misch' Auer, Army serial number O-795170, who was a lead navigator in the 838th Bomb Squadron of the 487th Bomb Group at Lavenham, Suffolk, England. His buddies in the service called him 'Misch', after the actor Mischa Auer. His good friend Doctor (Captain) Isadore Lerner, the 838th Bomb Squadron flight surgeon, explained: "His real name was Edmund Auer, but he was quickly tagged as Misch, after a well-known movie comedian who usually portrayed old phony Russian aristocrats. Misch himself was a funny fellow, always in good humor, and never complaining. We joined up as roommates, and became fast friends. He was older than most of the men in the squadron. In fact he was my age, 27." Capt Auer was shot down while flying with the crew of Lt Robert W. Harriman in B-17G 44-8444 on December 24, 1944 (MACR 11552). He survived the war. The identity of Edmund F. Auer in this photo was confirmed by Edward F. Auer, his son, in February 2015.

Roy K Snell of the 487th Bomb Group outside his Nissen hut. Image via Roy K Snell. Snell has handwritten on the reverse: 'Out hut in the 837th. Me after about 25 missions.'

Two ground crewman of the 487th Bomb Group with a B-17 Flying Fortress. Image via Roy K Snell. Snell has handwritten on the reverse: 'Our ground crew.'

A total of 18,493 Liberators were built, more than any other aircraft in World War II. Several factories produced the Liberator:

  • Original Consolidated plant in San Diego
  • A second Consolidated plant in Fort Worth
  • Ford Motor Co. at Willow Run, Michigan
  • North American Aviation in Dallas
  • Douglas Aircraft Co. in Tulsa

Included on this website is a table showing a recap of B-24 Liberator production by model, and by manufacturing plant. Numbers represent our best research on the subject there are minor variations in numbers reported by other sources and outlets.

Rolling out a newly built B-24 Liberator

14 October 1943: “Bloody Thursday”

14 October 1943: A large force of 8th Air Force heavy bombers and escorting fighters attack the ball bearing factories at Schweinfurt, Germany, for the second time. Five bombardment groups sent 291 B-17 Flying Fortress four-engine heavy bombers on the raid.

A B-17F Flying Fortress going down over Europe. The left outboard engine is on fire and the right wing has been shot off. There are ten men in this airplane. (U.S. Air Force)

60 B-17s were shot down by German fighters or anti-aircraft artillery (“flak”). Another 17 were so heavily damaged that they crashed on landing back at their bases, or were so severely damaged that they were beyond repair. 121 B-17s received lesser damage. 594 crewmen were listed as Missing In Action (presumably Killed In Action). 65 men were captured and held as Prisoners of War. Of the bombers that returned to England 5 crewmen were killed and 43 were wounded. B-17 gunners shot down 35 to 38 Messerschmitt Bf 109s and Focke-Wulk Fw 190s. Another 20 fighters were damaged.

A B-17G Flying Fortress with its bomb bay doors open. (U.S. Air Force)

Operation Tidal Wave was one of the boldest and most controversial air raids of World War II.

In 1943, the Ploesti oilfields in Romania were Germany’s single most important fuel source, and a key strategic air power target. But the Tidal Wave raid to destroy the refineries, using B-24s flown from Libya, turned into one of the costliest US Army Air Force (USAAF) operations to date, with about a third of the force shot down. Although undoubtedly heroic, with five Medals of Honor awarded, the mission had questionable results. Initial assessments argued that 40 percent of the refinery capacity at Ploesti had been destroyed, but later studies concluded that the damage was quickly repaired and output levels rebounded.

As told by Steven J. Zaloga in his book Ploesti 1943, in his initial report to Berlin, Gen Alfred Gerstenberg (who from Feb. 15, 1942 to Aug. 27, 1944 served as the commanding general of Luftwaffe in Romania) acknowledged the damage to the refineries, but noted that it would not appreciably diminish the supply of fuel to Germany and its allies. Furthermore, the USAAF had suffered crippling losses from the attack. On Aug. 3, 1943, the senior Romanian and German leadership held a conference in Bucharest to discuss the lessons from the Ploesti raid. The meeting included Marshal Ion Antonescu, General de escadra Gheorghe Jienescu (Romanian Air Minister), General de divizie Gheorghe D. Marinescu (Romanian Air Defenses), German Ambassador Manfred Freiherr von Killinger, Gen Gerstenberg, Oberst Woldenga (German fighter forces), Gen Kuderna (commander of 5.Flak Division), and others.

Gerstenberg noted that even though the raid had caused considerable damage, the refineries were still operating and that production could be returned to normal in a few weeks. The Flak defense of Ploesti was judged to be the single most important factor in the defeat of the raid, though there were various suggestions for improving air defense. Ploesti and the Prahova valley had only about a third of the total Romanian and German antiaircraft artillery in Romania, and the conference felt that the Flak was too dispersed.

As a result, a program was initiated to concentrate the Flak defenses on the most critical locations including Bucharest, Ploesti, the Cernavoda bridge, the port of Constanta, and the factory cities of Reqita and Brasov. There was also a general agreement over the need for more antiaircraft guns including heavy batteries of 105mm, due to the supposition that future raids would come from high altitudes after the failure of the low-altitude raid. Fighter forces would also have to be strengthened, and additional radar stations deployed for early warning.

In total, the FARR (Fortele Aeriene Regale Romane, Royal Romanian Air Force) had 31 available aircraft with crews on Aug. 1 and conducted 54 sorties, with 13 kill claims. The Luftwaffe had 26 aircraft with crews available near Ploesti, conducted 69 sorties, and claimed 15 kills. This does not count the further five kill claims by Jagdgeschwader.27 based at Kalamaki/Tanagara in Greece, which attacked the returning Tidal Wave force over the Ionian Sea.

Romanian assessments seriously downgraded the number of bombers lost to fighters. Part of the issue was that many of the bombers claimed by fighters had been fatally damaged by Flak, and the fighters merely arrived on the scene to deliver a coup de grace. One of the main technical assessments after Tidal Wave was that the fighter aircraft had to be upgraded with 20mm cannon as the machine-gun-armed fighters could simply not do enough damage to a heavy bomber.

The Tidal Wave bomber crews claimed to have shot down 52 enemy aircraft, a substantial exaggeration. The Luftwaffe lost two BF 109G-2 fighters destroyed and four damaged from I./JG.4, and two Bf 109Gs destroyed and one damaged from JG.27 in the final encounters over the Ionian Sea. Night-fighter losses were one Bf 110E-4 destroyed and four damaged from NJG.6. The FARR lost two JAR 80 fighters and three damaged one Romanian Bf 110C was also shot down. There were also at least two Romanian Bf 109G-2s damaged during the engagements.

Romanian accounts indicate that 34-36 bombers were shot down over Romania, of which nine crashed within the immediate Ploesti area and 26 in areas away from the city. The varying numbers of bombers was due to the fact that several bombers disintegrated and burned after crashing into the refineries. In 1944, Romanian officials provided the US with a list of 25 of the aircraft that were relatively intact that could be identified by serial number. Romanian assessments put the causes of the bomber losses to Flak (20), fighters (12), and balloon cables (4). The initial US assessment was that Flak was the major cause of losses over Ploesti, with fighters responsible for five or six losses, balloon cables one loss, and possibly one or two planes engulfed in bomb blasts or other ground conflagrations. Both the Germans and Romanians attributed most of the Flak kills to the light 20mm and 37mm guns. The 88mm guns were not well suited to engagements at low altitude. The Romanian Gendarmerie reported that the USAAF had suffered 214 dead in Romania, but also reported that some aircraft were so badly burned that crew remains were impossible to identify.

Casualty figures on the ground vary from report to report. Most contemporary reports indicate over 300 dead and wounded. The single most costly event was the B-24 crash into the women’s penitentiary which caused 61 dead and 60 wounded. Equipment losses were three 88mm guns, and five 20mm guns. Seven barrage balloons were knocked free when their cables were severed and five more were set on fire and destroyed.

Ploesti 1943 is published by Osprey Publishing and is available to order here.

Crash Report Libertor A.N.925, 18 February 1942 (3 of 3) - History

Pilot Captain Thomas C. Paschal, O-888688 (MIA / KIA) El Monte, CA
Co-Pilot 2nd Lt John A. Widsteen, O-691166 (MIA / KIA) Palo Alto, CA
Navigator 1st Lt James P. Gullion, O-803142 (MIA / KIA) Paris, TX
Bombardier 1st Lt Frank P. Giugliano, O-673063 (MIA / KIA, BR) New York, NY
Engineer SSgt Elgin J. Luckenbach, 18106009 (MIA / KIA) Luckenbach, TX
Asst Engineer S/Sgt Marion B. May, 38108748 (MIA / KIA) Amarillo, TX
Radio S/Sgt Richard F. King, 34350910 (MIA / KIA, BR) Moultrie, GA
Ast Radio Sgt Marshall P. Borofsky, 16172175 (MIA / KIA, BR) Chicago, IL
Gunner S/Sgt William Lowery, 15089215 (MIA / KIA. BR) Republic, PA
Gunner Sgt Walter G. Harm, 33184186 (MIA / KIA, BR) Philadelphia, PA
Passenger 2nd Lt Leland A. Rehmet, O-752627 (MIA / KIA) San Antonio, TX
Crashed April 16, 1944 "Black Sunday" at 3:05pm
MACR 4512

Aircraft History
Built by Consolidated at San Diego. Delivered to the U.S. Army Air Force (USAAF) as B-24J-80-CO Liberator serial number 42-100225. Ferried overseas via Hickam Field then across the Pacific to Australia.

Wartime History
During March 1944 assigned to the 5th Air Force (5th AF), 22nd Bombardment Group (22nd BG), 408th Bombardment Squadron (408th BS). This bomber might have been nicknamed "Royal Flush".

On April 12, 1944 first bombing mission against Hollandia. When lost, engines R-1830-65 serial numbers: 42-88101, BP425763, 8P-425921 and 42-42281. In total, this B-24 completed four missions before it went missing.

Mission History
On April 16, 1944 took off from Nadzab Airfield piloted by Captain Thomas C. Paschal on a bombing mission against Hollandia. Returning from the mission, the formation encountered a severe weather front. This B-24 was last last sighted out to sea north of Saidor. When this B-24 failed to return it was was declared Missing In Action (MIA). Also lost was B-24J 42-110000 (2 MIA, 8 rescued).

On April 17, 1944 at 8:30am search missions were flown (Mission 108C-Q) for this missing bomber by fifteen B-25 Mitchells plus eight B-24 Liberators from V Bomber Command without results. They searching the area between Port Moresby, Dobodura, Aware, Cape Gloucester and off the coast of New Guinea including the mouth of the Sepik River, Ramu Valley, Markam Valley, Kerema and Yule Island.

During 2002, a local villager located this rash site while hunting for wallaby in the Finisterre Range near Kunukio and reported the discovery to U.S. Army CILHI representative Brian Bennett. Once located and confirmed, the crash of this B-24 was designated as site "PP-46" (Papua New Guinea 46). This B-24 crashed only 700 meters away was the crash of B-24J "Here T'is" 42-72946 (MIA) that crashed returning from the same April 16, 1944 "Black Sunday" mission.

Brian Bennett adds:
"A local had come across the wreck while hunting. I had some dispute with that as when i had an opportunity to visit the site [PP-46] i noted that a tyre on one of the main landing gear had been cut open at one stage[ a long time previously] so that the tube could be cut out [for use as slingshot rubber etc] which meant that the crash site had probably been known of for some time. My role was telling the CILHI recovery team of the discovery to at least go check out a report of dog tags and some remains in a village. The end result was that the team were led to the site by helicopter., after first visiting another [B-24J 42-72946]. They were on asked by a native 'was the team pleased about the bones n stuff lying around?' when the team leaders said yes the native then asked them if they wanted to see the other aircraft [this B-24] over on the next hill? The result of a visit to this site was that they had two B-24's that went missing on Black Sunday. It is near certain now that both aircraft had joined up so as to fly back to Nadzab."

Recovery of Remains
During 2002, a team from JPAC conducted a recovery operation at the crash site and recovered the remains of the crew. Among the personal effects found Sgt Marshall P. Borofsky identification bracelet with the inscription "Always, Edith" engraved inside.

During September 2005, the Department of Defense (DoD) announced Borofsky was identified.

On April 19, 2006 the Department of Defense (DoD) announced that eight of the crew were positively identified.

The entire crew was officially declared dead on February 25, 1946. All are memorialized at Manila American Cemetery on the tablets of the missing.

After the recovery of remains, three were buried in their hometowns.

On April 21, 2006 bone fragments associated with the crew that could not be positively identified or individually identified with were buried in a group burial at Arlington National Cemetery at Section 60 Site 8350.

On April 21, 2006 Paschal was buried at Arlington National Cemetery at section 60 site 8352.

On April 21, 2006 Luckenbach was buried at Arlington National Cemetery at section 60 site 8354.

Luckenbach also has a memorial marker at Greenwood Cemetery in Fredericksburg, TX. and Arlington National Cemetery.

May has a memorial marker at Oak Hill Memorial Park in McAlester, OK at section 15, north.

Jason Golden (third cousin of Marshall Borofsky):
"The remains of Sgt. Marshall Borofsky were positively identified in September [2005]. We have been advised by the Pentagon that Sgt. Borofsky (a third cousin of mine) will be buried at Arlington National Cemetery on April 21, 2006 with full military honors. This ID process took three and a half years and was actually expedited with the help of the committee for government reform in US Congress. I had a friend inside who was eager to help when I told them of the situation - Sgt. Borofsky's brother is in his mid 70's and had still never known anything about Marshall for 60 years. The family got word in 2002 that the plane was found in PNG, but we were still waiting for a resolution and ID of the remains. The funeral date was set two weeks ago. Hopefully you can get the word out that another soldier from 'Black Sunday' will be coming home."

USAF Serial Number Search Results - USAF Serial Number Search Results 42-100225
"100225 (22rd BG, 408th BS) MIA Apr 16, 1944 in weather-related accident, New Guinea. On that day (Black Sunday) the US 5th AF lost 37 aircraft to weather. MACR 4512. Wreck located in 2002. All 11 on board killed."
Missing Air Crew Report 4512 (MACR 4512) created April 19, 1944
Missing Air Crew Report 8378 (MACR 8378) created April 19, 1944 page 4 (map Captain Paschal last sighted)
PNG Museum Aircraft Status Card - B-24D Liberator 42-100225
American Battle Monuments Commission (ABMC) - Thomas C. Paschal "remains were recovered"
American Battle Monuments Commission (ABMC) - John A. Widsteen "remains were recovered"
American Battle Monuments Commission (ABMC) - James P. Gullion "remains were recovered"
American Battle Monuments Commission (ABMC) - Frank P. Giugliano "remains were recovered"
American Battle Monuments Commission (ABMC) - William Lowery "remains were recovered"
American Battle Monuments Commission (ABMC) - Walter G. Harm "remains were recovered"
American Battle Monuments Commission (ABMC) - Marshall P. Borofsky "remains were recovered"
American Battle Monuments Commission (ABMC) - Richard F. King "remains were recovered"
Arlington National Cemetery (ANC Explorer) - Thomas C. Paschal (grave) section 60 site 8352
Arlington National Cemetery (ANC Explorer) - Thomas C. Paschal (group burial) section 60 site 8350
Arlington National Cemetery (ANC Explorer) - Elgin J. Luckenbach (grave) section 60 site 8354
Arlington National Cemetery (ANC Explorer) - Elgin J. Luckenbach (group burial) section 60 site 8350
FindAGrave - Capt Thomas C. Paschal (group burial photo, grave photo)
FindAGrave - Lieut John A. Widsteen (photo, group burial photo)
FindAGrave - Lieut Frank P. Giugliano (photo, group burial photo)
FindAGrave - Sgt Elgin J. Luckenbach (photo, obituary, grave photo, memorial marker)
FindAGrave - Elgin Julius Luckenbach (memorial marker Greenwood Cemetery)
FindAGrave - Sgt Marion May (group burial photo, memorial marker)
FindAGrave - Marion B May (memorial marker)
FindAGrave - Sgt Richard F. King (group burial photo)
FindAGrave - Sgt Marshall Borofsky (group burial photo, memorial marker)
FindAGrave - Sgt William Lowery (group burial photo, memorial marker)
FindAGrave - Sgt Walter G. Harm (group burial photo, memorial marker)
FindAGrave - Leland Arnim Rehmet (group burial photo, memorial marker)
Black Sunday (2000) by Michael Claringbould
Revenge of the Red Raiders (2006) page 243-244, 507
Royal Flush and Black Sunday: When the 408th Bomb Squadron lost the crew of the Royal Flush and were discovered 60 years later (2019) by by David W. Braeutigam
DPMO News Release "Airmen Missing In Action in World War II Identified" April 19, 2006
Revenge of the Red Raiders (2006) pages 222 (map), 236 (April 12, 1944 mission), 240 (April 16, 1944 missing) 243 (42-100225 crash site found), 244 (photos from CILHI mission 2002 by Brian Bennett) 480 (appendix II - April 16, 1944 44-100225) 507 (appendix III - 44-100225 notes possible nickname as "Royal Flush" with question mark as unconfirmed), 618 (index Paschal), 619 (index Royal Flush)

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Black Tuesday: October 29, 1929

Stock prices began to decline in September and early October 1929, and on October 18 the fall began. Panic set in, and on October 24, Black Thursday, a record 12,894,650 shares were traded. Investment companies and leading bankers attempted to stabilize the market by buying up great blocks of stock, producing a moderate rally on Friday. On Monday, however, the storm broke anew, and the market went into free fall. Black Monday was followed by Black Tuesday (October 29, 1929), in which stock prices collapsed completely and 16,410,030 shares were traded on the New York Stock Exchange in a single day. Billions of dollars were lost, wiping out thousands of investors, and stock tickers ran hours behind because the machinery could not handle the tremendous volume of trading.

World War II in Alaska

American and Canadian soldiers made an amphibious landing on the island of Kiska, August 16, 1943. Shown are the Infantrymen of the 13th Canadian Infantry Brigade Group disembarking from a landing craft during operation COTTAGE, the invasion of Kiska.

Library and Archives Canada, accession number 1967-052 NPC, item Z-1995-31

This resource guide is designed to aid students and teachers in researching Alaska’s World War II history. Alaska’s role as battlefield, lend-lease transfer station, and North Pacific stronghold was often overlooked by historians in the post-war decades, but in recent years awareness has been growing of Alaska’s wartime past. This renewed interest generates exciting educational opportunities for students and teachers researching this chapter in the history of our state. Few people know that the only World War II battle fought on U.S. soil took place in Alaska or that Japanese forces occupied two Aleutian Islands for more than a year. Still fewer know of the Russian pilots who trained in Fairbanks, the workers who risked their lives building the Alaska Highway, or the Alaska Scouts who patrolled the Bering Sea coast. The lives of Alaskans were forever changed by the experience of war, and the history of that dramatic era is still being written.

A map of important World War II sites, followed by a summary of Alaska’s World War II experience is included. Information about National Historic Landmarks and Monuments related to World War II in Alaska is also included. The selected bibliography that follows is divided into twelve parts to aid student researchers in selecting topics:

  • War Comes to Alaska
  • Aleutian Campaign
  • Alaska Highway and Canol Pipeline
  • Wartime Construction
  • Native Defenders
  • Warplanes and Seacraft
  • Aleut Evacuation
  • Canadian Participation
  • Japanese-American Internment
  • Lend-Lease Program
  • Japanese Naval Power
  • Branches and Units

This bibliography includes books, journals, and videotapes that can be found in Alaska’s libraries or obtained through interlibrary loan. The articles cited were selected for their relevance to a specific theme and can be found (with some exceptions) in Alaskan periodicals. The bibliography is not meant to be comprehensive, but is instead intended as a gateway to further research.

Information regarding Alaska’s libraries and museums follows, with descriptions of collections relevant to Alaska’s World War II history and a list of on-line resources. The individual museums and libraries are organized by city. The resource guide concludes with an introduction to the National History Day program and History Day in Alaska.

Alaska World War II Military Sites

Explore World War II's northern Pacific campaign through sites across Alaska

Summary of World War II in Alaska

Buildings burn following the Japanese attack on the fort at Dutch Harbor, June 3, 1942. A second, more damaging attack came the next day, though the P-40 Aleutian Tigers scrambled to intercept the enemy from a secret base (Fort Glenn) on Umnak Island.

Archives and Manuscripts Department, University of Alaska Anchorage

Japanese Aggression in China
In 1931, Japan launched attacks in eastern China in an effort to seize control of China’s eastern province, Manchuria. U.S. suspicion and mistrust of Japan intensified when Japanese military forces attacked a U.S. oil tanker convoy and the USS Panay, a U.S. Naval gunboat escorting the convoy, on the Yangtze River in 1937. Three people were killed in the attack and 11 seriously injured when Japanese planes fired on life boats and survivors on shore.

U.S. Northern Defense
With increasing hostilities in China the U.S. Government became concerned about the possibility of attack from across the Pacific. In 1935, Brigadier General William Mitchell urged Congress to adopt a strong northern air defense, declaring, “I believe in the future he who holds Alaska will hold the world.” In 1939 Congress established a Panama-Hawaii-Alaska defense triangle to protect America’s vulnerable western coast. Alaska, the largest and least fortified of the three, soon saw the construction of naval bases at Sitka, Dutch Harbor, and Kodiak.

War Comes to Alaska
Six months after the attack on Pearl Harbor, the Japanese bombed the U.S. Dutch Harbor Naval Operating Base and U.S. Army Fort Mears, near Unalaska Island and occupied the Aleutian islands of Attu and Kiska. For many decades following the War, the prevailing understanding about the Japanese Aleutian operation was that it served as a mere diversionary measure from their Midway operation. Recent research, however, concludes that the Japanese had a broader and longer term strategy to establish and expand an eastern defensive perimeter. In response, U.S. military strategists knew that they could not risk leaving the Aleutians open as stepping stones for Japanese attacks on the United States mainland. In addition, the occupation was a significant propaganda victory for the Japanese—the affront could not go unanswered.

Aleutian Campaign
Because planes departing from Kodiak and Dutch Harbor did not have the nearly 1,400 mile range to engage the Japanese at Attu and Kiska, U.S. forces built bases on other Aleutian islands as refueling and maintenance stops, allowing them to strike further west. Pilots and ground troops soon realized they were facing a second enemy, Mother Nature. Weather along the Aleutian chain is some of the worst in the world, with dense fogs, violent seas, and fierce wind storms called williwaws. Aircraft lacking accurate navigational devices or consistent radio contact crashed into mountains, each other, the sea—simply finding the enemy was a life-and-death struggle. For soldiers in the Aleutians, contact with the enemy was infrequent and fleeting, but the weather was a perpetual adversary.

Native Defenders
When the Alaska National Guard was called to active duty in September 1941, Governor Gruening received permission to reorganize and establish the Alaska Territorial Guard. Many Alaska Natives joined units of the Alaska Territorial Guard to patrol Alaska’s coasts and lead reconnaissance missions in combat zones.

Aleut Evacuation
Forty-two Aleuts living on the island of Attu and two Navy weather observers on Kiska were taken prisoner by the Japanese and sent to Japan where 17 died. In June and July 1942, the U.S. military evacuated 881 Aleuts from nine villages located on several islands including the Pribilofs and Unalaska. They were taken by a military transport ship in cramped conditions to abandoned canneries and mining camps in Southeast Alaska. Nearly a hundred died in the horrible conditions of these camps. During their absence, the U.S. military burned many of their homes to keep the Japanese from using them, and removed religious icons from their churches.

Japanese Internment
Under an emergency measure in effect in the western United States, Alaskans of Japanese descent were shipped to internment camps in the Lower 48. The fear of sudden attack also led to censorship of the media, food rationing, and obligatory blackouts in coastal areas.

Lend-Lease Program
The Lend-Lease Act was passed in 1941 as a means of providing military aide to allies. As part of the Lend-Lease program over 8,000 U.S. aircraft were transferred to Russia via the Alaska-Siberia (ALSIB) route beginning in 1942. The ALSIB route consisted of a string of new airfields constructed in Alaska and Canada that allowed American pilots to leapfrog through the Canadian and Alaskan wilderness to Ladd Field in Fairbanks. At Ladd Field Russian pilots were waiting to fly the planes across the Bering Sea and Siberia to Russia’s Western Front with Germany.

Wartime Construction
Wartime construction brought major changes in transportation and communication with the outside world and within Alaska. Until 1942 passengers and freight arrived in Alaska two ways—by boat or plane. One of the biggest feats of the war time construction program was the construction of the Alaska Canada Military Highway, a 1,420-mile wilderness highway which was completed in less than nine months. Other construction included telephone lines, oil pipelines, railways, and roughly 300 military installations throughout Alaska.

Population Boom
As a result of the War thousands of men and women moved to the sparsely populated territory, and many stayed. In 1940, just over 72,000 people called Alaska home. By 1950, the population nearly doubled to 129,000. Anchorage saw its population balloon from 3,000 to 47,000, while Fairbanks grew from 4,000 to nearly 20,000. While many military bases closed after the War some stayed open and even grew. The military population, which was about 500 in 1940 increased to about 22,000 in 1950.

Alaska’s War Ends
On May 11, 1943 U.S. forces landed on Attu and began an uphill battle to retake the island. After nineteen days of fighting, the beleaguered Japanese soldiers launched a final banzai charge in an attempt to break through the American line. When the battle ended, only 29 prisoners remained of a Japanese force of roughly 2,600. Three months later the drama at Attu was matched by an equally dramatic anticlimax. Foul weather had delayed Allied attempts to retake Kiska, and when U.S. and Canadian forces finally landed on August 15, they were stunned to find that the Japanese were gone—having evacuated under cover of fog three weeks before. As the guns fell silent in the Aleutians, many Army and Navy facilities were closed, though fighting in the Pacific and in Europe continued for another two years.

National Landmarks
The Secretary of the Interior, through the National Park Service, took steps to recognize the importance of Alaska’s role in World War II history by designating eight sites as National Historic Landmarks. These sites include former Army and Navy bases, Aleutian battlefields, airfields, and an area on Kiska Island once occupied by the Japanese. National Historic Landmark status recognizes these places as being among the nation’s most treasured resources deemed worthy of preservation.

Alaska’s World War II National Historic Landmarks

Ulakta Head and Command Center, a feature within the Dutch Harbor NHL and the Aleutian World War II National Historic Area.

National Park Service, Alaska Regional Office

The Secretary of the Interior, through the National Park Service, designated the following NHL sites to commemorate the significant events and human drama of Alaska’s role in World War II:

Part of the National Park Service’s role is to administer the NHL program. Available materials include a booklet entitled “WWII National Historic Landmarks: The Aleutian Campaign” and two lesson plans from the Teaching with Historic Places series entitled “Attu: North American Battleground of World War II” and “Ladd Field and the Lend-Lease Mission: Defending Alaska in WWII.” The NHL program implemented an American Battlefield Protection Program grant which culminated in “The Cultural Landscape of the World War II Battlefield of Kiska, Aleutian Islands” 2012 report. For copies of these materials please visit the National Park Service, Alaska Regional Office’s National Historic Landmarks web page at:

Aleutian World War II National Historic Area

Aleut villagers faced an uncertain future both when they left for and returned from camps in southeast Alaska. During the Aleutian Campaign, 881 Aleuts were evacuated from their homes and spent almost three years in makeshift “duration villages” without proper sanitation, heat, or medical attention.

Aleutian Pribilof Islands Association Inc.

Though visiting a real historic place is one of the best ways to gain valuable insights, several of Alaska’s WWII sites are difficult to access. One resource for learning more about events in the Aleutians during this period is through the Aleutian WWII National Historic Area (NHA). Designated by Congress in 1996, the NHA is owned by the Ounalashka Corporation with historic preservation technical assistance provided by the National Park Service-Alaska Regional Office. The NHA includes the historic footprint of Fort Schwatka, along with a Visitors Center located in the former WWII Aerology Building, at the Unalaska Airport on Amaknak Island. The purpose of the NHA includes educating the public about the history of the Aleut people, and the role of the Aleut people and the Aleutian Islands in the defense of the U.S. in World War II. More information can be found at the following NPS website: http://www.nps. gov/aleu/index.htm

World War II Valor in the Pacific National Monument

Attu, Aleutian Islands. Landing boats pouring soldiers and their equipment onto the beach at Massacre Bay. This is the Southern landing force.

Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division, Washington, D.C.

In December 2008, President George H. Bush established, by Executive Order, the World War II Valor in the Pacific National Monument. The new monument was established to commemorate this “pivitol period in our Nation’s history” and elevated nine historic sites in Hawaii, California, and Alaska to monument status. The Alaska unit includes historic areas on Attu and Kiska, and the Atka Island crash site of a Consolidated B-24D Liberator bomber. All of the Alaska sites are on lands managed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

World War II Valor in the Pacific National Monument interprets the stories of the Pacific War including events at Pearl Harbor, the internment of Japanese Americans, and the Aleutian Campaign. The National Park Service and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service jointly developed a Foundation Statement for the Alaska Unit of the Monument. The document provides a vision for future decision making and the development of management and implementation plans that will define the Alaska Unit’s operations, resource protection, and visitor experience. Similar foundation documents are being produced for the Hawaii and California units. Combined, these documents will set the stage for future planning and development of the World War II Valor in the Pacific National Monument. The document can be viewed and downloaded by visiting

Selected Bibliography

Black engineers build a trestle bridge during the construction of the Alaska Canada Military Highway. Black G.I.s made up roughly forty percent of the estimated 11,500 Army troops who in just nine months completed a wilderness highway linking Alaska with the contiguous United States.

Anchorage Museum of History and Art

War Comes to Alaska

Alaska at War. Aurora Films. [videorecording]. 60 min. Produced by Laurence Goldin. Written by Bradford Matsen and Laurence Goldin. Anchorage: Alaska Video Publishing for Alaska Historical Commission, 1987, 1993, 2005.

Alaska Geographic. Fairbanks, vol. 22, no. 1. Anchorage: Alaska Geographic Society, 1991.

Alaska Geographic. World War II in Alaska, vol. 22, no. 4. Anchorage: Alaska Geographic Society, 1995.

Antonson, Joan M. and William S. Hanable. Alaska’s Heritage. Alaska Historical Commission Studies in History, no. 133. Anchorage: Alaska Historical Society, 1985.

Chandonnet, Fern, ed. Alaska at War, 1941-1945: The Forgotten War Remembered. Papers from the Alaska at War Symposium, Anchorage, Alaska, November 11-13, 1993. Anchorage: Alaska at War Committee, 1995.

Cohen, Stan. The Forgotten War: A Pictorial History of World War II in Alaska and Northwestern Canada. [4 vol.]. Altona, Manitoba: D.W. Friesen and Sons, 1981.

Drawing the Lines of Battle: Military Art of World War II Alaska. Anchorage: Anchorage Museum of History and Art, 1989.

Garfield, Brian. The Thousand-Mile War: World War II in Alaska and the Aleutians. Fairbanks: University of Alaska Press, 1995.

“German Prisoners of War in Alaska: The POW Camp at Excursion Inlet.” Alaska Journal 14 (1984): 16-20.

Hays, Otis E., Jr. “The Silent Years in Alaska: The Military Blackout during World War II.” Alaska Journal 16 (1986): 140-147.

Lawler, Pat. “Buckner and his Boys Invade Alaska – Taking the Territory by Storm.” Alaska Journal 2 (1981): 84-99.

Morison, Samuel Eliot. History of United States Naval Operations in World War II, vol. 7, Aleutians, Gilberts and Marshalls, June 1942-April 1944. Boston: Little, Brown and Co., 1951.

Naske, Claus-M. and Herman Slotnik. Alaska: A History of the 49th State. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1987.

Aleutian Campaign

Alaska Geographic. The Aleutians, vol. 7, no. 3. Anchorage: Alaska Geographic Society, 1980.

Alaska Geographic. Kodiak, vol. 19, no. 3. Anchorage: Alaska Geographic Society, 1992.

Alaska Geographic. Kodiak, Island of Change, vol. 4, no. 3. Anchorage: Alaska Geographic Society, 1977.

Alaska Geographic. Unalaska/Dutch Harbor, vol. 18, no. 4. Anchorage: Alaska Geographic Society, 1991.

Alaska Geographic. World War II in Alaska, vol. 22, no. 4. Anchorage: Alaska Geographic Society, 1995.

Aleutian Invasion: World War Two in the Aleutian Islands. Prepared by the students of Unalaska High School. Unalaska: Unalaska High School, 1981.

The Aleutians Campaign, June 1942-August 1943. Washington: Naval Historical Center, Department of the Navy, 1993.

They Bloody Aleutians. [videorecording]. 50 min. New York: A&E Television Network, 2001.

The Capture of Attu: Tales of World War II in Alaska, as Told by the Men who Fought There. Edmonds, Alberta: Alaska Northwest Publishing, 1984.

Denfeld, Colt D. The Defense of Dutch Harbor, Alaska from Military Construction to Base Cleanup. Anchorage: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, 1987.

Ellis, Dan. “Springfield Rifles and Forgotten Men.” Alaska Journal 10 (Autumn 1980): 54-59.

Lorell, John A. The Battle of the Komandorski Islands. Annapolis: Naval Institute Press, 1984.

Morgan, Lael. “An Artist’s War in the Aleutians.” Alaska Journal 10 (Summer 1980): 34-39.

Murray, Robert Haynes. The Only Way Home. Waycross: Brantley Printing Company, 1986.

Rearden, Jim. “Kiska: One Island’s Moment in History.” Alaska (September 1986): 18-21, 49-51.

Rearden, Jim. Forgotten Warriors of the Aleutian Campaign. Missoula: Pictorial Histories Publishing Co., 2005.

Red, White, Black & Blue. [videorecording]. 86 min. Directed by Tom Putnam. Produced by Tom Putnam, Jeff Malmberg, Matt Redecki, and Michael Harbour. Arlington: PBS Home Video, 2007.

Report from the Aleutians. [videorecording]. 47 min. Directed by John Huston. Army Pictorial Service. Burbank: Viking Video Classics, 1986.

Report from the Aleutians: Hook Down, Wheels Down. [videorecording]. 117 min. U.S. Army Signal Corps, 2001.

Rourke, Norman E. War Comes to Alaska: The Dutch Harbor Attack, June 3-4, 1942. Shippenburg: Burd Street Press, 1997.

Spennemann, Dirk H.R. The Cultural Landscape of the World War II Battlefield of Kiska, Aleutian Islands. Anchorage: U.S. National Park Service, 2011.

Spennemann, Clemens, and Kozlowski. “Scars on the Tundra: The Cultural Landscape of the Kiska Battlefield, Aleutians”. Alaska Park Science. Anchorage: National Park Service. (June 2011). Online: ak_park_science/PDF/2011Vol10-1/APS_Vol10- 1_0-48-complete-issue.pdf

Seiple, Samantha. Ghosts in the Fog: The Untold Story of Alaska’s WWII Invasion. New York: Scholastic Reference, 2011.

Webber, Bert. Aleutian Headache: Deadly World War II Battles on American Soil. Medford: Webb Research, 1993.

Alaska Highway and Canol Pipeline

The Alaska Highway, 1942-1992. [videorecording]. 58 min. Written and produced by Tom Morgan for Alaska Public Television, KAKM TV. Anchorage: Alaska Public Television, 1992.

Brebner, Phyllis Lee. The Alaska Highway: A Personal and Historical Account of the Building of the Alaska Highway. Erin, Ontario: Boston Mills Press, 1985.

Coates, Kenneth. The Alaska Highway: Papers of the 40th Anniversary Symposium. Vancouver, B.C.: University of British Columbia Press, 1985.

Coates, Kenneth. The Alaska Highway in World War II: The U.S. Army of Occupation in Canada’s Northwest. Tulsa: University of Oklahoma Press, 1992.

Coates, Kenneth. North to Alaska! Fifty Years on the World’s Most Remarkable Highway. Fairbanks: University of Alaska Press, 1991.

Coates, Kenneth and Judith Powell. “Whitehorse and the Building of the Alaska Highway, 1942-1946.” Alaska History 4 (Spring 1989): 1-26.

Cohen, Stan. ALCAN and CANOL: A Pictorial History of Two Great World War II Construction Projects. Missoula: Pictorial Histories Publishing, 1992.

Duesenberg, H. Milton. Alaska Highway Expeditionary Force: A Roadbuilder’s Story. Clear Lake: H&M Industries, 1994.

Gage, S.R. A Walk on the Canol Road: Exploring the First Major Northern Pipeline. Oakville, Ontario: Mosaic Press, 1990.

Griggs, William E. The World War II Black Regiment that Built the Alaska Military Highway: A Photographic History. Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 2002.

Hesketh, Bob, ed. Three Northern Wartime Projects: Alaska Highway, Northwest Staging Route, and Canol. Occasional Publication Series, no. 38. Edmonton, Alberta: Published jointly by Canadian Circumpolar Institute and Edmonton & District Historical Society, 1996.

Hollinger, Kristy. The Haines-Fairbanks Pipeline. Fort Colins, CO: CEMML, Colorado State University, 2003.

Karamanski, Theodore J. “The Canol Project: A Poorly Planned Pipeline.” Alaska Journal 9 (Autumn 1979): 17-22.

Krakauer, Jon. “Ice, Mosquitoes and Muskeg – Building the Road to Alaska.” Smithsonian (July 1992): 102-112.

Morgan, Lael. “Forgotten Pioneers.” Alaska (February 1992): 33-34.

Morgan, Lael. “Writing Minorities Out of History: Black Builders of the Alcan Highway.” Alaska History 7 (Fall 1992): 1-13.

Naske, Claus-M.. Paving Alaska’s Trails: The Work of the Alaska Road Commission. New York: University Press of America, 1986.

Rimley, David. Crooked Road: The Story of the Alaska Highway. New York: McGraw Hill Book Company, 1976.

Twichell, Heath. Northwest Epic: The Building of the Alaska Highway. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1992.

Wartime Construction

The Army’s Role in the Building of Alaska. Pamphlet 360-5. United States Army, 1969.

Building the Navy’s Bases in World War II: History of the Bureau of Yards and Docks and the Civil Engineering Corps, 1940-1946. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1947.

Bush, James D., Jr. Narrative Report of Alaska Construction, 1941-1944. Anchorage: Alaska Defense Command, 1943.

Cook, Linda. Elmendorf Air Force Base, vol. 1, Historic Context of World War II Buildings and Structures. Anchorage: U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, 1999.

Decker, Julie and Chris Chiei. Quonset Hut: Metal Living for a Modern Age. New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 2005.

Dod, Karl C. The Corps of Engineers: The War Against Japan. Washington D.C.: Center of Military History, 1987.

Fowle, Barry, ed. Builders and Fighters: U.S. Army Engineers in World War II. Fort Belvoire: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, 1992.

Hesketh, Bob, ed. Three Northern Wartime Projects: Alaska Highway, Northwest Staging Route, and Canol. Occasional Publication Series, no. 38. Edmonton, Alberta: Published jointly by Canadian Circumpolar Institute and Edmonton & District Historical Society, 1996.

Native Defenders

Delkettie, Buck. “An Alaskan Scout Remembers.” In Alaska at War, 1941-1945, edited by Fern Chandonnet. Anchorage: Alaska at War Committee, 1995.

Hendricks, Charles. “The Eskimos and the Defense of Alaska.” Pacific Historical Review 1 (1985): 271-295.

Hudson, Ray. “Aleuts in Defense of the Homeland.” In Alaska at War, 1941-1945, edited by Fern Chandonnet. Anchorage: Alaska at War Committee, 1995.

Marston, Marvin R. Men of the Tundra: Alaska Eskimos at War. New York: October House, 1969.

Morgan, Lael. “Minority Troops and the Alaskan Advantage during World War II.” In Alaska at War, 1941-1945, edited by Fern Chandonnet. Anchorage: Alaska at War Committee, 1995.

Rearden, Jim. Castner’s Cutthroats: Saga of the Alaska Scouts. [novel]. Prescott: Wolfe Publishing, 1990.

Salisbury, C.A. Soldiers of the Mists: Minutemen of the Alaska Frontier. Missoula: Pictorial Histories Publishing, 1992.

Wooley, Chris and Mike Martz. “The Tundra Army: Patriots of Arctic Alaska.” In Alaska at War, 1941- 1945, edited by Fern Chandonnet. Anchorage: Alaska at War Committee, 1995.

Warplanes and Seacraft

Amme, Carl H., ed. Aleutian Airdales: Stories of Navy Fliers in the North Pacific of WWII. Plains: Plainsman Publishing, 1987.

Blair, Clay. Silent Victory: The U.S. Submarine War Against Japan. Philadelphia: Lippincott, 1975.

Freeman, Elmer. Those Navy Guys and their PBYs: The Aleutian Solution. Spokane: Kedging Publishing, 1992.

Carrigan, Paul E. The Flying Fighting Weathermen of Patrol Wing Four, 1941-1945, U.S. Navy: Kodiak, Dutch Harbor, Umnak, Cold Bay, Adak, Amchitka, Kiska, Shemya, Attu, and The Empire Express to Paramushiro: Memoirs of Paul E. Carrigan. Forked River: Regal-Lith Printers, 2002.

Dickrell, Jeff. Center of the Storm: The Bombing of Dutch Harbor and the Experience of Patrol Wing Four in the Aleutians, Summer 1942. Missoula: Pictorial Histories Publishing Co., Inc., 2002.

Mills, Stephen E. Arctic War Planes: Alaska Aviation of World War II: A Pictorial History of Bush Flying with the Military in the Defense of Alaska and America. New York: Bonanza Books, 1978.

Rearden, Jim. Koga’s Zero: The Fighter that Changed World War II. Missoula: Pictorial Histories Publishing, 1995.

Rearden, Jim. Cracking the Zero Mystery: How the U.S. Learned to Beat Japan’s Vaunted World War II Fighter Plane. Harrisburg: Stackpole Books, 1990.

Stevens, Peter F. Fatal Dive: Solving the World War II Mystery of the USS Grunion. Washington, D.C.: Regnery Publishing, 2012.

Aleut Evacuation

Aleut Story. [DVD]. 90 minutes. A Sprocketheads Production. Lincoln, NE: Aleutian-Pribilof Heritage, Inc., 2005.

Aleut Evacuation: The Untold Story. [videorecording]. 60 min. Directed by Michael and Mary Jo Thill. Girdwood: Gaff Rigged Productions for the Aleutian/Pribilof Islands Association, 1992.

Breu, Mary. Last Letters from Attu: The True Story of Etta Jones, Alaska Pioneer and Japanese POW. Anchorage: Alaska Northwest Books, 2009.

Golodoff, Nick. Attu Boy. Anchorage: U.S. National Park Service, 2012.

Kirkland, John C. The Relocation and Internment of the Aleuts during World War II. 8 vol. Anchorage: Aleutian/Pribilof Islands Association, 1981.

Kohlhoff, Dean. “’It Only Makes My Heart Want to Cry’: How Aleuts Faced the Pain of Evacuation.” In Alaska at War, 1941-1945, edited by Fern Chandonnet. Anchorage: Alaska at War Committee, 1995.

Kohlhoff, Dean. When the Wind was a River: Aleut Evacuation in World War II. Seattle: University of Washington Press in association with Aleutian/Pribilof Islands Association, 1995.

Mobley, Charles M. World War II Aleut Relocation Camps in Southeast Alaska. Anchorage: U.S. National Park Service, 2012.

Smith, Barbara Sweetland. Making it Right: Restitution for Churches Damaged and Lost during the Aleut Relocation in World War II. Anchorage: Aleutian/Pribilof Islands Association, 1993.

Canadian Participation

Adleman, R.H. and G. Walton. The Devil’s Brigade. Philadelphia: Chilton Books, 1966.

Bezeau, M.V. “Strategic Cooperation: The Canadian Commitment to the Defense of Alaska in the Second World War.” In Alaska at War, 1941-1945, edited by Fern Chandonnet. Anchorage: Alaska at War Committee, 1995.

Coyle, Brendan. War On Our Doorstep: The Unknown Campaign on North America’s West Coast. Surrey, B.C.: Heritage House, 2002.

Dziuban, Stanley W. Military Relations between the United States and Canada, 1939-1945. United States Army in World War II, Special Studies. Washington: Department of the Army, 1959.

Neely, Alastair. “The First Special Service Force and Canadian Involvement at Kiska.” In Alaska at War, 1941-1945, edited by Fern Chandonnet. Anchorage: Alaska at War Committee, 1995.

Perras, Galen R. “Canada’s Greenlight Force and the Invasion of Kiska, 1943.” In Alaska at War, 1941- 1945, edited by Fern Chandonnet. Anchorage: Alaska at War Committee, 1995.

Japanese-American Internment

Daniels, Roger, et al., ed. Japanese Americans from Relocation to Redress. Revised Edition. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1986.

Inouye, Ronald K. “For Immediate Sale: Tokyo Bathhouse – How World War II Affected Alaska’s Japanese Civilians.” In Alaska at War, 1941-1945, edited by Fern Chandonnet. Anchorage: Alaska at War Committee, 1995.

Inouye, Ronald K. “Harry Sotaro Kawabe: Issei Businessman of Seward and Seattle.” Alaska History 5 (Spring 1990): 34-43.

Kobayashi, Sylvia K. “I Remember What I Want to Forget.” In Alaska at War, 1941-1945, edited by Fern Chandonnet. Anchorage: Alaska at War Committee, 1995.

Naske, Claus-M. “The Relocation of Alaska’s Japanese Residents.” Pacific Northwest Quarterly 74 (July 1983): 124-132.

Lend-Lease Program

Brandon, Dean R. “War Planes to Russia.” Alaska (May 1976): 14-17.

Denfeld, Colt D. Cold Bay in World War II: Fort Randall and Russian Naval Lend-lease. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Alaska District, 1988.

Guide to the Ladd Field National Historic Landmark and Ladd Air Force Base Cold War Historic District. Fairbanks, AK: U.S. Army Garrison Fort Wainwright, 2011. 13

Hays, Otis E., Jr. The Alaska-Siberia Connection: The World War II Air Route. Texas A&M University Military History Series, 48. College Station: Texas A&M University Press, 1996.

Hays, Otis E., Jr. “White Star, Red Star.” Alaska Journal 12 (1982): 9-17.

Lake, Gretchen. “Photo Essay: The Russians are Coming, the Russians are Coming, Fifty Years Ago, the Russians were Coming.” Alaska History 8 (Spring 1993): 33-41.

Long, Everett A. and Ivan Y. Neganblya. Cobras Over the Tundra. Fairbanks: Arktika Publishing, 1992.

Moor, Jay H. World War II in Alaska: The Northwest Route: A Bibliography and Guide to Primary Sources. Alaska Historical Commission Studies in History, no. 175. Anchorage: Alaska Historical Commission, 1985.

Price, Kathy. The World War II Heritage of Ladd Field, Fairbank, Alaska. Fort Colins, CO: CEMML, Colorado State University, 2004.

Smith, Blake W. Warplanes to Alaska: The Story of a WWII Military Supply Lifeline to Alaska and Russia through the Canadian Wilderness. Surrey, B.C.: Hancock House, 1998.

Japanese Naval Power

Agawa, Hiroyuki. The Reluctant Admiral: Yamamoto and the Imperial Navy. New York: Kodansha International, 1979.

Dull, Paul S. A Battle History of the Imperial Japanese Navy, 1941-1945. Annapolis: U.S. Naval Institute Press, 1978.

Francillon, Rene J. Japanese Navy Bombers of World War Two. Garden City: Doubleday, 1971.

Fuchida, Mitsuo and Okumiya Masatake. Midway: The Battle that Doomed Japan. Annapolis: U.S. Naval Institute Press, 1955.

The Japanese Navy in World War II. Annapolis: U.S. Naval Institute, 1969.

Lorelli, John A. The Battle of the Komandorski Islands. Annapolis: Naval Institute Press, 1984.

Marder, Arthur Jacob. Old Friends, New Enemies: The Royal Navy and the Imperial Japanese Navy: Strategic Illusions, 1936-1941. New York: Oxford University Press, 1981.

Parshall, Jonathan and Anthony Tully. Shattered Sword: The Untold Story of the Battle of Midway. Dulles: Potomac Books, Inc., 2007.

Takahashi, Hisashi. “The Japanese Campaign in Alaska as Seen from a Strategic Perspective.” In Alaska at War, 1941-1945, edited by Fern Chandonnet. Anchorage: Alaska at War Committee, 1995.

Watts, Anthony J. Japanese Warships of World War II. Garden City: Doubleday, 1967.

Branches and Units

Amme, Carl H., ed. Aleutian Airdales: Stories of Navy Fliers in the North Pacific of WWII. Plains: Plainsman Publishing, 1987.

Benedict, Bradley H. Ski Troops in the Mud, Kiska Island Recaptured: A Saga of the North Pacific Campaign in the Aleutian Islands in World War II with Special Emphasis on its Culmination Led by the Forerunners of the 10th Mountain Division. Littleton: H.B.&J.C. Benedict, 1990.

Cloe, John Haile. The Aleutian Warriors: A History of the 11th Air Force & Fleet Air Wing 4. Missoula: Anchorage Chapter – Air Force Association and Pictorial Histories Publishing Company, 1990.

Cloe, John Haile and Michael F. Monaghan. Top Cover for America: The Air Force in Alaska, 1920- 1983. Missoula: Anchorage Chapter – Air Force Association and Pictorial Histories Publishing Company, 1984.

Goldstein, Donald M. The Williwaw War: The Arkansas National Guard in the Aleutians in World War II. Fayetteville: University of Arkansas Press, 1992.

Johnson, Robert Erwin. Bering Sea Escort: Life Aboard a Coast Guard Cutter in World War II. Annapolis: Naval Institute Press, 1992.

Leahy, Joseph M. “The Coast Guard at War in Alaska.” In Alaska at War, 1941-1945, edited by Fern Chandonnet. Anchorage: Alaska at War Committee, 1995.

Montgomery Watson, prepared for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, The Kodiak Coastal Defense System at Fort Greely during World War II, Anchorage, Alaska, 1999 (?).

Woodman, Lyman. Duty Station Northwest: The U.S. Army in Alaska and Western Canada, 1867-1987. Vol. 2. Anchorage: Alaska Historical Society, 1997.

Museums and Libraries

“Headquarters, camouflage Umnak” by Ogden Pleissner.

Anchorage Museum of History and Art

Alaska Aviation Museum
4721 Aircraft Drive
Anchorage,AK 99502
Phone: (907) 248-5325

The Alaska Aviation Museum displays a wide variety of Japanese and American WWII memorabilia from the Aleutian Campaign. The collection also includes a Catalina PBY and the wreck of a P-40 Warhawk fighter, both used in the Aleutian Campaign.

Alaska Veterans Museum
333 W. 4th Avenue, Suite 227 Anchorage, AK 99501
Phone: 907-677-8802

Stories of Alaska’s servicemen and women are available through oral histories, documentaries, artifacts, military uniforms, weapons, photos, and models, including a 1/72 scale model of the USS Essex , complete with fighter planes.

The Anchorage Museum
625 C Street
Anchorage, AK 99501
Phone: (907) 929-9200
E-mail: [email protected]

The Alaska Gallery of the Anchorage Museum of History and Art is home to three displays portraying WWII Alaska. These include the uniform and rifle of an Alaska Scout and details about the Alaskan Territorial Guard a diorama of aircraft used during the Aleutian Campaign and a vision of life inside a Quonset hut.

Consortium Library
University of Alaska Anchorage
3211 Providence Drive Anchorage,AK 99508
Phone: (907) 786-1848

Consortium Library contains an impressive collection of books relating to Alaska’s WWII history. Its Archives and Manuscripts Department frequently exhibits material drawn from extensive collections of photographs, personal records, and government documents relating to Alaska’s war experiences.

National Archives and Records Administration Pacific Alaska Region
654 West Third Avenue
Anchorage,AK 99501-2145
Phone: (907) 261-7820
E-mail: [email protected]

The National Archives contain vast collections of U.S. government records and material entrusted to the National Archives by various agencies. All aspects of Alaska’s WWII experience are represented in military records, municipal records, census information, and historical photographs.

Z.J. Loussac Library
Anchorage Municipal Libraries
3600 Denali Street
Anchorage, AK 99503-6093
Phone: (907) 343-2975

The Loussac Library’s Alaska collection contains
the majority of the books and articles cited in this bibliography, and is also home to a microfiche collection of Alaska’s newspapers. It is one of the best places to find material on Alaska during WWII, either in person or by interlibrary loan.

Pioneer Air Museum
Interior and Arctic Alaska Aeronautical Foundation Location: Alaskaland Park
2300 Airport Way
Fairbanks,Alaska 99701
Phone: (907) 451-0037
E-mail: [email protected]

The Pioneer Air Museum has on display photographs, Russian uniforms, and other memorabilia related to the Lend-Lease Program, which ferried aircraft to the Soviet front via Alaska. The Museum is also home to a single- engine Norseman plane used during the War for cargo delivery and search-and-rescue missions.

Elmer E. Rasmuson Library
University of Alaska Fairbanks 310 Tanana Loop
Fairbanks, AK 99775-6800 Phone: (907) 474-7481

Rasmuson Library includes an extensive Alaska collection containing many of the works cited in this bibliography. It is also home to the archives of the Alaska & Polar Regions Department, one of Alaska’s richest sources of historical materials related to WWII.

Alaska State Library
Location: 8 th floor, State Office Building Juneau, AK 99811-0571
Phone: (907) 465-2920

The Alaska State Library is an excellent place to begin searching for books and articles about WWII Alaska. In addition, the library’s historical collection contains one- of-a-kind material and rare books on the same theme.

Baranov Museum/Kodiak Historical Society
101 Marine Way
Kodiak, AK 99615
Phone: (907) 486-5920
Fax: (907) 486-3166

The Baranov Museum houses both historical photographs and memoirs relating to the Aleutian Campaign and the role of the Kodiak Naval Operating Base in particular.

Sitka Historical Society and Museum
330 Harbor Drive
Sitka, AK 99835
Phone: (907) 747-6455
E-mail: [email protected]

The Sitka Historical Society and Museum holds WWII collections consisting of three-dimensional objects such as uniforms, medals, and military equipment, as well as an extensive photograph collection.

Museum of the Aleutians
314 Salmon Way
P.O. Box 648
Unalaska, AK 99685-0648
Phone: (907) 581-5150
E-mail: [email protected]

The Museum of the Aleutians collection includes weapons, historical photographs, uniforms, diaries, flightlogs, and Japanese flags from the Aleutian Campaign.

Online Resources

“Among the Japanese placed guns on Kiska Island was this 125-mm (6-inch) pre-World War I British naval gun used by the Japanese to guard the entrance to Kiska Harbor.” Photo taken by NAS Adak, 7 September 1943.

NARA, Record Group 80-G-80384

Alaska Digital Archives -
This site presents a wealth of historical photographs, albums, oral histories, moving images, maps, documents, physical objects, and other materials from libraries, museums and archives throughout Alaska. This site has a large variety of digitized photos, interviews, documents, and films from World War II.

Alaska Library Web Pages -
This site offers a list of links to library web pages throughout the state and to SLED, which provides access to library catalogs and related resources. Alaska Library Web Pages is maintained by the Alaska Library Association.

Alaska Library Directory -
This site provides a list of basic user information for every library in Alaska. The site is maintained by the Alaska State Library.

Museums and Historical Societies in Alaska -
Here you will find a complete list of Alaska’s museums and historical societies, each with user information and a description of facilities. The site is maintained by Alaska State Museums.

Statewide Library Electronic Doorway (SLED) -
SLED offers access to library catalogs and other resources of interest to Alaskans under the slogan “information resources for, about and by Alaskans.”

Internet Sites

Sitka Naval Operating Base, Easter Service, 1943.

Sitka Historical Society and Museum

The following sites contain information about WWII in Alaska. An Internet search under “World War II” will yield many others which examine the war as a global phenomenon or focus on specific events during the war years.

Aleutians Campaign, June 1942-August 1943: United States Navy Combat Narrative
During WWII the U.S. Naval Historical Center began producing combat narratives of specific naval campaigns. This once- restricted document is offered by the NHC not as an official history but as a view through the eyes of the Navy in 1943.

The Aleutians Home Page
This website began as a site to promote the sharing of anecdotes, photos, and links related to the post-World War II Shemya. Its content quickly grew to include experiences of World War II veterans of Shemya and other Aleutian Islands.

Aleutian Islands: The U.S. Army Campaigns of World War II
This site contains a detailed U.S. Army article on the Aleutian Campaign. Included also are maps, illustrations, and a list of suggested reading.

Aleutian World War II National Historic Area
This is the National Park Service website for the Aleutian World War II National Historic Area. It provides information on the Aleutian Campaign, Aleut Evacuation, interviews with veterans, and other information of interest to the general public, teachers, and students.

Forgotten Decades, WWII Alaskans Finally Get Their Due
This is a National Public Radio segment on Marvin “Muktuk” Marston and the more than 6,300 Alaska Natives that volunteered for the Alaska Territorial Guard during World War II.

Kodiak Alaska Military History Museum
This site includes a variety of documents relating to WWII in Kodiak, with both historic and more current day images. The Museum is housed in an historic Ammunition bunker at Miller Point, the former Fort Abercrombie, which today is a State Park in Kodiak.

LitSite Alaska
LitSite Alaska, showcases a living archive of lesson plans used in Alaskan classrooms and an extensive collection of excellent peer work by Alaskan students. It is a production of the University of Alaska Anchorage and has a number of sources discussing World War II in Alaska.

National Museum of the Air Force
This site is maintained by the National Museum of the Air Force on Wright-Patterson AFB, Dayton, Ohio. It offers a series of short narratives concerning all aspects of the War in the Pacific, including the Aleutian Campaign.

Photos from the Aleutian Campaign
This site includes an impressive collection of WWII photographs taken in Adak and other Aleutian sites. The photos belonged to Dr. Will R. Eubank, an aviation medical examiner in the Army Air Corps. Together they help to tell the story of Eubank’s twelve month tour during the Aleutian Campaign.

Sitka’s WWII Site
This site, designed by a student named Mathew Hunter, is an excellent source for researching Sitka Naval Operating Base and Sitka’s military history. In addition to an historical narrative the site offers historic photographs, maps, and present-day snapshots of Sitka’s military installations.

Sources and Citation

Photograph by Sam Maloof, Master Sergeant with the 65th Antiaircraft Artillery Gun Battalion stationed on Kiska, 1943.

NPS Sam Maloof WWII in Alaska Photograph Collection courtesy of Beverly Maloof.

While this guide is intended primarily to assist teachers and students in finding information about the World War II in Alaska it also important to be able to identify types of sources and how to properly cite them in a bibliography or note. Below is some general guidance and some links to more specific guidance to help you in you research.

Types of Sources:

Primary Sources
A primary source is a piece of information about a historical event or period in which the creator of the source was an actual participant in or a contemporary of a historical moment. Examples include historic photos, diaries, government documents, artifacts, and other written and tangible items created during the historical period you are studying.

Secondary Sources
A secondary source is a source that was not created first-hand by someone who participated in the historical era. Examples of secondary sources inlude journal articles and books written about historic events by historians, using primary and secondary sources. A secondary source is a person’s interpretation of what a primary source means.

Tertiary Sources
Tertiary sources are based on a collection of primary and secondary sources and may or may not be written by an expert. Tertiary sources are only used as exploratory sources and should never appear in your bibliography. These include dictionaries, encyclopedias, fact books, and guide books and are intended to give you ideas about what to research. Wikipedia is popular tertiary source that should not appear in your bibliography.

Citing Sources:

A key part of any research project is citing your sources. For historians there are generally three accepted styles of citation: Turabian, MLA, and Chicago Style. If you are doing a National History Day project Turabian or MLA must be used to cite your sources, however it is recommended that you ask your teacher before deciding which style to use. Below are the citations for each of the respective guides written in their bibliographic formats. Note the subtle differences in each.

MLA. MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers, 7th Edition. New York: Modern Language Association of America, 2009. Print.

Turabian, Kate L. 2013. A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations, Eighth Edition: Chicago Style for Students and Researchers. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

University of Chicago Press. The Chicago Manual of Style, 16th Edition. Chicago: University Chicago Press, 2010.

National History Day

Alaska Senator Lisa Murkowski visiting with Alaska’s National History Day students on the Capitol Steps in Washington, D.C.

One opportunity to research an Alaska World War II history topic is through the National History Day (NHD) program. NHD is an innovative curriculum framework in which students in grades 6-12 learn history by selecting topics of interest and launching into a year-long research project. The purpose of National History Day is to improve the teaching and learning of history in middle and high schools.

Following the school year, students

  • select a topic related to an annual History Day theme
  • select an entry category: website documentary exhibit research paper or performance
  • follow guidance for conducting historical research and create an original project

These projects are entered into competitions in the spring at local, state and national levels where they are evaluated by professional historians and educators. The program culminates with the national competition held each June at the University of Maryland at College Park.

USAAF B-24H 42-94841 ‘Sack Time!’ on Twizle Head Moss, Yorkshire, England.

On 9th October 1944, B-24H Liberator ‘Sack Time’ was being taken for a test flight following repairs. The crew, skippered by First Lieutenant Elmer D Pitsenbarger of Iowa, were joined by two ground crew passengers who had been begging for a flight for some time and were taken along for the ride.

All except one on board were killed in the crash. The B-24 was flying too low in low cloud. Trying to remain below the cloud in order to maintain visual contact with the ground, the pilot had not accounted for the high ground rising unseen ahead.

42-94841 flew low over Holmfirth and along the Holme Valley. However, the ground rises steeply at the end of the valley and the Liberator collided with the moor, gouging a trail 200 metres long and bursting into flames. Another 20 feet might have seen them clear.

Survivor Staff Sgt Curtiss Anderson recalled looking out of the window and seeing wisps of cloud. He plugged in his intercom having just returned from the flight deck, looked out again and saw grass… At that point, everything went black.

He awoke on the moor, surrounded by fire lighting up the gloom. Using wet peat he was able to douse the flames on himself. Looking down at the burning fuel running in rivulets in the black peat, and at the burning wreckage and his dead pals, with munitions exploding all around, he said “It looked as though I was in hell.”

The first on the scene found Staff Sgt Anderson staggering around the crash site. When they asked him his name, the airman could only repeatedly answer “I’m from California. I’m from California.”

They also found another man alive, though Flight Officer Frank Cser of New Jersey died in hospital less than twelve hours later.

By January 1945, Staff Sergeant Anderson was able to return to the US. He underwent plastic surgery in Pasadena and finally made it home to San Francisco two years after the crash. He died January 16th 1988.

Crew and passengers
1st Lt Elmer D. Pitsenbarger – Pilot – killed
S/Sgt Curtis Anderson – Gunner – injured
F/O Jack M. Bliss – Navigator – killed
F/O Frank Cser – Bombardier – died of injuries 10.10.44
T/Sgt Presley E. Farris – Flight Engineer – killed
Cpl Charles T. Lowblad – Passenger – killed
2nd Lt James D. Nendel – Co Pilot – killed
S/Sgt Frank A. Villelli – Gunner – killed
Cpl Clarence S. Watson – Passenger – killed
T/Sgt Joseph W. Zwinge Jr – Radio Op – killed

Eight of these ten men were on board 42-94841 at the time of the crash. This photo was taken in the US in May 1944 and naturally does not show the two passengers, Cpl Clarence S Watson and Cpl Charles T Lowblad.

Back Row (Left to right): Jack M. Bliss, Frank Cser, Elmer D. Pitsenbarger and James D. Nendel

Front Row (Left to right): Joe W. Zwinge, Presley S. Farris, Charles Anderson, C. McQuade (not in the crash), Frank A. Villelli and H. Steel (not in the crash)

The aircraft is a B-24J, 95911, named ‘Lucky Strike’

Info from
32 Co Pilots by Charles R. Bastien (2004)
Peakland Air Crashes – the North by Pat Cuningham (2006)

Crash Report Libertor A.N.925, 18 February 1942 (3 of 3) - History

This site covers airfields in all 50 states: Click here for the site's main menu.

Kualoa Army Airfield, Kualoa, HI

21.52, -157.84 (Northeast of Honolulu, HI)

Barely visible within the revetments along the bottom of the photo were B-17, LB-30, and B-18 bombers.

This airfield was evidently constructed during the early portion of WW2

a satellite field for units assigned to Bellows Field, and was used mainly for training.

According to Valerie King, &ldquoDuring WWII, the land was taken over by the US government & they built the airstrip & bunkers.&rdquo

The date of construction of the Kualoa airfield has not been determined.

The earliest depiction of the field which has been located was a 5/10/42 photo of Kualoa Field,

which depicted the field as having a single north/south runway, with aircraft revetments along the west side.

Kualoa Field's runway was formed of pierced steel planking.

The road to Ka'a'awa & the north shore crossed over Kualoa's runway,

so the cars would have to wait whenever an airplane took off.

A row of revetments for protected aircraft parking was along the west side of the runway.

Several fortified bunkers for coast artillery batteries were constructed in the cliffs overlooking Kualoa Field during WW2.

The 1943 USGS topo map (courtesy of John Voss) depicted the "Kualoa (Emer.)" airfield,

as well as the nearby "Kaaawa (Emer)" airfield just along the coast to the northwest.

A 10/8/44 photo of men walking over the perforated steel planking

which formed the runway of Kualoa Field (courtesy of Dave Fahrenwald of Hawaiian Aviation History).

The aircraft at the left is a Lockheed P-38 Lightning fighter.

The April 1945 V-450 Hawaiian Islands U.S. Navy Aviation Chart (courtesy of Chris Kennedy)

depicted the airfield at Kualoa as having a control tower.

W. Dick recalled, &ldquoAt Kualoa. In 1945 we had to wait at the strip crossing while Grumman carrier planes taxied into position.

I don't recall any real structures at the strip. The surface was made up of those temporary perforated metal strips about 1' x 8'.&rdquo

According to Valerie King, &ldquoAfter the war, the land was returned to the family.&rdquo

The Kualoa Airfield was closed at some point between 1944-47,

as it was labeled "Kualoa AAB (Closed)" on the Sptember 1947 Hawaiian Islands Sectional Chart.

It was depicted as having a single 6,500' hard-surface runway.

The Kualoa Airfield was no longer depicted at all on the 1952 USGS topo map.

A January 12, 1963 aerial view showed the remains of the Kualoa airfield (from the University of HI).

The 1983 USGS topo map no longer depicts the runway at Kualoa.

The airfield site was labeled as "Kualoa Regional Park".

Dave Fahrenwald reported in 2000 that the property has become Kualoa State Park & Kualoa Ranch.

A few of the fortified revetments along the shear cliffs above the former airfield still remain intact,

as the only remaining indication of this site's military history.

A 2005 photo by David Trojan of the Kualoa Beach Park, which occupies the site of the former airfield

A 2005 photo by David Trojan of the the remains of a bunker adjacent to the former Kualoa airfield

A circa 2007 aerial view looking north at what appears to be the remains of the paved runway at Kualoa, reused as a parking lot.

According to Valerie King, &ldquoWe own the property where the Kualoa WWII airstrip & bunkers are located.

The Battery Cooper bunker is still intact & we open it up for visitors to view.

We are putting some WWII displays inside the bunker to show how it looked during WWII.&rdquo

A 2013 aerial view looking northwest showed that remains still existed of the majority of the length of Kualoa's paved runway,

both north & south of the road which crosses the former runway.

An 8/23/14 photo by Timothy Williamson looking south along the remains of the paved runway at Kualoa, reused as a parking lot.

Kailua Sky Ranch, Airfield, Kailua, HI

21.43, -157.75 (Northeast of Honolulu, HI)

Kailua Sky Ranch, as depicted on the September 1947 Hawaiian Islands Sectional Chart.

Photo of the airfield has not been located.

Kailua Sky Ranch, a small general aviation airport adjacent to the south side of Naval Air Station Kaneohe Bay, was reportedly &ldquobuilt after World War 2.&rdquo

The earliest depiction which has been located of Kailua Sky Ranch was on the September 1947 Hawaiian Islands Sectional Chart.

It depicted Kailua as having a 2,500' unpaved runway.

The 1952 USGS topo map depicted Kailua Sky Ranch as an east/west oriented clearing, with a row of small buildings (hangars?) along the southeast side.

Minutes of a 1956 Hawaii Aeronautics Commission reported of a request from the Aircraft Owners' & Pilots' Association of Hawaii

for the Hawaii Aeronautics Commission to acquire the Kailua Sky Ranch so as to support the continuation of light aircraft flying.

Bob Hurd recalled, &ldquoKailua Sky Ranch. I started to learn to fly there in 1957.

There was an grass field in Kailua, windward side of Oahu. It was located parallel to the southern fence of Kaneohe Marine Base,

near the Mokapu gate to the base, and west of Mokapu Boulevard.

The runway was where the east/west portion of Aikahi Loop is now.

It would have appeared in any sectional published pre-1960.

It had a 200' asphalt strip & about 1,800' of grass,and power lines at the East end, along Mokapu Blvd.

There was a large Quonset hut as a hangar, shop combination, and a small raised house that served as the office & bathroom.

There was a gasoline-powered pump & 3,500 gallon tank of 80/87 avgas.

The field was operated by Robert Whittinghill, who was an instructor at the state aircraft mechanic school at Honolulu Airport.

I remember other Sky Ranch guys & I flying the planes to Honolulu Airport's old North ramp area, where Wittinghill had a large T-hangar & a Fixed Base Operation.&rdquo

The 1959 USGS topo map depicted Kailua Sky Ranch as having an east/west runway.

In contrast to the 1952 topo map, only 2 small buildings were depicted along the southeast side.

In 1959, the Hawaii Soaring Club was formed with Wood Brown as President.

Plans called for the operation of Pratt-Read gliders from Kailua Sky Ranch.

Bob Hurd recalled, &ldquoKailua Sky Ranch. I was away at school when it was plowed under for the Aikahi tract.

It was turned into housing about 1962, or so.&rdquo

The last depiction which has been located of Kailua Sky Ranch was on the 1965 USGS topo map,

even though it had reported been redeveloped for 3 years by that point.

The 1968 USGS topo map depicted streets covering the site of Kailua Sky Ranch.

A 2014 aerial view showed no trace remaining of Kailua Sky Ranch.

Thanks to Bob Hurd for pointing out this airfield.

Waiele Gulch Army Airfield, Wahiawā, HI

21.47, -158.04 (North of Honolulu, HI)

A 7/9/42 aerial view looking south showing the Waiele Gulch Airfield under construction (courtesy of Ron Plante).

This is an unusual case of an airfield built in a gulch, below the surrounding ground level.

According to the Hawaii Aviation Preservation Society, &ldquoThe date of construction of the airfield is believed to be in late 1941.

An 8/20/41 photo shows the airfield under construction.

The airfield lies in a gully running parallel to Waieli Stream next to pineapple fields, separate & just south of Wheeler Air Field.

Bunkers were excavated in conjunction with the initial construction of the airfield.

Provision for bombproof protection of assembly & disassembly operations for large bombers

was not worth the expenditure of money & materials required in conjunction with the initial construction.

The initial plan was for paved bunkers for these operations adjacent to the Waieli Gulch runway.

Three 100' x 200' bunkers with paved working areas were provided for this purpose.

Pockets were laid out in the cliffs along the side of the runway were used as aircraft parking areas

with sheer earth side slopes to provide maximum protection from strafing of enemy aircraft.&rdquo

According to the Hawaii Aviation Preservation Society, &ldquoA huge underground bunker complex

was later constructed at the northwest end of the airfield for aircraft maintenance & storage

after the 12/7/41 attack on Pearl Harbor forced the military to build facilities less vulnerable to the enemy.&rdquo

A 1942 aerial view looking east showing the Waiele Gulch Airfield under construction, with a Wheeler AAF runway in the background.

A 1942 plan of the Waiele Gulch Airfield (courtesy of Ron Plante).

According to the Hawaii Aviation Preservation Society, &ldquoConstruction began in 1942 on a bombproof underground bunker complex & aircraft assembly plant

located 2,400' from the end of the Waieli Gulch Airstrip.

The fear of a repeat-attack prompted the Army & Navy to build these underground facilities for vital defense & storage installations.&rdquo

A 1943 U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Schofield Quadrangle map

identified the airfield as Waieli Gulch Field (according to the Hawaii Aviation Preservation Society) .

An 11/17/43 aerial photo depicted an active runway (according to the Hawaii Aviation Preservation Society) .

According to the Hawaii Aviation Preservation Society, &ldquoCalled 'The Hole' in the 1940s, construction on the $23,000,000 facility was completed in 1944.

The facility is not a true tunnel, but a freestanding 3-story structure that was later covered with 5' of soil for pineapple cultivation.

The entrance was placed in the steep side of the Gulch to obscure visibility by enemy aircraft.

When construction was completed, it was assigned to the 7 th Air Force.&rdquo

According to the Hawaii Aviation Preservation Society, &ldquoThe bunker facility was naturally constructed as an open bay area, without interior cement blocks.

The outer walls are composed of reinforced concrete & dirt.

It is approximately 250,000 square feet in overall size, with 30,000 square feet used for power generation & air conditioning.

The remaining 220,000 square feet were available for assembly or disassembly of aircraft

and was surrounded by smaller repair shops & storage rooms.

The main shop was designed to provide space for three B-17 planes, two without wings & one with wings

and was later modified to accommodate larger bombers.

Access to the structure was via a ramp built on a curve with a 90-degree bend intended to provide protection for the entrance to the bunker.

Aircraft including the B-24s, B-17s, B-26s bombers & other types were serviced in the bunker

but there is no historical evidence to suggest the field station was ever used for aircraft assembly.&rdquo

According to the Hawaii Aviation Preservation Society, &ldquoThe Kunia Bunker was equipped with every modern facility.

The entire facility was air-conditioned & humidity controlled & had a cafeteria that could turn out 6,000 meals a day.

Some idea of the size of the building may be gained from the fact that to light the facility, it took almost 5,000 forty-inch fluorescent tubes for the job.

Two elevators serviced the field station, one capable of accommodating 10 tons for bulky plane parts.

For passenger service, another elevator was provided with a carrying capacity of 20 persons.&rdquo

An August 1944 map of the &ldquoWaiele Strip&rdquo.

According to the Hawaii Aviation Preservation Society, &ldquoAt the end of World War II, the [bunker] facility was kept in a reserve status.

Waieli Gulch Field was apparently abandoned shortly after the end of World War II most likely because of the hazards of operating an airfield in a gulch.&rdquo

Waieli Gulch Field was not depicted on the September 1947 Hawaiian Islands Sectional Chart.

A 1948 aerial view depicted the Waiele Gulch runway being used to store vehicles.

According to the Hawaii Aviation Preservation Society, &ldquoThe [bunker] facility was kept in a reserve status until 1953,

at which time the Navy assumed control & used it for ammunition storage & a command center.

It was eventually converted into a communications facility.&rdquo

According to the Hawaii Aviation Preservation Society, &ldquoThe very close proximity of Wheeler Field will prevent this airfield from ever being reactivated.

Continual erosion along the steep sides of the runway poses major problems & limits the use of the ramp & parking areas.

Maps for 1953, 1967 and 1983 show the end of Waieli Gulch Field connected to Kunia Bunker via a small access road across Kunia road.

An early 1960s era aerial photo depicts the airfield being used as a staging area for deploying troops & equipment.&rdquo

Jan Helsel recalled of the 1960s, &ldquoWhile I was stationed at Wheeler we used [the gulch airfield] as a staging area for troop lifts.&rdquo

According to the Hawaii Aviation Preservation Society, &ldquoCurrently no access remains between the airfield & the bunker.

An archaeology and history study completed in 1994 simply identifies the area as Waieli Runway.

The airfield areas were examined for any evidence of artifacts.

An old World War II propeller & 10-ton aircraft jacks were found near the end of the runway.

At the present time, the Waieli Gulch Field area is still used by the Army as a military staging & training area.&rdquo

A circa 2000s photo of Quonset huts alongside the Waiele Gulch runway.

A circa 2000s photo looking along the Waiele Gulch runway.

A circa 2011 aerial view looking east along the Waiele Gulch runway shows several modern structures having been built over the western end.

A 2013 aerial view showed the Waiele Gulch runway remained intact.

The site of Waiele Gulch Army Airfield is located south of the intersection of Wright Avenue & Airdrome Road.

Kahuku Army Airfield / Kuilima Air Park, Kahuku, HI

21.71, -157.97 (North of Honolulu, HI)

A Marconi Wireless station was established in 1914 on the northern tip of Oahu

as the site for a transmitter/receiver radio station & antenna farm.

This was eventually taken over by the Radio Corporation of America (RCA).

The northern tip of Oahu Island had a total of 3 airfields in close proximity during WW2.

The date of construction of these 3 airfields has not been determined,

but it is presumed that they were all constructed early in WW2,

and were not pre-war civilian airfields.

The Kahuku Point Airfield was located at the very tip of Kahuku Point, and was evidently the most elaborate.

In 1941, Lt. Gen. Walter Short made a request to construct a pursuit field,

and the War Department directed that the base be located on the northern tip of Oahu at Kahuku Point.

Because the site was being used by the Navy as a bombing range, no further action was taken until December 1.

The old RCA administration building was converted to air base headquarters for the duration.

The earliest depiction which has been located of the Kahuku Point Airfield was a 9/9/41 aerial view.

It depicted the field as an open grass area, with what appeared to be a circular bombing target cut into the grass.

There did not appear to be any hangars or other improvements associated with the airfield.

The military reservation was named the "Kahuku Airfield Military Reservation", also known as "Kahuku Air Base".

Construction of the first of 2 runways was preceded by the creation of a supervising entity known as Field Area 13

established by Lt. Col. Theodore Wyman, Army Corps of Engineers District Engineer, on 11/25/41, by Order 101.

The engineers of the newly created field area, which occupied the old RCA wireless transmitter building,

were responsible for construction of 2 additional north shore airfields at Haleiwa & Kawaihapai (Mokuleia).

Construction of the airfield began on 12/10/41, by a civilian conglomerate known as "Hawaiian Constructors" formed in Washington, D.C., on 12/20/40.

Lt. Colonel Wyman, with the approval of the Under Secretary of War, Chief Engineer & the National Council of Defense,

signed a "cost plus fee" contract to build fortifications, aircraft warning stations, ammunition storage facilities,

and other defense projects in the Hawaiian Islands including airfields.

The Kahuku Point Airfield evidently gained a paved runway at some point between 1941-42, as an 8/20/42 aerial photo depicted a long paved runway.

The 1943 USGS topo map (courtesy of John Voss) depicted the "Kahuku Point" Airfield,

as well as 2 others, further down the coast to the southeast: "Kahuku Golf Course" & "Kahuku Village".

All 3 of the Kahuku airfields were subtitled "Emer", and were depicted as single runways paralleling the shore.

A 1943 Army Corps of Engineers plan of &ldquoKahuku Field&rdquo (courtesy of Robert Hill & John Bennett, via John Szalay)

depicted the field as having 2 paved runways, with no less than 36 parking revetments arrayed around the runways.

A 9/19/44 aerial view of a Republic P-47D Thunderbolt overflying Kahuku Field (courtesy of John Voss).

A circa 1944-45 photo of Sam Rogers in the cockpit of &ldquoAlice The Goon&rdquo, a B-25G (or B-25H, with the 75mm cannon solid nose) at Kahuku (courtesy of Sam Rogers Jr.).

A circa 1944-45 photo by Sam Rogers of the Kahuku control tower & other buildings (courtesy of Sam Rogers Jr.).

A circa 1944-45 photo by Sam Rogers of the Kahuku's runway (courtesy of Sam Rogers Jr.).

According to John Szalay, both B-24s & B-17s were based at Kahuku for short periods of time during WW2.

The April 1945 V-450 Hawaiian Islands U.S. Navy Aviation Chart (courtesy of Chris Kennedy)

depicted the airfield at Kahuku Point as having a control tower.

Also note the &ldquocross&rdquo symbol (depicting an &ldquoEmergency Field&rdquo) to the southeast, at the location of the "Kahuku Golf Course" Airfield.

A 4/29/45 National Archives aerial view looking south at a B-24 mother ship escorting 2 rare Culver PQ-14 radio-controlled planes,

with the runways of Kahuku AAB visible below.

According to an article in the Spring 2001 AAHS Journal , &ldquo The large Tsunami that hit the Hawaiian Islands on 4/1/46, caused extensive damage to the air base,

the NE/SW runaway was within 100 yards of the shoreline and the NW/SE runway, 200 yards.&rdquo

According to a Corps of Engineers DERP FUDS report, &ldquoThe wave washed over the protecting sand dunes,

rushing inland in some places to a half mile, smashing buildings, uprooting parking areas, and bringing tons of sand & debris onto the runways.

Army personnel verbally informed the Estate that their previous fear that the field was too close to the water was amply borne out.&rdquo

"Kahuku AAB" was depicted on the 1947 Hawaiian Islands Sectional Chart as a closed airfield, having a 6,500' hard-surface runway.

This was presumably the former "Kahuku Point" Airfield. The other 2 Kahuku airfields were not depicted at all.

According to an article in the Spring 2001 AAHS Journal , &ldquo Flight operations ceased, and the property was returned to its owners, the trustees of the James Campbell Estate

sometime between 6/12/47 - March 1948.&rdquo

&ldquo The formation of the U.S. Air Force on 9/18/47, saw the continued occupation of a base camp located on 10 acres of the military reservation.

The camp housed Det. B, 614 th Aircraft Control and Warning Squadron which operated a GCI radar until 1/1/49,

and the 616 th Aircraft Control & Warning Squadron that manned an AN/CPS-1 early warning radar unit atop nearby Punamano Hill until 12/11/48.&rdquo

No airfield at Kahuku was depicted on the August 1950 Hawaiian Islands Sectional Chart.

A 6/29/51 aerial view looking southwest at the Kahuku airfield (from the University of HI) showed 2 paved runways.

Walter Dick recalled, &ldquoKahuku. I was one of the group that initiated drag racing at the Kahuku strip.

I was a 'founder' of the local hot rod club (circa 1952).

We negotiated with the local Philipino farmer leaseholder for access to the site.

We used the end of the South segment of the strip. We had to chase the cows off before we could race.

The North segment of the strip had the antenna field for the RCA short-wave transmitting site

and also served as a National Guard summer campground.

Most of the middle was covered in blowing sand then.&rdquo

The 1954 USGS topo map depicted the &ldquoKahuku Airfield (Abandoned) as having 2 parallel paved northeast/southwest runways,

and a 3 rd paved runway oriented northwest/southeast.

A 1955 aerial view depicted the 2 Kahuku runways, as well as the multiple antennae of the RCA radio station.

The Official Program for the 9/2/56 First Running of the Kahuku Point Sports Car Races (courtesy of Sheila Fontaine).

According to John Szalay, "In the early 1960s prior to the opening of the Campbell race course,

we used to race at Kahuku, both drag racing & the first Hawaii sports car race (Grand Prix).

I remember one long runway & a taxiway with a wide area to the south on the west end of the runway.

There were a couple of small parking spots for aircraft on the northern part (seaside)

but in the 1960s they were almost covered by blowing sand & grass."

&ldquo Portions of the old NW/SE runway were used for automobile drag racing in the 1950s to 1960s until operations

were relocated to the Campbell Industrial Park at Barbers Pt.&rdquo

In January 1961, the area northwest of the town of Kahuku was used as the location of the Army's OA-17 Nike missile battery,

part of a network of 4 Nike surface-to-air missile batteries in Oahu.

An undated photo of several Nike missile radar domes at Kahuku,

from the June 1964 Hawaii Guardsman .

A 1965 aerial view depicted the 2 Kahuku runways remaining intact.

No airfield at Kahuku was depicted on the December 1968 Hawaiian Islands Sectional Chart.

The Kahuku OA-17 Nike missile battery was deactivated in March 1970.

David Falconer recalled, &ldquoWhen I lived on Oahu [1971-74]

I met the people that were running the RCA radio site [at the site of the Kahuku airfield].

I was told that the airfield was a reloading air strip for the bombers from the bunkers in the hills.

While they were building the airstrip the army lost a couple of bulldozers in the sand

due to the volcano tubes that ran underneath the sand.

This radio station was the one that put out the message about Pearl Harbor being bombed

and was the only communications link to the mainland.

It was built to support the B-17's that was why it had 2 long runways with asphalt & concrete.

There was a rail line that moved the bombs/ammunition from the hills to the runway.&rdquo

At some point between 1968-77 the former Kahuku Point airfield was apparently reused as a private civil airfield,

as that is how "Kuilima Air Park" was depicted on the December 1977 Hawaiian Islands Sectional Chart (courtesy of Chris Kennedy).

It was depicted as having a single 2,700' hard-surface runway.

Bob Gould recalled, &ldquoI've landed on one of the old abandoned runways at Kahuku Airfield in a Cherokee 6.

The 1983 USGS topo map depicted a single 2,800' runway

at the location of the former Kahuku Point Airfield, labeled simply "Landing Strip".

However, it also depicted much longer (5,200') cleared area resembling another runway,

running south of the "Landing Strip" to the south.

At the site of the former Kahuku Golf Course Airfield, it depicted a 6,500' long cleared area, unlabeled.

At the site of the former Kahuku Village Airfield, it depicted the "Kahuku Golf Course".

Kuilima Air Park was evidently closed at some point between 1977-93,

as it was no longer depicted on the May 1993 Hawaiian Islands Sectional Chart (courtesy of Ron Plante) .

The 2001 USGS topo map depicted 2 parallel runways (2,800' & 4,200')

at the site of the former Kahuku Point Airfield, labeled "Kahuku Airfield".

It depicted a single 2,800' runway at the site of the former Kahuku Golf Course Airfield, labeled "Landing Strip".

It did not depict anything at the site of the former Kahuku Village Airfield.

Kahuku Army Air Field is located just east of the Turtle Bay Hilton,

and the Hilton's golf course has absorbed most of one of the 2 runways.

That site also reported of "a rumor about it becoming a private airport

to service the Polynesian Cultural Center for tourists from other islands."

CW2 Matt Hobbs (an Army Blackhawk pilot stationed at nearby Wheeler AAF) reported in 2004,

"I fly over the old runway at Kahuku often.

It looks like there are the remnants of an old operations building or something."

A 2004 aerial view looking southeast at the northwestern end of the former Kahuku Golf Course Airfield runway.

Ando Hiroshi reported in 2004, "The building where 2 runways merge

is the original Marconi radio transmitter facility.

It's been long gone & they are building something new there.

Way back when, Marconi from Italy installed the first radio transmitter in the US with conjunction with RCA

and they used to have a big antenna over there."

A 2004 aerial view looking south at the southeastern end of the former Kahuku Golf Course Airfield runway.

A circa 2007 aerial view looking south at the remains of the runway intersection at Kahuku.

Walter Dick reported in 2009, &ldquoThe south end [of the former airfield property] is now a wildlife refuge.&rdquo

&ldquo The lands upon which Kahuku AAB once occupied are divided between a resort hotel & golf course, aquaculture farming,

ranching, and the 'James Campbell National Wildlife Refuge' with 2 units, Kii & Punamano.

Development of the hotel & golf course have almost obliterated all traces of the original NE/SW runway,

and aquaculture ponds cover a great portion of the NW/SE runway,

which is in an advanced state of abandonment & has been turned over to the stewardship

of the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service as part of the Punamano Unit&rsquos expansion.&rdquo

An 8/23/14 photo by Timothy Williamson of the ruins of the Marconi station buildngs at Kahuku.

An 8/23/14 photo by Timothy Williamson of the remains of the Kahuku runway.

A 2019 aerial view shows remains still exist of both former Kahuku runways.

Haleiwa Fighter Strip / Haleiwa Airport, Haleiwa HI

21.6 North / 158.1 West (Northwest of Honolulu, HI)

An April 27 1933 aerial view looking east at Haleiwa Airfield,

(courtesy of the 15 th Airlift Wing History Office, via Colin Perry of the Hawaii Aviation Preservation Society),

showing several B-6A biplanes on the field.

The date of construction of the Haleiwa airfield has not been determined.

The earliest depiction of the field which has been located

which depicted a group of B-6A biplanes on a modest grass field at Haleiwa.

This obscure former military strip became famous as the only airfield from which American fighters

were able to launch to mount a defense against the Pearl Harbor Attack in 1941.

From the book "The Way It Was: Pearl Harbor, The Original Photographs" (via Tom Kramer) :

"Bellows was palatial beside Haleiwa Field, which had no installations at all.

Originally used as an emergency landing field,

in 1941 it had only an unpaved landing strip & it was in use to simulate real battle conditions for gunnery training.

Those on temporary duty there had to bring their own tents & equipment.

On 7 December, the 47 th Pursuit Squadron was at Haleiwa & there had its first taste of actual combat."

"The Americans took off - or tried to take off - in 3 distinct groups.

The most successful were 5 pilots from the 47 th Pursuit Squadron

who survived a wild ride in 2 separate cars up from Wheeler Field,

where they had spent the night, to Haleiwa Field, where their squadron was training.

Just enough aircraft were available - five P-40s & a P-36A.

These 5 fliers accounted for as many as 7 aircraft.

The most successful, 2 nd Lt. George Welch (4 victories),

took off first & engaged the enemy over Ewa & Wahialua.

Taylor & Welch were both awarded the Distinguished Service Cross."

Walsh & Taylor's dramatic ride & takeoff was shown in "Tora, Tora, Tora",

though the strip used in the filming of that movie was up near Wheeler Field & surrounded by hills.

A 1942 aerial view looking west at Haleiwa Airfield

(courtesy of the 15 th Airlift Wing History Office, via Colin Perry of the Hawaii Aviation Preservation Society),

with P-40s visible parked on the field.

A 1942 aerial view of the Haleiwa Airfield

(courtesy of the 15 th Airlift Wing History Office, via Colin Perry of the Hawaii Aviation Preservation Society).

A WW2-era view of a P-40 fighter under camouflage netting at Haleiwa (courtesy of Ron Plante).

A WW2-era view of a P-47 Thunderbolt being refueled at Haleiwa (courtesy of Ron Plante).

Haleiwa Airfield, as depicted on the April 1945 V-450 Hawaiian Islands U.S. Navy Aviation Chart (courtesy of Chris Kennedy).

The Haleiwa Airport was apparently reused after WW2 (at least for a brief period of time) as a civilian airport.

The only photo which has been located showing Haleiwa reused as a civilian airport was a July 1946 aerial view looking north (courtesy of John Voss),

which showed 9 light single-engine taildraggers (Piper Cubs?).

Q.R. Wood recalled, &ldquoI was a Pvt/Pfc in the USMC & arrived in Hawaii aboard the aircraft carrier Shangri La.

I think it was April or May 1946.

I was stationed at MCAS Ewa for 2 years (almost to the day).

I spent most of my $75/90 a month to take flying lessons

from one of the flying services who had planes & buildings at the Haleiwa Airport.

As I remember it there were 7 Fixed Base Operations active during the time I was there.

I soloed there in a Piper J-3 Cub & went on to earn my Private Pilots license there too.&rdquo

"Haleiwa" was depicted as a civilian airport on the September 1947 Hawaiian Islands Sectional Chart,

which depicted Haleiwa as having a 4,800' paved runway.

Alan Rausch recalled, &ldquoMy dad was an enlisted navy pilot during WWII (rare).

After the war he stayed in Hawaii, he met my mother a native from Haleiwa.

He taught flying at the Haleiwa airstrip, they had a restaurant there too, 'The Crash Inn'.

One day a plane did just that.

My parents said they had the restaurant in 1947-48.

My dad taught for one of the flying schools from just after the war until about then.

My dad also said something about one of runways or part of one being metal not paved.&rdquo

The Haleiwa Airport was apparently abandoned at some point between 1948-50,

as it was no longer depicted on the August 1950 Hawaiian Islands Sectional Chart

or the 1953 USGS topo map.

A 2/15/65 aerial view of the remains of the Haleiwa airfield (from the University of HI).

Former HI resident Tom Kramer reported,

"The strip was made of concrete slabs when I saw it, as was the hardstand.

It did have some sort of control tower later on & the footers were there."

A 2004 aerial view looking south at the former Haleiwa Fighter Strip runway.

In 2004 Marissa Guilford reported that the Hawaiian Historical Aviation Foundation

is proposing to preserve the Haleiwa Airfield & establish an air museum.

A 2005 photo by David Trojan of a building foundation which remains at the site of the Haleiwa Airfield

A 2005 photo by David Trojan of the remains of asphalt runway pavement at the site of the Haleiwa Airfield

A circa 2007 aerial view looking west at the remains of asphalt runway pavement at the site of the Haleiwa Airfield.

An 8/23/14 photo by Timothy Williamson looking southwest along the remains of the Haleiwa runway.

A 12/16/18 photo by Jake Moon looking along the remains of the Haleiwa runway.

Jake reported, &ldquoIt looks to be in pretty much the same condition as in 2014. There were some construction barriers & a few pallets of wood that must&rsquove been put there recently.&rdquo

A 12/16/18 photo by Jake Moon looking along the remains of the Haleiwa runway.

The site of the Haleiwa Fighter Strip is located north of the intersection of Route 83 & Kahalewai Place.

See also: "Where Were You in '42: A Guide to World War II Historical Sites in Hawaii."

Mokuleia Army Airfield / Dillingham Air Force Base (HDH), Mokuleia, HI

21.58, -158.2 (Northwest of Honolulu, HI)

A circa 1941-42 aerial view looking southwest showing Mokuleia Field still under construction.

According to Hawaii resident Walter Dick, &ldquoDillingham Field was built on part of an old ranch property.&rdquo

This field was originally built during WW2 as Mokuleia Field.

The date of construction of the Mokuleia Field has not been determined.

The earliest depiction which has been located of Mokuleia Field

was a circa 1941-42 aerial view looking southwest showing the field apparently still under construction,

with part of one runway paved, and the southern taxiway having been cleared.

The earliest photo which has been located showing Mokuleia Field in use was a February 1942 photo of P-40 Warhawks of the 72 nd Pursuit Squadron

(courtesy of the 15 th Airlift Wing History Office, via Colin Perry of the Hawaii Aviation Preservation Society).

This shot is fairly rare, in that it depicted a small bomb mounted under each P-40.

A 7/29/42 aerial view looking southwest at Mokuleia Field (courtesy of Dave Fahrenwald of Hawaiian Aviation History).

The field was already in its ultimate configuration,

with 2 paved parallel runways & a row of bunkers along the south side of the field.

A 1943 picture of a B-24 Liberator performing a run-up in the engine maintenance area

within a revetment at Mokuleia Field (courtesy of Tom Kramer).

The April 1945 V-450 Hawaiian Islands U.S. Navy Aviation Chart (courtesy of Chris Kennedy)

depicted Mokuleia as having a control tower.

Mokuleia was apparently closed at some point between 1945-47,

as it was labeled "Mokuleia (Closed)" on the September 1947 Hawaiian Islands Sectional Chart.

It was described as having a 8,900' paved runway.

At some point after 1947 the field was renamed Dillingham Air Force Base.

According to Hawaii resident Walter Dick, &ldquoDillingham Field was renamed after Gaylord Dillingham,

(the youngest son of Walter Dillingham), who was lost during the war.

My mother worked for a Dillingham company her entire life.&rdquo

A 6/29/51 aerial view looking south at Dillingham (from the University of HI) showed no aircraft on the field or in its numerous parking revetments.

In this December 1953 aerial view of Dillingham

(courtesy of the 15 th Airlift Wing History Office, via Colin Perry of the Hawaii Aviation Preservation Society),

two large multi-engine aircraft are visible on the runway, with several more in the revetments on the southwest side of the field,

and a large number of single-engine aircraft are visible along the revetments on the south side of the field.

The 1954 USGS topo map depicted Dillingham AFB as having 2 paved parallel runways,

along with a taxiway leading to the former revetments on the south side.

Dillingham was evidently closed at some point between 1953-54,

as it was labeled "Dillingham AFB (closed)" on the October 1954 Hawaiian Islands Sectional Chart (courtesy of Chris Kennedy) .

The field was shown as having a paved 9,180' Runway 8/26.

"Dillingham AFB (closed)" was depicted on the 1955 Honolulu Local Aeronautical Chart (courtesy of Chris Kennedy)

as having a 9,200' hard surface runway.

According to Tom McGlynn, &ldquoDillingham Field was used by a sports car club for a race event in 1957.

I believe it was the Associated Sports Car Clubs of Hawaii.

Lou Brero died that year of injuries received when a driveshaft U-joint broke & the driveshaft tore the gas tank causing the car to bust into flames.&rdquo

During the 1950s, a portion of the Dillingham Field site was used as the location

for the Army's Nike surface-to-air missile Battery OA-84 Launch Site.

Dillingham was still depicted as a closed airfield on the 1961 Honolulu Sectional Chart (courtesy of John Voss) .

A closeup from an amazing 1962 aerial photo which showed no less than 32 A-4 Skyhawk attack jets on the northern ramp of Dillingham,

along with one slightly larger swept-wing tactical jet.

Was this some kind of Marine Corps field exercise, possibly related to that year's Cuban Missile Crisis?

Tim Haehnlen recalled, &ldquoIn the 1960s. while attending a church sponsored camp next to Dillingham,

the Hawaii Air National Guard out of Honolulu International Airport practiced maneuvers & touch and gos with their F-102 Delta Daggers there almost daily.&rdquo

The Dillingham property was relinquished by the Air Force back to the Army in 1975.

At some point between 1975-77,

the Army allowed the airfield to be reopened as a civil airport through a joint-use agreement.

The remarks in the December 1977 Hawaiian Islands Sectional Chart (courtesy of Chris Kennedy) said,

"Open to civil use through agreement between the US Army & the State of Hawaii.

A 5,000' x 60' runway for light powered aircraft has been painted

in the center of the existing 9,000' x 100' paved area for civil use."

The 1981 Hawaii Airports & Flying Safety Guide (courtesy of Jonathan Westerling)

depicted Dillingham Airfield as having 2 parallel runways, with the shorter northern runway being designated for sailplanes,

along with the taxiway leading to the former revetments on the south side.

The airfield was described as being open to civil aircraft "for day VFR operations only."

The airport attendant was listed as Philip Chee.

On July 8, 1997 soldiers with B Company, 214 th Aviation Regiment

lifted & transported a Navy F/A-18 Hornet jet fighter from Dillingham to NAS Barbers Point,

with the help of MCB Hawaii's Landing Support Platoon, Landing Support Company, Combat Service Support Group 3.

The F/A-18 had been transported to Dillingham from MCAS Kaneohe Bay

more than 3 years previously to be turned into a static display for a never-opened military museum at NAS Barbers Point.

Using Landing Support Platoon's expertise in rigging Humvees & other such equipment for transport via helicopter,

the Army crew on the CH-47D Chinook helicopter carried the remodeled jet to its new home.

Dillingham is still used as a civilian airport, primarily to provide glider rides for tourists.

The Dilligham airfield consists of a paved 9,007' Runway 8/26.

A paved taxiway leads to numerous abandoned revetments on the south side.

A circa 2000 aerial view looking east at Dillingham,

taken from final approach for Runway 8 (courtesy of Dave Fahrenwald of Hawaiian Aviation History).

A circa 2000 photo of the ruins of a brick building

near Dillingham's former Nike missile site (courtesy of Dave Fahrenwald of Hawaiian Aviation History),

A circa 2000 photo looking southwest along Dillingham's abandoned taxiway (courtesy of Dave Fahrenwald of Hawaiian Aviation History).

A circa 2000 photo of one of the concrete revetments near the airfield (courtesy of Dave Fahrenwald of Hawaiian Aviation History).

See the 1943 picture at the top of this section of a B-24 parked inside one of the same revetments.

R. Arnold reported in 2003 that "Dillingham has been a general aviation field for several years now.

It has an active glider base, sky diving club, and many private aircraft are based there.

I fly in & out of Dillingham on a weekly basis."

A 2007 photo of a large portion of a Lockheed L-1011 fuselage, used to film scenes for the TV show &ldquoLost&rdquo,

which is stored on a ramp adjacent to the south side of the middle of Dillingham's runway.

This is only minutes away from the wreckage filming location at Mokuleia Beach.

A Beech 18, used to depict a drug smuggler's plane on the show, is visible on the left.

An 8/23/14 photo by Timothy Williamson looking north at the Dillingham control tower.

A 2015 aerial view looking northeast at Dillingham Field, with the numerous remains of revetments visible at bottom-right.

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