Relief of a Horse Rider from Balat

Relief of a Horse Rider from Balat

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Relief of a Horse Rider from Balat - History

EHV-1 Relief Fund applications now closed

The deadline for applications to the EHV-1 Relief Fund was 17 May 2021, as advised directly to our community and published in the FEI Update of 6 May 2021. Thank you to all those who generously contributed to the Fund.

Following the devastating outbreaks in Spain of the neurological form of EHV-1 that has impacted horses in 10 countries in mainland Europe, many athletes and owners are facing severe financial hardship due to the costs of emergency veterinary treatment for their horses during the crisis.

In order to provide financial assistance for those affected, an EHV Relief Fund was created by Emile Hendrix, Peter Charles and Frederick Goltz, which has the support of the FEI, European Equestrian Federation, International Jumping Riders Club, Jumping Owners Club and Equestrian Organisers. In addition, Riders Help Riders, the fundraising campaign set up by German event organiser and sports marketer Axel Milkau, has joined forces with the Fund. Collectively, this group have set themselves up as the Sponsors of the Fund.

Should you wish to submit a request for financial support from the EHV Relief Fund then please carefully read the Guidelines outlining eligibility criteria for reimbursement and fill out the application form.

For members of the community wishing to contribute to the EHV Relief Fund, donations can be paid directly to the dedicated bank account that has been set up through the FEI:

Banque Cantonale Vaudoise
Place St-François 14
1003 Lausanne - Switzerland

Account holder: Federation Equestre Internationale
IBAN: CH72 0076 7000 E536 6418 5
Account: E 5366.41.85 EUR
Reference: EHV_relief_fund

A total of €250,000 has already been pledged to the Fund, including monies committed by the Sponsors, other donors, and the very successful fundraising effort already undertaken by the Riders Help Riders team. The Sponsors have created an oversight committee to manage distribution of the funds and are committed to full transparency.

For any questions regarding the EHV Fund, pleased send an email to [email protected]

Latest Updates concerning EHV-1

According to the FEI Board Resolution of 30 March 2021, the FEI issued the EHV-1 By-Laws (Return To Competition measures) to apply to all Events in Mainland Europe held under FEI jurisdiction from 12 April to 30 May 2021.

Based on the experience gained during this time, and following the assessment made together with the FEI Veterinary Epidemiology Working Group and in close cooperation with the relevant stakeholders (including but not only the Equestrian Organisers), the FEI Board has approved certain amendments and extensions to the EHV-1 By-Laws as defined below.

The EHV-1 By-Laws as detailed below will be applicable in Mainland Europe from 31 May 2021 – 31 December 2021. The measures will be included in the draft 2022 FEI Veterinary Regulations and, subject to approval at the FEI General Assembly, will be implemented globally from 1 January 2022.

1. Further to a declared outbreak of suspected or confirmed neurological EHV, increased jurisdiction for the FEI Secretary General to stop events and to request the Persons Responsible to register the GPS location of their horse(s) via the FEI HorseApp (***)

2. All Organising Committees (OCs) to submit the Biosecurity Plan to the Veterinary Delegate (VD) at least 10 days in advance of the opening of the stables (*)

3. Mandatory use of FEI HorseApp by the VD/VC or a veterinarian assigned by the VD/VC at Examination on Arrival with registration of horses’ rectal temperatures (**)

4. Mandatory checkout of horses by the OC using the FEI HorseApp (*)

5. Mandatory rectal temperature checks of all horses twice daily at events, with the readings posted on a chart outside each horse’s box (**)

6. Isolation of entire transport in cases of horses arriving with rectal temperature over 38.5C to the Examination on Arrival (**)

7. Isolation unit requirements (protocols, equipment) (**)

8. Cleaning and disinfection requirements including sealed boxes (**)

9. Mandatory isolation overflow (*)

10. Self-declaration by athlete including horse rectal temperatures for the 10 days before arrival to the event (from 1 August 2021 this must be recorded on the FEI HorseApp by the PR/Groom) (*)

11. For events with horses staying on the venue over consecutive weeks – onsite venue inspection by the FEI Veterinary Department or a veterinarian appointed by the FEI Veterinary Department at least once annually. FVD appointed by the FEI Veterinary Department (appoint FVDs from neighbouring countries when possible). Until 1 July 2021, the FEI Veterinary Department will accept the already appointed Veterinary Delegate for the role as Foreign Veterinary Delegate. (****)

12. At events with more than 400 horses onsite at any one time, additional VDs are required (1/400 horses) based on the maximum number of horses for all FEI Event categories as declared in the Event Schedule. (Changes will not be allowed after the deadline for amendments to the Event Schedule) (*)

13. There must be a sufficient number of Treating Vets appointed by the OC. (At least 1/200 horses) (****)

14. Before flights alternatively entering Pre-Export Quarantine going to FEI Events, each horse must present a negative PCR result for EHV 1 and 4, and for Equine Influenza sampled by a nasopharyngeal swab. The sample must be taken no more than 96h before the flight or entrance to the Pre-Export Quarantine (*)

15. The VD/VC must ensure that any horse displaying fever or neurological signs at an FEI Event is sampled using a nasopharyngeal swab and sent to a laboratory listed by the FEI. The FEI Veterinary Department will fund the analysis and costs for shipping and material for the index case. (****)

* Prolongation of certain by-laws (some are amended)

** Clarification of existing VRs

*** Already approved by the FEI Board

All points listed above, except number 1, are to be considered Emergency Board Resolutions as per Article 20.3 of the FEI Statutes.

Please note that NFs have until 27 June 2021 to signify their disapproval of any of the above Emergency Board Resolutions by sending an email to Francisco P. Lima, Director Governance & Institutional Affairs.

Following the Return To Competition in mainland Europe on 12 April, we kindly request all concerned National Federations to make sure their athletes and stakeholders are up to date regarding the measures and requirements in place until 30 May 2021, and in particular with regards to:

  • The list of Events with +400 horses requiring a negative PCR test for EHV-1 prior to arrival (updated as and when necessary).
  • Requirements for Athletes prior to an Event (documents they need to fill in/take with them to Events).

You will find the above and all the relevant information on the EHV-1 hub in the dedicated Return To Competition section, including detailed instructions regarding pre-Event preparation, the FEI HorseApp, check out, as well as a factsheet for Athletes in seven languages and all the relevant forms, guidelines and checklists for the different stakeholder groups to meet the Return To Competition requirements in place.
For all the latest updates on EHV-1, click here.
Thank you for your support and collaboration.

Following the FEI Update Special EHV-1 Edition on 30 March announcing the Return To Competition measures/requirements to ensure the safe resumption of international sport in mainland Europe from 12 April, we would like to draw your attention to the latest information/news and resources available.
We urge all concerned stakeholders and concerned parties to share and familiarise themselves with all the information below and the requirements outlined on the EHV-1 hub in the dedicated Return To Competition section.

EHV Relief Fund
The EHV Relief Fund, created by Jumping athletes Emile Hendrix, Peter Charles and Frederick Goltz to provide financial support to Athletes and Owners facing financial hardship due to the costs of emergency veterinary treatment for their horses as a result of the EHV-1 outbreak in Europe, has already received support from the FEI, European Equestrian Federation, International Jumping Riders Club, Jumping Owners Club and Equestrian Organisers. In addition, Riders Help Riders, the fundraising campaign set up by German event organiser and sports marketer Axel Milkau, has joined forces with the Fund.
Guidelines outlining eligibility criteria for reimbursement from the EHV Relief Fund are now available here, together with the application form. Details of how to donate to the Fund are also available on the EHV Relief Fund page.

Return To Competition Factsheet for Athletes & Grooms
The FEI has created a Return to Competition Factsheet for Athletes and Grooms outlining all the key requirements that need to be met for Horses entered in competitions in mainland Europe from 12 April to 30 May 2021. This Factsheet is available in seven languages (see below) and can be found in the Return to Competition section of the EHV-1 hub: English, Dutch, French, German, Italian, Portuguese, Spanish.

Return To Competition – New FEI HorseApp Modules & Guidelines for Stakeholders
The FEI has added four new modules to the FEI HorseApp to monitor and facilitate key mandatory requirements in the Return to Competition Measures.
There are detailed guidelines and video tutorials for all the different stakeholder groups (Athletes, Organising Committees, Officials, Grooms, Owners, National Federations and Trainers) providing step-by-step instructions to use the new modules on the FEI HorseApp available here.
Note: For Grooms to use the FEI HorseApp, they must have an active FEI ID account. Grooms can register with the FEI here and guidelines are available here.

- PCR Tests
As stipulated in the Return To Competition Measures, for any Event/Show with more than 400 Horses of any category, it is mandatory to provide proof of a negative PCR test for EHV-1 taken no earlier than 120 hours prior to arrival at the event. Click here to see the list of Events.
A specific module has been added to the FEI HorseApp to allow an FEI registered user to upload a copy of the relevant negative PCR test to a Horse’s profile. Athletes, Grooms, Owners, National Federations and Trainers can connect to the FEI HorseApp using their FEI ID number and provide the relevant document by taking a photo with their smartphone or tablet and uploading it directly to the Horse’s FEI profile in a few simple clicks.
Click here for the full details and guidelines.

- Examination on Arrival (for FEI Veterinarians)
The FEI Veterinarian conducting the Examination on Arrival will need to scan the Horse’s microchip with a reader connected via Bluetooth to the FEI HorseApp, and also manually record the Horse’s temperature in the FEI HorseApp.
FEI Veterinarians assigned to upcoming FEI Events have been contacted and invited to follow online training sessions.
Click here for the full details and guidelines.

- Check-In
In accordance with Art. 3.3.1 of the and in line with traceability objectives, the FEI may request a Horse(s) to be “checked-in” to inform the FEI of its whereabouts.
Athletes, Grooms, Owners and Trainers can connect to the FEI HorseApp using their FEI ID number and check-in their Horse.
Click here for the full details and guidelines.

- Check Out
Under the new Return To Competition measures, it is compulsory for the Organising Committee to formally ‘check out’ a horse by scanning the horse’s microchip or passport using the FEI HorseApp prior to leaving the Event. This ensures traceability should a disease outbreak occur.
Click here for the full details and guidelines.

The FEI HorseApp, including the Return To Competition modules, is available for download on the Apple App Store for iOS devices and Google Play Store for Android devices.

The FEI Board has approved legally binding By-Laws for the Return To Competition measures published on 30 March 2021. These By-Laws, which are available in the Forms & Downloads of the Return To Competition section, formalise the temporary provisions in the measures that are not covered by either the FEI Veterinary Regulations or the FEI General Regulations.
The By-Laws, which come into force on 12 April 2021, will remain in effect until 30 May 2021, except where indicated otherwise. This period may be extended by the FEI based on an assessment of the EHV-1 situation.
The By-Laws are applicable in the following 37 countries in mainland Europe: Albania Andorra Austria Belgium Belarus Bosnia & Herzegovina Bulgaria Croatia Czech Republic Denmark Spain Estonia Finland France Germany Greece Hungary Italy Latvia Liechtenstein Lithuania Luxembourg Moldova Republic of North Macedonia Monaco Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Romania Slovenia Serbia Switzerland Slovakia Sweden Ukraine and Turkey.
Please note that where there is a mandatory requirement for a negative PCR test for EHV-1 – that is events with more than 400 horses and overnight stabling, and for all horses prior to being transported by plane to an FEI event – there is a change to the timeline, as agreed by the FEI Veterinary Epidemiology Working Group. The original text, as published on 30 March, required that the sample must be taken no earlier than 96 hours before arrival at the event, but this has now been amended to 120 hours due to concerns about the turnaround time for getting test results back from laboratories.

EHV-1 Return To Competition Athlete Information Seminar
The FEI hosted an athlete information seminar this evening (9 April) for athletes entered in FEI events during the first two weeks following the return to competition on 12 April, and the 66 National Federations that those athletes represent. The athletes were asked to invite their grooms to attend. The FEI Athlete Representatives, plus the International Jumping Riders Club (IJRC) and the International Dressage Riders Club (IDRC) were also invited.
Events in four FEI disciplines – Jumping, Dressage, Eventing and Endurance – are scheduled for the period 12-25 April.
The session was led by FEI Secretary General Sabrina Ibáñez, with FEI Veterinary Director Göran Akerström presenting the Return To Competition measures specifically applicable to athletes and grooms, as well as the areas of responsibility for the Organisers, such as stabling, that are particularly relevant to athletes.
FEI Information & Sports Technology Director Gaspard Dufour presented the new features on the FEI HorseApp that will allow for greater traceability, and FEI Legal Director Mikael Rentsch was also on the panel to answer questions.
The full presentation from this evening’s session is now available in the Forms & Downloads of the Return To Competition section on the dedicated EHV-1 hub. The information will also be used to create a factsheet that will be published on 12 April in English, Dutch, French, Germany, Italian, Portuguese and Spanish.
The FEI is also hosting a training session for Veterinarians and has initiated a series of meetings with Organisers to guide them through their obligations under the Return To Competition measures.

The entire showjumping community has been devastated by the current linked outbreaks in Spain of the neurological form of EHV-1 that has impacted horses in 10 countries in mainland Europe. Through the hard work and dedication of many in our community, progress is clearly being made towards bringing the immediate situation under control. However, many riders and owners are facing severe financial hardship due to the costs of emergency veterinary treatment for their horses during the crisis.

In order to provide support for those affected by these unforeseen and, in many cases, very substantial expenses, the EHV Relief Fund has been established. The brainchild of showjumping athletes Emile Hendrix, Peter Charles and Frederick Goltz, the Fund has the support of the FEI, European Equestrian Federation, International Jumping Riders Club, Jumping Owners Club and Equestrian Organisers. In addition, Riders Help Riders, the fundraising campaign set up by German event organiser and sports marketer Axel Milkau, has joined forces with the Fund. Collectively, this group have set themselves up as the Sponsors of the Fund.

The mandate of the Fund is to provide financial support to riders and owners for the legitimate veterinary expenses resulting directly from the EHV-1 outbreaks in Spain. All proceeds raised by the Fund will be applied to this mission. Any administrative or other costs of the Fund will be borne by the Sponsors.

Guidelines for the submission of funding requests will be published in due course, but the basic principle will be to:

  • compile all applicable expenses
  • raise as much money as possible
  • allocate funds raised to cover the greatest percentage of the applicable expenses possible.

The Sponsors have created an oversight committee to manage distribution of the funds based on this mandate. The Sponsors are committed to full transparency and the accounts of the Fund will be published when it is wound-up.

“Despite these desperately distressing times, it has been heartwarming to see in practice what we all know to be true: that in our sport, the welfare of the horse comes first, no matter the circumstance”, Frederick Goltz said. “As part of that special community ethos, we would hope that the broader showjumping community will help to bear some of the costs, particularly in an environment made all the more difficult by Covid-19.”

A total of €250,000 has already been pledged to the Fund, including monies committed by the Sponsors, other donors, and the very successful fundraising effort already undertaken by the Riders Help Riders team.

“Thank you to those who have already joined our effort and we very much hope that everyone in the showjumping community will consider helping as much as they are able”, Peter Charles said.

Questions about the Fund can be addressed to [email protected]

Donations can be paid directly to the dedicated bank account that has been set up through the FEI:

Banque Cantonale Vaudoise, Place St-François 14, 1003 Lausanne - Switzerland
Account holder: Federation Equestre Internationale, IBAN: CH72 0076 7000 E536 6418 5, Account: E 5366.41.85 EUR, BIC/Swift: BCVLCH2LXXX
Reference: EHV_relief_fund

Sponsors: Fédération Equestre Internationale (FEI) European Equestrian Federation (EEF) International Jumping Riders Club (IJRC) Jumping Owners Club (JOC) Equestrian Organisers (EO) Riders Help Riders Emile Hendrix Peter Charles Frederick Goltz.

The FEI has today published the Return To Competition measures that will allow for a safe resumption of international sport in mainland Europe on 12 April following a six-week shutdown to control the spread of the neurological form of the Equine Herpes Virus (EHV-1).
The measures focus on six key areas: Pre-event venue preparation by Organisers Athlete pre-event preparation Examination on Arrival Onsite at Event Venue Departure from Events and Jurisdiction.
The Return To Competition measures, which were comprehensively reviewed at a stakeholder consultation session last week and fine-tuned by both the FEI Veterinary Epidemiology Working Group and the FEI Veterinary Committee, have now been approved by the FEI Board.
Stakeholders who joined last week’s two-hour online consultation session included Athlete Representatives Pedro Veniss (Jumping) and Beatriz Ferrer Salat (Dressage), Eleonora Ottaviani (International Jumping Riders Club), Klaus Roeser (International Dressage Riders Club), Peter Bollen (Equestrian Organisers), Dominique Megret (Jumping Owners Club), Quentin Simonet and Ulf Helgstrand (European Equestrian Federation), together with international grooms Heidi Mulari (Steve Guerdat) and Kirsty Pascoe (Jérôme Guery), and FEI Events Stable Manager Patrick Borg.
The measures include a series of temporary provisions, which will remain in place until 30 May 2021, providing a science-based safety margin to allow for monitoring of any further related outbreaks. This date can be extended if required and advance notice will be provided to the community. These temporary provisions will be formalised in legally binding Bylaws which will be published during the week commencing 5 April 2021.
The FEI Veterinary Epidemiology Working Group has agreed that there is currently no evidence indicating that it would be unsafe to return to international competition in mainland Europe as planned on 12 April, provided the mandated enhanced preventive measures are implemented and there are no further linked outbreaks. The Group will continue to monitor the evolution of the European outbreak on a daily basis.
The FEI HorseApp will be updated with new modules which will allow for enhanced traceability as part of the EHV-1 Return To Competition measures. These will be launched in the second week of April.
The Return To Competition measures, which clearly outline roles and responsibilities, are available online and for download in the dedicated EHV-1 hub. Additional documentation will be added in the coming days.

The FEI today hosted a stakeholder consultation session to review comprehensive draft Return To Competition protocols. These measures are aimed at, in the short term, minimising the risks associated with the restart of FEI competitions in mainland Europe on 12 April 2021 and, in the long term, increasing biosecurity knowledge, skills and awareness among all FEI stakeholders in order to prevent a recurrence of the devastating EHV-1 outbreak.
he proposed Return To Competition protocols, a number of which are already covered in the FEI Veterinary Regulations or FEI General Regulations, were presented by FEI Veterinary Director Göran Åkerström and generated valuable input from stakeholders. FEI Legal Director Mikael Rentsch discussed the legal provisions for enhanced FEI jurisdiction in the event of a disease outbreak at an FEI Event.
Areas covered in the draft requirements include biosecurity plans and mitigation plans for outbreaks of infectious disease for all FEI Events mandatory advance PCR testing (for certain designated events only) and temperature monitoring enhanced Examination on Arrival external to the event stabling area for all horses athlete self-certification for the health status of their horses stabling (including isolation stables and restrictions on access) minimising nose-to-nose contact between horses control of dogs and the importance of basic hygiene.
The proposals, which received broad consensus from the group, cover pre-event, the duration of the event and post-event.
The topic of vaccinations was discussed and the FEI Veterinary Director advised that there are no vaccines which are effective against the neurological form of the virus that has caused the current outbreak. Vaccinated horses have still become sick and, in addition, there are currently very limited supplies of EHV vaccines available in Europe.
In a brief opening address, FEI President Ingmar De Vos reiterated that there will be a full and thorough investigation into the circumstances of the outbreak and that the findings will be published. “Our goal is to learn from this and not to point fingers”, he said. He also thanked participants and the wider community for the incredible team and individual efforts to contain the outbreak.
He stressed the need for continuing to work together. “The measures we put in place – both short-term and long-term - and especially how effective they are, will depend on our ability as a community to collaborate, to agree to the same set of principles and to fully endorse and implement them in each of our respective areas of responsibility.
“This outbreak in Europe has been devastating. But everyone in this virtual room has shown great solidarity so far, and I am confident today will be another milestone in our collective effort to overcome this, to learn from it and to make us stronger for the future.”
Stakeholders who joined the two-hour online session included Athlete Representatives Pedro Veniss (Jumping) and Beatriz Ferrer Salat (Dressage), Eleonora Ottaviani (International Jumping Riders Club), Klaus Roeser (International Dressage Riders Club), Peter Bollen (Equestrian Organisers), Dominique Megret (Jumping Owners Club), Quentin Simonet and Ulf Helgstrand (European Equestrian Federation), together with international grooms Heidi Mulari (Steve Guerdat) and Kirsty Pascoe (Jérôme Guery), and FEI Events Stable Manager Patrick Borg.
FEI Veterinary Committee Chair Jenny Hall was also part of the meeting, alongside the Chairs of the FEI Technical Committees – Stephan Ellenbruch (Jumping), Frank Kemperman (Dressage), David O’Connor (Eventing), Karoly Fugli (Driving), Christian Lozano (Endurance), Pavla Krauspe (Vaulting) and Amanda Bond (Para Dressage). FEI Headquarters was represented by the Discipline Directors, IT, Veterinary, Legal and Communications Departments.
At the conclusion of the meeting, FEI Secretary General Sabrina Ibáñez outlined next steps, advising the group that feedback from the stakeholder consultation session will now be incorporated into the draft proposals. The proposed measures, which were discussed by the FEI Veterinary Committee yesterday, will be further reviewed at tomorrow’s FEI Veterinary Epidemiology Working Group meeting before being finalised and presented to the FEI Board for approval. Bylaws for some of the temporary measures will need to be put in place, and rules for the long-term requirements.
The community will be advised of the new requirements before the end of March in order to allow sufficient time for implementation.

Following stakeholder consultation and a recommendation from the FEI Endurance Calendar Task Force, the FEI Board has approved the following resolutions with regards to the FEI Endurance World Championship scheduled for 22 May 2021 in Pisa (ITA), having been postponed from its original date of 6 September 2020 due to Covid-19.

  • Extension of the Nominations Entries Deadline from 9 April 2021 until 21 April 2021 (note the qualification dates have not changed and the deadline remains 5 April 2021).
  • Increase the number of Nominated Entries for Horses and Athletes from10 Athletes and 14 Horsesto15 Athletes and 15 Horses (i.e. 15 combinations). This condition is a modification of the FEI General Regulations (Article 116.2.2(i)) hence it shall be considered as an Emergency Board Resolution*.

These resolutions are based on a decision to maintain the Championship on 22 May 2021 following a request by the Italian National Federation and the Organiser to postpone the Championship due to the uncertain evolution of Covid-19 and the impact of EHV-1 in Europe particularly. Although two alternative dates were proposed - 10 July 2021 and 25 September 2021 - the FEI Endurance Calendar Task Force unanimously agreed to recommend to the Board to maintain the initial date of 22 May 2021 for the Championship subject to the conditions above that would provide National Federations more opportunities to select their best and most fit combinations.
The Endurance Calendar Task Force also highlighted to the FEI Board that the new proposed dates would have an impact on the FEI Endurance Pan American Championship for Seniors & Young Riders from 28 – 29 July 2021 the FEI Endurance European Championship from 6 to 11 September and the FEI Endurance World Championship for Young Horses from 15 to 19 September.
In addition, they noted there were a total of 44 qualified NFs, with 584 qualified combinations from all FEI Regional Groups for the Championship and moving the Championship to July or September 2021 would require National Federations to adapt their planned selection process and adjust their training programmes, as well as repercussions on available horsepower for the different Championships mentioned above.
As is customary, these resolutions will be included on the FEI Covid-19 Resolutions & Decisions hub for Endurance.

Following the announcement on Friday 19 March regarding four FEI Jumping calendar recommendations approved by the Board, the two Board resolutions for Dressage announced on Monday 22 March, we would now like to share with you the FEI Eventing Calendar measures which have been approved by the FEI Board. Once again, these measures seek to mitigate the negative effects of Covid-19 and EHV-1, and in particular to allow as many Events as possible to take place leading up to Tokyo 2020. They will provide Athletes more opportunities to compete to obtain the Minimum Eligibility Requirements (MERs) and Confirmation Results, and to train for the Olympic Games as well as for other Championships, while for Organisers, these measures provide more flexibility to re-schedule their cancelled or postponed Events.
The FEI Eventing Calendar measures approved by the FEI Board are:

The FEI Board approved that all Eventing Event Organisers may, until the end of the Tokyo 2020 Games (Sunday 8 August 2021), organise their Events (subject to the Calendar applications deadline mentioned below) on their selected dates and no Dates Clash Rules shall apply during that time.

  • Deadlines for Calendar Applications (Emergency Board Resolution)
    In order to give National Federations and Organisers more flexibility when applying for their Events in the FEI Calendar (and consequently providing more options for the Athletes to compete), the FEI Board agreed to reduce the deadlines for Calendar applications as follows:
  • CCI5* L CCI4* L CCIO4* L or S: from 6 weeks to 4 weeks
  • CCI4* S and all other Eventing Events: same 4 weeks deadline as approved before remains.

Please note that, as stated in the Olympic Regulations, any additional Event which has not organised a CCI4* on a regular yearly basis will be included as “non-OG MER” as per current procedure.
All the Calendar Measures for Jumping, Dressage and Eventing can be found in the FEI Covid-19 Resolutions & Decisions hub. We will also be announcing additional Calendar Measures for other disciplines in the coming days, following input from the relevant Calendar Task Forces.

Following the announcement on Friday 19 March regarding four FEI Jumping calendar recommendations approved by the Board, we would now like to share the FEI Dressage Calendar measures which have been approved. Once again, these measures seek to mitigate the negative effects of Covid-19 and EHV-1, and in particular to allow as many Events as possible to take place leading up to Tokyo 2020. They will provide Athletes more opportunities to compete to obtain the Minimum Eligibility Requirements (MERs) and Confirmation Results, and to train for the Olympic Games as well as for other Championships, while for Organisers, these measures provide more flexibility to re-schedule their cancelled or postponed Events.
The FEI Dressage Calendar measures approved by the FEI Board are:

The FEI Board approved that all Dressage Event Organisers may, until the end of the Tokyo 2020 Games (Sunday 8 August 2021), organise their Events (subject to the Calendar applications deadline mentioned below) on their selected dates and no Dates Clash Rules shall apply during that time.

In order to give National Federations and Organisers more flexibility when applying for their Events in the FEI Calendar (and consequently providing more options for the Athletes to compete), the FEI Board approved the reduction of deadlines for Calendar applications as follows:

  • CDI5*/CDI4*/CDI3*/CDI-W CDIO5*/CDIO4*/CDIO3*: from 8 week to 4 weeks
  • All other Dressage Events: same 4 weeks deadline as approved before remains.

Following Jumping and now Dressage, we would also like to highlight that we will be announcing additional Calendar Measures for other disciplines in the coming days, following input from each of the dedicated Calendar Task Forces.

Overview of Tack

a. Roman with X across face. Bronze head, Castellamare Stabia, Italy
b. Bridle detail with nice rosette, from the Westminster Psalter, by Matthew of Paris, c. 1250
c. A very wide bridle from Froissart's Chronicles

d. An example of double rein from Froissart's Chronicles
e. Detail from Durer's The Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse, 1498, note snaffle bit

f. Detail from King Rene's Book of Love, note double reins
g. Interesting bridle details from Froissarts Chronicles
h. Detail of chain reins, Miniature from an Address by the town of Prato to
Robert of Anjou, Italy, c.1335-1340, British Museum

i. Fancy and Simple bridles from the Journey of the Maji
j. Bridle over the Bards, Minnesanger Manuscript

k. Some very fancy bridles and reins from Tres Riches Heures

l. Assyrian animal motif bit. Plain straight bar mouthpiece snaffle.
(way too early, but very cool)
m. A Western Asian, full cheek, jointed mouthpiece, snaffle bit, very early.

n. A Celtic bronze snaffle with enamel, Roman Period
o. Iron snaffle bit used in 5thc. Poland

p. A couple medieval snaffles
q. A view of a bit in the mouth, from The Meeting of the Queen of Sheba and King Solomon,
by Piero della Francesca, Church of San Francesco, Arezzo.
r. 16thc. curb bit with high port, keys and rollers. Attributed to Henry VIII.
s. 16thc. pelham of German origin


Evolution of saddles:
(Not always in this order in history)
A. Nothing (bareback)
B. Blanket
C. Stuffed Pad
D. Rigid tree

To the best of my knowledge:
The ancient Greeks used A and B.
The Romans used all four.
Medieval used mostly D, but there are exceptions where they used any or all of the other three.
Renaissance folk used mostly D, with the same types of exceptions as for Medievals.
There are plenty of exceptions to these as all rules. For example certain horse races were always run bareback.
Saddles can be held to the horse with pretty much any girth arrangement. There are pictures of single, double and triple girth arrangements. The girths attach to the saddle in various places or run over the seat.

a. Detail of Young horsemen at the Panathenaic games, by Phidias, Parthenon frieze, Athens
b. Detail from a funeral procession, 7thc. bce tomb relief from Xanthus in Lycia, now in British Museum

c. Sythian hobbling his horse. Chertomlyk Vase, 4th c. bce
d. Saddle of leather and felt from Pazyryk burial, Altai 5th c.bce

e. Detail from the Stele of Silius, showing a four horned Roman Saddle
f. Samnite warrior in battle dress, Pompeii
g. Sketch of a reconstructed 11thc. Polish saddle

h. Late fifteenth c. saddle possibly from the Hungarian Dragon Order, Metropolitan Museum of Art.
i. Saddle detail from St. George and the Dragon, Roger Van der Weyden, c.1432,
note saddle is quite similar to the "Hungarian Dragon Order" saddle

j. Detail of a Jousting saddle from 1466, note flat profile.
k. Henry V's saddle top view, Westminster Abbey

l. Saddle detail from St. George and the Dragon, Church of San Zeno Maggiore,14thc? Verona
2or 3 girths wraparound saddle
m. Detail of a saddle(full) from a Joust. Mid 15th c.
n. Detail of a saddle(empty) from a Joust. Mid. 15th c.

o. Maximillian style war saddle, about 1520.
p. A war saddle probably made by Jorg Seusenhofer of Innsbruck, c.1549
q. German Gestech joust saddle, late 15thc.

r. 16thc. Spanish war saddle, Royal Armor Museum, Madrid, Spain
s. Saddle and accouterments, made for King Christian IV of Denmark, 1634 from Royal Mews, England

t. A gentleman's saddle of about 1640, part of the Barnsby collection at Walsall, England. Note similarity to modern Austrailian saddles
u. Detail from Certamen equestre, etching, c.1672 by Goerge Christoph Eimmart, showing details of Polish Winged Hussar Trapping. Sometimes the wings were attached to the saddle, sometimes to the armor backplate.

v. Modern Russian saddle in the Royal Mews of England.
Note the similarity between this one and the reconstructed Polish one.
w. A modern Spanish saddle in the Royal Mews, England.
These haven't really changed since 1600, and are still available to purchase. Stirrups are Moorish in style.


x. Saddle detail showing two girths from the Winchester Bible c.1170, note big buckles.
y. Detail of horse harnessed to a cart, but showing three girths.


a. Korean figurine from the 4th century c.e.
b. one of a pair of stirrups found in an 8th c. grave in Holiare Slovakia (in situ)
c. Stirrup 11thc. Poland
d. Iron Stirrup 11th or 12 thc. central Europe
e. Sketches of stirrups found in London. Museum of London

This page is still under construction, stay tuned for further stuff.


The Age of Chivalry
A volume in the story of man library
Ed. Kenneth M. Setton
National Geographic Society 1969

Arms and Armour of the Medieval Knight
David Edge and John Miles Paddock
Crescent Books
New York, 1988

Art in Poland 1572-1764
Land of the Winged Hussars
Art Services International
Alexandria, VA 1999

Bit by Bit
Dianna R. Tuke
J.A.Allen and Co. Ltd.
London, 1991

Louis Taylor
Wilshire Book Co.
N. Hollywood, CA 1966

Bits and Bitting Manual
William G. Langdon, Jr.
Langdon Enterprises
Colbert, WA 1989

The history of mounted warfare
John Ellis
G.P.Putnam's Sons
New York, 1978

Discovering Harness and Saddlery
G.Tylden, Major
Shire Publications, Ltd.
Aylesbury, Bucks, UK 1979

A History of Horsemanship
Charles Chenevix-Tench
Doubleday & Co., Inc.
Garden City, NY 1970

The Horse in the Roman World
Ann Hyland
Yale University Press,
New Haven and London, 1990

A History of Horsemanship
Charles Chenevix-Trench
Doubleday and Co. Inc.
Garden City, NY, 1970

The Horse in Medieval England
Herbert James Hewitt
J.A.Allen and Co. Ltd.
London, 1983

Horse Power
Juliet Clutton-Brock
Harvard University Press
Cambridge, MA, 1992

Horse Tack
The complete equipment guide
for riding and driving
Ed. Julie Richardson
William Morrow and Co. Inc., London 1981

Horses and Horsemanship Through the Ages
Luigi Gianoli
Crown Publishers

The Howell Book of Saddlery and Tack
Ed. Elwyn Hartley-Edwards
Howell Book House Inc.
New York, 1981

The Life, History and Magic of the Horse.
Donald Braider
Madison Square Press
Grosset & Dunlap, Publishers
New York, 1973

Know All About Tack
George Dulaney
The Farnam Horse Library
Omaha, NB, 1974

Making and Repairing Western Saddles
Dave Jones
Arco Publishing, Inc.
New York, 1982

Man and Horse in History
Matthew J. Kust
Plutarch Press
Alexandria, VA 1983

Man and the Horse,
A. Mackay-Smith, J.R. Druesedow
T. Ryder
Simon and Schuster, New York, 1984

The Medieval Horse and its Equipment
c. 1150-c.1450
ed. John Clark
Museum of London, London, 1995

Medieval Pageant
Bryan Holme
Thames and Hudson
London, 1987

The Medieval Warhorse
Thames and Husdson
London, 1989

The Noble Horse
Werner Schmalenbach
J.A.Allen and Co.
London, 1962

The Noble Horse
Monique and Hans D. Dossenbach
Crescent Books
New York, 1994

The Pictorial Arts of the West 800-1200
C.R. Dodwell
Yale University Press
New Haven & London, 1993

Princely Feasts and Festivals
Bryan Holme
Thames and Hudson
London, 1988

The Reign of Chivalry
Richard Barber
St. Martin's Press
New York 1980

The Rider's Handbook
A step-by-step course
Sally Gordon
Chartwell Books, Inc.
Secaucus, New Jersey 1979

The Roman Cavalry
Karen R. Dixon and Pat Southern
Barnes and Noble Books
New York, 1992

The Royal Horse of Europe
Sylvia Loch
J.A. Allen & Co. Ltd., London, 1986

Russel H. Beatie
University of Oklahoma Press
Norman & London, 1981

E.Hartley Edwards
J.A.Allen and Co. Ltd.
London, 1987

They Rode Into Europe
Miklos Jankovich
Charles Srcribner's Sons
New York 1971

Severity of a bit

Exactly how severe a bit feels to a horse is determined by several factors. Though Snaffle bits have been coined the "more gentle" bit, an ill-fitting Snaffle or an inconsiderate rider can still pain a horse. The longer the shanks of a bit, the more potential for pressure. Where the bit is placed in the horse's mouth also affects the feel: the further down in the mouth, the more concentrated the pressure.

The mouthpiece of the bit is also a major factor in determining how effective (and on the other hand, harmful) a bit can be. Both curb and snaffle bits can be purchased with jointed mouthpieces (the jointed mouthpiece that is often incorrectly labeled as a "snaffle"). Jointed mouthpieces, whether on a bit with or without shanks, can increase the pressure capabilities of a bit. However, with these things in mind, it's important to note that experienced riders can use many types of bits with great success and gentleness with their horses. Inexperienced or heartless riders can do the exact opposite.

Glossary Of Horse Terminology - Horse Terms & Definitions

aged --?more than seven years old. The average lifespan of a horse is 20 to 25 years, although many horses and some horses live for 30 years or more.

aids --?the use of hands, legs, seat, weight, and voice to influence a horse these are natural aids. Artificial aids?whip, spurs?may be used to reinforce the natural aids.

Appaloosa --?a spotted horse breed originating in the land of the Nez Perce Indians (northwestern United States). As compared to a Paint or Pinto, Appaloosas have small spots or flecks of white.

Arabian --?the oldest pure breed of horse, originating in the Arabian desert. Noted for sensitivity and finely chiseled heads.

barn sour --?herd-bound a dislike of leaving the company of other horses, or of leaving the stable.

bars --?the toothless gap between incisors and molars where the bit rests in a horse&aposs mouth.

billets --?leather straps under the flaps of English saddles, to which the buckles of the girth attach.

bit -- metal mouthpiece of a bridle.

blaze? --?a wide swath of white on a horse&aposs face, running from above the eyes to the nostrils.

blemish --?a scar or defect, usually caused by injury or disease, that doesn&apost affect serviceability.

barrel racing --?a sport in which the Western horse-and-rider pair gallop around barrels the rider with the fastest time without overturning a barrel is the winner.

bran mash -- a warm meal made of wheat bran, warm water, and a little sweet feed concentrate and chopped apples or carrots an occasional treat for horses.

breeches --?knee-length, fitted riding pants worn with tall English boots.

breed show --?a show in which competition is limited to a single breed of horse the event is sanctioned by that breed&aposs registry. (For example, the Appaloosa Horse Club sanctions breed shows for Appaloosas.)

broke --?trained a "dead broke" horse is a well-trained and obedient one.

canter --?the gait between walk and gallop it consists of three beats followed by a moment of suspension, and has "leads" (in which legs on one side of the horse, front and back, reach farther forward than the legs on the other side).

chaps --?leather or suede leggings worn over jeans or riding pants and buckled around the waist. Standard Western show attire also worn informally by English riders. Half chaps zip or buckle over the lower leg.

cinch --?the leather or fabric band that secures a Western saddle to the horse. Some Western saddles have a back cinch, which is not pulled tight. (The English equivalent of a cinch is a girth.)

cloverleaf --?the three-barrel pattern that barrel racers run the path around the barrels resembles a cloverleaf.

Coggins test --?a blood test to detect exposure to equine infectious anemia proof of a "negative Coggins" is often required before a horse is allowed on the grounds of a horse show or a boarding stable.

colic --?pain in a horse&aposs abdomen, ranging from mild to life-threateningly severe. Colic is the number one killer of horses.

competitive trail riding --?a sport in which English or Western riders negotiate a preset trail, and are judged on horsemanship and the fitness of their mounts, rather than speed.

conformation --?the physical structure and build of a horse.

crest --?the top of a horse&aposs neck, from which the mane grows.

cross country jumping --?riding over a course of fences and obstacles constructed over natural terrain.

croup -- art of the hindquarters from the highest point to the top of the tail.

curb bit --?a bit that uses sidepieces ("shanks") and a strap or chain under the chin to create leverage on the bars of the mouth more severe than a snaffle bit.

cutting --?a judged event in which the Western horse-and-rider pair must cut one calf from a herd and keep it from returning to the herd.

diagonal --?a pair of legs moving in unison at the trot (e.g. right front, left hind). A correctly posting rider (said to be "on the correct diagonal") rises as the outside front leg reaches forward.

dressage --?a French term meaning training. In the discipline of dressage, the English horse-and-rider pair execute gymnastic movements that highlight the horse&aposs balance, suppleness, cadence, and obedience. Dressage principles, which trace to the earliest days of riding, are used in virtually every form of riding.

endurance riding --?contests judged for speed and fitness of the horse over 25-, 50-, and 100-mile courses.

equitation --?the art of riding. Equitation classes are judged on the rider&aposs correctness of form, proper use of aids, and control over the horse classes are held for English equitation, Western equitation (usually called Western horsemanship), and equitation over fences (sometimes called medal classes).

eventing --?a sport, also called combined training, in which English horse-and-rider pairs compete in dressage, cross-country jumping, and jumping in an arena.

farrier --?a person who trims and shoes horses&apos feet.

fetlock --?the joint just above the hoof that seems like an ankle (although it doesn&apost correspond to the human ankle).

flank --?the sensitive area of a horse&aposs side between his rib cage and hindquarters.

forehand --?a horse&aposs head, neck, shoulders, and front legs. A horse traveling "on the forehand" is not carrying enough weight on its hindquarters.

frog --?the dense, shock-absorbing, triangular growth on the underside of the hoof.

founder --?a serious disease affecting the hooves, often caused by eating too much grain or green grass especially problematic for ponies. Also called laminitis.

gaits -- the different ways in which a horse travels, including walk, trot, canter, and gallop. So-called "gaited horses" have specialty gaits, such as the running walk and the pace.

gaited horse --?one possessing a gait beyond the natural walk, trot, and canter gaited breeds include the American Saddlebred, Icelandic, Missouri Fox Trotter, Paso Fino, Peruvian Paso, Tennessee Walking Horse.

gallop --?the fastest gait it consists of four beats followed by a moment of suspension.

garters --?leather straps that buckle under the knee to keep jodhpur pants from riding up.

gelding --?a castrated male horse.

girth --?the leather or fabric band that secures an English saddle to the horse. (The Western equivalent is a cinch.)

grade horse --?one not registered with a breed association, and usually not a purebred.

green --?inexperienced may be applied to a horse of any age having limited training, or a rider. The old horseman&aposs adage says, "Green plus green makes black and blue."

ground training --?schooling of the horse from the ground, rather than from the saddle. Includes in-hand work and longeing.

gymkhana --?competitions offering timed obstacle classes and games such as barrel racing and pole bending.

hackamore --?a bitless bridle control comes from the pressure of the noseband on the bridge of the horse&aposs nose.

halter --?the headgear with which a horse is led made of leather, synthetic webbing, or rope.

halter class -- an event in which horses are led in hand and judged on the basis of their conformation.

hand --?the unit of measurement for determining the height of horses and ponies. One hand equals four inches thus a 14.3-hand horse is 59 inches tall from his withers (bony point between the neck and back) to the ground.

hock --?the large, angular joint halfway up a horse&aposs hind leg.

horn --?the part of a Western saddle that extends up from the pommel (front), around which a rope may be wrapped and secured.

hunter class --?a judged class in which the English horse-and-rider pair must negotiate a course of fences with willingness, regularity, and style.

jodhpurs --?ankle-length, fitted English riding pants worn with ankle-high jodhpur boots. This ensemble is popular among young riders.

jog --?a slow trot performed by Western horses also the term for the in-hand evaluation for soundness in hunter classes at some large shows.

jumper class --?a class in which the English horse-and-rider pair must negotiate a course of fences only knock-downs and time penalties count (as opposed to a hunter class, in which proper form is judged).

Kimberwicke --?an English bit that combines snaffle rings with a mild curb-bit action.

laminitis --?a serious disease affecting the hooves, often caused by eating too much grain or green grass especially problematic for ponies. Also called founder.

lead --?a pattern of footfalls at the canter in which the legs on one side of the horse, front and back, "lead" (reach farther forward than) the legs on the other side. In a circle to the right, the right (inside) legs should lead, and vice versa.

lead-line class --?a class for the youngest children in which all mounts are lead by an adult or older child.

leg up --?a boost into the saddle, given by someone standing next to the rider and grasping her lower left leg with both hands as the rider bends her leg at the knee.

loafing shed --?a three-sided shelter, in a pasture or paddock, which a horse can enter at will for protection from the elements.

longe --?to work a horse on a long line (up to 30 foot or more) in a circle around you (rhymes with "sponge").

lope --?a slow canter performed by Western horses.

mare --?a female horse four years of age or older.

markings? -- white areas on a horse&aposs face and/or legs commonly used to identify individual animals.

martingale --?a piece of equipment designed to effect a horse&aposs head carriage or to prevent the tossing of the head attaches to the girth and to the reins or bridle.

medal class --?an equitation class over fences.

Morgan --?a breed descending from one prepotent sire, Justin Morgan of Vermont. Sturdy and compact, with active gaits.

mouth, hard or soft --?describes the horse&aposs relative responsiveness to the reins.

mucking out? -- removing manure and soiled bedding from a stall or pen.

near side --?the left side of the horse (from which traditionally most handling, and mounting, is done).

off side --?the right side of the horse.

paddock --?a small pasture or enclosure larger than a pen.

Paint Horse --?a horse, usually of stock type, registered with the American Paint Horse Association it has a two-toned body color (white patches and areas over the base color).

pastern --?the part of the horse&aposs leg between the hoof and the fetlock.

pelham --?a one-piece English bit equipped to handle four reins a sort of "part snaffle, part curb" bit.

pen --?an outdoor enclosure large enough for a horse to walk around in smaller than a paddock.

Pinto?--?A horse or pony of varying type, with a two-toned body color (generally large blocks of white), registered with the Pinto Horse Association of America, Inc. A pinto (lower case) is any horse or pony with a two-toned coat.

playday --?an informal competition featuring speed events and games, such as pole bending and trotting race.

pleasure --?a judged event in which the horse&aposs smoothness, manner of going, and obedience are judged there are both English and Western pleasure classes.

pole bending -- a timed event in which contestants must weave in and out a line of poles.

poll --?the bony bump between a horse&aposs ears.

pommel --?the front, top part of a saddle. The pommel of an English saddle is arched that of a Western saddle bears a horn.

pony --?any equine that measures under 14.2 hands (58 inches) from its withers to the ground. Pony classes at hunter/jumper shows may be divided into small (under 12.2), medium (under 13.2), and large (under 14.2).

Pony of the Americas (POA) --?A pony breed created by crossing Shetland ponies with Appaloosa horses generally sporting Appaloosa coat patterns. POAs are commonly used as children&aposs mounts.

posting --?rising and sitting in the saddle at the trot, in rhythm with the horse&aposs strides. Posting takes the "bounce" out of the trot.

pre-purchase exam --?the process of having a veterinarian check your prospective horse or pony for health and soundness also called a vet check or "vetting."

pulling back --?a bad habit in which the horse pulls back violently on the lead rope when tied, potentially injuring himself and anyone around him.

Quarter Horse --?A well-muscled, good-tempered, versatile breed that&aposs popular among adults and children alike. The American Quarter Horse Association is the largest single-breed registry in the world.

Quarter Pony --?a pony of Quarter Horse type and disposition commonly used as a children&aposs mount.

rearing --?the raising up of a horse onto its hind legs when being led or ridden a bad habit that should be handled only by a professional.

reins --?the leather lines that attach to the bit and are held in the rider&aposs hands to guide and control a horse.

reined cow horse --?a judged event in which the Western horse-and-rider pair must perform tasks related to cattle herding, plus a reining pattern. Also called working cow horse.

reining --?a judged event in which the Western horse-and-rider pair perform a pattern of circles and straight lines, with sliding stops and spins in place.

riding sneakers --?athletic-styled shoes designed specifically for riding, with steel reinforcement and an adequate heel.

ring sour --?the attitude of a horse that doesn&apost enjoy being ridden in an arena and looks for ways to leave the ring or quit working.

roping --?a timed event in which the Western rider must chase and rope a steer.

school horse --?an experienced, usually older horse used as a lesson mount also called lesson horse. Good school horses make wonderful first mounts, but they are rarely for sale.

schooling show --?a "practice" show for novice riders and advanced riders schooling green horses.

Shetland Pony --?smallest of the pony breeds, originating in the Shetland Islands.

show jumping --?a timed event in which the English horse-and-rider pair must negotiate a course of fences without knocking any part of them down.

showmanship --?an in-hand class in which the Western handler is judged on his/her ability to present the horse effectively to the judge.

shying -- responding to a sound, movement, or object by suddenly jumping to the side or running off. A horse that shies a lot is said to be "spooky."

snaffle bit --?a bit with a jointed mouthpiece and rings at the ends works first on the corners of the mouth. Less severe than a curb bit.

spooky --?easily startled. A spooky horse is not suitable for a beginning rider of any age.

stallion --?an unaltered male horse four years of age or older.

star --?a white patch on a horse&aposs forehead.

stirrup leathers --?the straps connecting the stirrups to an English saddle also known as "leathers."

stirrups --?the part of the saddle that supports a rider&aposs feet metal for English saddles (thus often called "stirrup irons") and wood-and-leather for Western saddles.

tack --?the gear used on a horse, e.g. saddles, bridles.

tacking up --?saddling and bridling a horse.

topline --?the outline of a horse from the top of his head to the top of his tail.

Thoroughbred --?an English breed tracing to three Arabian sires. The world&aposs premier race horse, but also used for a wide range of sports, especially jumping. The word refers specifically to a horse registered with The Jockey Club, and should not be used to denote "purebred."

trot --?the two-beat gait between the walk and the canter.

vaulting --?gymnastic maneuvers performed on the back of a cantering horse.

walk --?the slowest gait, consisting of four beats.

walk-trot class --?a class for beginning riders in which only the walk and trot (and not the canter, or lope) are called for.

Warmblood --?a general term for European breeds of sport horses. Examples include Dutch Warmblood, Hanoverian, and Holsteiner.

Welsh Pony --?a pony originating in Wales excellent for riding and commonly used as a children&aposs mount.

withers --?the bony point at the base of the neck, just in front of where the saddle rests. Horses are measured from the top of the withers to the ground.

working cow horse --?a judged event in which the horse-and-rider pair must perform tasks related to cattle herding, plus a reining pattern. Also called reined cow horse.

Reducing Colic Risk in Your Horse and Being Prepared

Louis Southwood,

Dr. Southwood is a professor of equine medicine and critical care at the University of Pennsylvania’s New Bolton Center in Kennett Square.

23. DO feed frequently. Says Weatherly, “Multiple smaller meals are generally better for the digestive tract than one or two large meals.” The most important part of feeding is consistency with the total amount of feed (energy) given to the horse each day and sticking with a routine.

24. DO forgo grain over forage. “Horses’ intestinal tracts are not made to digest grain,” Keenan says. In fact, high-grain diets are linked to increased incidence of colic as well as founder, obesity, and other disorders. “The only horses that need grain are those that lose weight despite being fed good-quality hay 24/7 or those that are in a very demanding exercise schedule.”

25. DO encourage drinking to reduce risk of impaction colic. Provide access to warm water in the winter and cool water in the summer. Tempt horses that routinely don’t drink much by mixing ample amounts of water into grain, gradually increasing the water:grain ratio. “You can slowly increase the water to the point where the horse will drink a whole bucket of water to get to a half pound of grain,” says Keenan. “Do that twice a day, and you’ve got them drinking two buckets of water a day.” Do not allow the grain to ferment.

26. DO provide regular exercise. “Keeping an exercise routine consistent is beneficial,” says Weatherly. This includes regular turnout, as well. Avoid “weekend warrior” activities or intense bouts of exercise followed by long periods without exercise.

27. DO maintain an approved parasite control routine. “Your veterinarian can determine an appropriate program based on the pasture and age of your horse,” Weatherly says. Research suggests strategic parasite control is optimal owners should contact their vets to design a program based on fecal egg counts and pasture management. Nonstrategic rotational deworming causes parasite resistance to anthelmintic (parasite-killing) drugs and is no longer recommended.

28. DO take steps to reduce ingestion of sand. Keep hay off sandy surfaces by placing rations in a manger, cut-down garbage can or rain barrel (ensuring there are no sharp edges), or on a cement pad or rubber mat swept clean of sand. If your horse likes to pull his hay out of the container and eat it off the ground, lay mats around the container.

29. DO check stool samples of horses prone to sand colic. “Put about two cups of manure in a gallon Ziploc bag, fill the bag with water, close the bag tightly, then shake it up until all of the manure is dissolved,” Keenan advises. “Hold the bag by one corner so the opposite corner is hanging lowest. Tap the bag and the sand will settle out in the lower corner. If your horse has more than half a teaspoon, he’s positive for sand ingestion. If you get a negative, repeat the test three or four times over a three-day period to make sure.”

30. DO administer psyllium products, according to your vet’s instructions, if your horse has a sand burden, suggests Keenan. Keep your horse off sandy areas until the problem clears.

32. DO consider gastric ulcer prevention methods for highly stressed horses or performance horses, per veterinary instructions, says Keenan. “Make sure these horses get endoscopic exams, as ulcers are a common cause of mild colic.”

33. DO consider getting major medical (not just surgical) insurance to cover the costs of advanced medical and surgical care for your horse. It is not as expensive as you might think and can save you the stress of wondering where to come up with a large sum of money to save your horse.

History of the 1st Cavalry Division

The history of the 1st Cavalry Division is a colorful tale of Troopers on horseback in the desert areas around Fort Bliss, Texas fighting in World War II occupation duty in Japan combat in the Korean War service in Hokkaido patrols along the Korean DMZ Airmobile warfare in Vietnam the Cold War with service at Fort Hood desert fighting in the Gulf War peacekeeping in Bosnia and fighting the War on Terror in Iraq and Afghanistan. This page will provide you with a brief history of the First Team and links to other web pages and historical documents that honor the First Team!

The 1st Cavalry Division was formally activated on 13 September 1921 at Fort Bliss, Texas. Our early duties in West Texas included rough-riding and patrolling the Mexican border. Technological progress of the 1940’s diminished the usefulness of horse-mounted Soldiers, and the division turned in its horses and prepared to serve as dismounted cavalry in World War II’s Pacific Theater.

In February 1943, the 1st Cavalry Division was alerted for overseas assignment and closed at Strathpine in Queensland, Australia on 26 July to train for jungle and amphibious operations. On 29 February 1944, the 1st Cavalry Division had its first combat as the Troopers stormed the beaches of Los Negros Island fighting a fierce campaign that took some 7,000 Japanese casualties. The division’s next action was a few months later on the Philippine Island of Leyte. When the last Japanese stronghold was eliminated, the division moved to Luzon. The 1st Cavalry Division was first into Manila in February 1945 following one of the most important actions of the war which is known as the “Flying Column”. The Division’s Troopers entered Manila and freed the internees at Santo Tomas University. Two Troopers of the 1st Cavalry Division were awarded the Medal of Honor posthumously during World War II. Major General William C. Chase officially took command months later, and his nickname for the division, “First Team”, was well-received and remains today.

In September of 1945, the “First Team” led occupational forces into Japan’s capital city, earning the distinction of “First in Tokyo”. The 1st Cavalry Division spent the next five years in Japan on Occupation Duty. First quartered on the Yoyogi Parade Grounds the Division moved to the outskirts of the city and occupied Camp Drake in September 1945. The Division’s first mission in Tokyo was to assume control of the central portion of the city. Daily patrols began the long task of locating, investigating, and reporting all Japanese installations which had contributed to the nation’s war effort. All arsenals, factories, barracks, and storage grounds had to be examined and reports made of their contents. In addition, the Division was concerned with the status of demobilization of the Japanese armed forces. The 1st Cavalry Division’s occupation jurisdiction extended over 5,000 square miles. The years 1946 to 1950 saw further easing of tensions between Japanese and Americans. Whenever floods or earthquakes hit the Japanese mainland, the Cavalrymen joined the rescue efforts. Once every few weeks, the Division staged colorful parades in the Imperial Plaza in the heart of Tokyo. Division Troopers contributed time, money and their talents to a number of Japanese orphanages and other social relief agencies. In June 1950 North Korea invaded South Korea and despite woeful manning and equipment shortages, the First Team prepared for their next combat.

The 1st Cavalry Division stormed ashore at Pohang Dong, South Korea, in the Korean War’s first amphibious landing. By July 1950, the division began offensive operations to the north and crossed the 38th parallel on October 9th. Closing on North Korea’s capital ten days later, the “First Team” was “First in Pyongyang”. With the war almost won and US forces just south of the Chinese border the Chinese Communist Forces entered the war and the onslaught of numerically superior forces overran and encircled the 8th Cavalry Regiment at Unsan. United Nation’s forces began a withdrawal and were pushed past the 38th Parallel and below Seoul. The UN forces counter attacked and the 1st Cavalry Division again crossed the 38th parallel as fighting settled along that area. After 549 days of continuous combat, the division began planning to return to Japan. The division established a defensive military presence in the northern island of Hokkaido. Several units of the division returned to serve in Korea. During the Korean War eleven Troopers of the First Team were awarded the Medal of Honor for their actions.

At the end of the Korean War the division remained on duty in Japan until its move back to the Korean Peninsula and duty along the Demilitarized Zone in 1957. The division spent the majority of its time in the field operations patrolling the southern border of the DMZ and adjacent areas in observation and listening posts that were manned 24 hours a day until departing for Fort Benning, Georgia in July 1965.

Reorganized and equipped as an airmobile division the “First Team” was quickly shipped to Vietnam becoming the first fully committed division in country. The division became the first division to earn the Presidential Unit Citation during the thirty-five day Pleiku Campaign. Airmobile tactics permitted fast movement on the battlefield as the “Sky Troopers” of the 1st Cavalry Division rode their helicopters into numerous battles. The enemy launched the famous Tet Offensive in late January 1968. Already on the move, the “First Team” rushed north, liberating cities and boldly repelling the enemy offensive. The division’s “Sky Troopers” flew in to relieve the besieged Marine base at Khe Sahn and the division was first into Cambodia in May 1970. The first full division into Vietnam was the last full division to leave Vietnam. Thirty Troopers of the 1st Cavalry Division were awarded the Medal of Honor for their valor during the Vietnam War. Redeployment to Fort Hood, Texas began in 1971 where the “First Team” reorganized into a “Triple Capability” or “Tricap” Division, incorporating an armor brigade, an air mobility brigade, and an air cavalry brigade. While the Division colors left Vietnam in 1971, the 3rd Brigade, 1st Cavalry Division (Separate) remained in Vietnam until June 1972.

In the following years the First Team fought the “Cold War” as they trained and readied for combat in any area of the world. Training at Fort Hood, deploying to Germany as part of Return of Forces to Germany (REFORGER), and fighting the Opposing Force at the National Training Center at Fort Irwin, California became the routine of America’s only Cavalry Division.

In August 1990, the 1st Cavalry Division was alerted for deployment o Southwest Asia as part of the joint forces participating in Operation Desert Shield. The focus at that time was the defense of Saudi Arabia against a potential Iraqi attack.

In January 1991, the division was attached to VII (US) Corps and the focus of the First Team clearly began to shift toward offensive action. The division moved nearly 500 kilometers to another assembly area near King Khalid Military city (KKMC) in Northern Saudi Arabia. This put the division in a key strategic location covering the historic Wadi al Batin approach into Saudi Arabia. The stay near KKMC was short and the division jumped north toward the juncture of the Saudi, Iraq, and Kuwait borders beginning a calculated war of deception along the Saudi border.

The deception caused Iraq to focus their forces along the Wadi and on 20 February, prior to the main attack by coalition forces the First Team’s 2nd Brigade mounted the first major mounted ground attack 10 miles into Iraq ensuring that the Iraqi Army thought the main attack was to be through the Wadi al Batin.

On February 26, the commander of the Allied forces, General Norman Schwartzkopf directed, “send in the First Team. Destroy the Republican Guard. Let’s go home.” The entire division, minus the 2nd Armored Division’s “Tiger” Brigade who was with the Marines moving into Kuwait, pausing only to refuel before passing through the breeches continued north, then east, moving in a vast armada of armor and went 300 kilometers in 24 hours, slicing deep into the enemy’s rear.

In 1998, the 1st Cavalry Division assumed the mission of Task Force Eagle, conducting peace support operations in Bosnia-Herzegovina. Following four months of highly successful and intensive planning, training, and maintaining, America’s “First Team” assumed the mission of ensuring peace and stability throughout Bosnia-Herzegovina for over a year, transferring authority to the 10th Mountain Division in August 1999.

In early 2003, select divisional units were designated to deploy in support of Operation Iraqi Freedom through the initial phase of combat culminating in the liberation of the Iraqi people from the tyrannical rule of Saddam Hussein. In the fall of 2003, the division as a whole was ordered to prepare for deployment in Operation Iraqi Freedom II. Assuming control of Task Force Baghdad in April of 2004 the division engaged the enemy across multiple lines of operation, helping the Iraqi people forge a new, democratic government – the first in the nation’s history. Two major events occurred during the division’s year in the Iraqi capital: first, the coalition returned sovereignty to the people of Iraq in June 2004 and second, the national elections of January 2005 demonstrated the resolve of the Iraqi people to gain control of their country. The division transferred authority to the 3rd Infantry Division in February 2005 and completed their return to Fort Hood on April 2nd.

After returning from Iraq in 2005, the Division underwent a transformation to the Army’s new modular design becoming a combined arms division. Many of our units were inactivated or redesignated as the Division reorganized into a more deployable and lethal configuration. Adding a fourth maneuver brigade that was temporarily located at Fort Bliss, Texas the Division began a training program to prepare for a return to Iraq in 2006.

On 15 November, 2006 the 1st Cavalry Division assumed control of Baghdad for the second time and leadership of Multi-National Division Baghdad. Two of our brigades, the 3rd and 4th Brigade Combat Teams, were attached to the 25th Infantry Division working in a different area of Iraq while the ranks of the First Team were expanded by the attachment of brigades from divisions across the Army. The surge in Iraq brought the assigned and attached strength of the First Team and MND-Baghdad to over 100,000 Soldiers.

Returning to Fort Hood in late 2007 the division relocated the 4th Brigade Combat Team from Fort Bliss to Fort Hood and saw the departure of the 15th Sustainment Brigade from division control in 2008. The 4th BCT again deployed to Iraq leaving the rest of the division to train and prepare for a third deployment in 2009.

In late 2008, the 3rd Brigade Combat Team deployed to Iraq followed by the 2nd BCT, 1st BCT and the Division Headquarters in early 2009. The First Team once again accepted the control on MND-Baghdad from the 4th Infantry Division on 10 February, 2009. Only the 1st BCT remained assigned to the Division with the other three Heavy Brigade Combat Teams being attached to other divisions in Iraq. The 1st Air Cavalry Brigade deployed to Iraq in the spring of 2009 for a one-year deployment and was the last 1st Cavalry Division unit to participate in Operation Iraqi Freedom.

The 4th BCT was one of the first units to deploy for Operation New Dawn with the mission to train and assist Iraqi Security Forces in September, 2010 followed by 2nd Brigade who deployed in 2011, helping to advise, train, assist and equip Iraqi forces while simultaneously transitioning more than a half-dozen bases back to Iraqi control. The other brigades followed on to Iraq for Operation New Dawn and the movement out of Iraq and into Kuwait. On the morning of 18 December 2011, after almost nine years, the 3rd Special Troops Battalion of the 3rd Brigade Combat Team (Grey Wolf) was the last unit to leave Iraq. The units of the First Team had completed a flawless movement involving multiple passages of lines conducted without incident. After leaving Iraq, the 1st Brigade Combat Team remained in Kuwait for several months as a contingency force for the CENTCOM area.

On 19 May 2011, in continuing to expand its role in the mid-eastern theater of operations, the 1st Cavalry Division unfurled the unit’s new colors in a transfer of authority ceremony with the 101st Airborne Division (Air Assault) on Bagram Airfield, Afghanistan. During a pivotal time in the war on terror and in Afghanistan’s history, The command authority of the Regional Command – East (RC-E) shifted from Combined Joint Task Force-101 to CJTF-1. In this new mission of the 1st Cavalry Division took control of over 35,000 Soldiers from eight US, French and Polish task forces and 14 provinces that, combined, provide safety and security in an area populated by approximately 7.5 million Afghans. The Area of Command consists of 43,000 square miles and shares 450 miles of border with Pakistan. The Division’s Air Cavalry Brigade also deployed to Afghanistan and conducted operations in almost all areas of Afghanistan for a full year.

Early mail delivery

By the 1840s the influx of pioneers to the Northwest via the Oregon Trail, the Mormon migration to Utah, and the flood of settlers (and prospectors after the gold strikes of 1848) to California had created an increasing demand for mail delivery to and from the East. Sending mail from the East Coast to San Francisco via steamship was one solution, but the long, hazardous journey involved sailing either around the southern tip of South America and up the West Coast of the Americas or down to malaria-ridden Panama, where the isthmus to the Pacific would be crossed by mule and canoe and then the final leg of the trip to California completed by another steamer. Either way, the trip took months. It was also expensive, costing the government more than $700,000 annually while returning little more than $200,000 in postage. Even after a railroad had been completed across the Isthmus of Panama in January 1855, steamship delivery remained inadequately slow.

The alternative—overland travel across the desolate terrain west of the Missouri River—was dangerous and unreliable. The first attempt at overland mail service to the West Coast came in 1851, when George Chorpenning and Absalom Woodward contracted with the U.S. government for monthly delivery of mail between Sacramento, California, and Salt Lake City, Utah, by way of the Carson Valley. To facilitate delivery, they arranged for some crude stations to be erected along the route. That service, combined with stagecoach-delivered service from Salt Lake City east to Independence, Missouri (which had already been initiated, on July 1, 1850, by Samuel H. Woodson), effectively established regular overland transcontinental mail delivery. Overall, this mail service was satisfactory, although it was sometimes late because of bad weather (especially during the winter) or fell victim to attacks by Native Americans.

While Chorpenning and Woodward’s operations ultimately foundered, John Butterfield established a new southern mail route. (Woodward died on a failed Sacramento to Salt Lake City journey in May 1851 W.M.F. Magraw and John M. Hockaday took over the Salt Lake to Independence route in 1854.) The Butterfield Overland Mail Company—a consortium of four express companies: Adams, American, National, and Wells, Fargo & Company—signed a six-year contract with the U.S. government on September 15, 1857. The Butterfield (or Oxbow) Route went from St. Louis, Missouri, south to Little Rock, Arkansas, through El Paso, Texas, then west to Yuma, Arizona, on to Los Angeles, and north to San Francisco, for a total distance of some 2,700 miles (4,350 km) over a 25-day schedule. The Butterfield service, however, was susceptible to attacks by the Apache, Comanche, and Kiowa peoples. (Moreover, with the beginning of the Civil War in 1861, most of the Butterfield Overland Mail line would be disrupted and destroyed by Confederate troops.) In the late 1850s other routes were attempted with varying degrees of success, including one that ran from Kansas City, Missouri, to Stockton, California, another with San Diego, California, and San Antonio, Texas, as its terminus points, and still another ocean-overland route from New Orleans by steamship to Mexico, across the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, and then by sea again to San Francisco.

With war seemingly imminent and the Butterfield route jeopardized by growing North-South tension, there was an urgent demand for fast central-route mail service despite the widespread belief that dependable service along a central route was impossible. It was this demand that gave rise to the idea of the Pony Express.


Treatment options will depend on the results of diagnostic tests𠅊nd can have variable success. If arthritis of the articular facets is identified, your vet may suggest injecting those joints with a corticosteroid to help quiet inflammation. These injections were rarely performed in years past, but are now becoming fairly routine. They’re typically performed with ultrasound guidance, and can be effective in eliminating neck-related signs for a period of time. Sadly, in many cases the signs will eventually return, making the long-term prognosis for a case of neck arthritis questionable at best.

If your horse is found to have malformation or instability of the cervical vertebrae as an underlying problem, more aggressive treatment might be warranted to help stabilize the spine and minimize damage to the underlying spinal cord. Surgical fusion of the spine with a device known as a Bagby basket can be successful at reducing symptoms. This fusion procedure stops movement of unstable vertebrae to reduce spinal-cord compression. Because of this stabilization, the articular facets will atrophy, because they’re no longer needed as stabilizers, and this can help the vertebral canal to enlarge.

This surgical procedure is most successful if it’s performed as soon as possible after signs are detected before the cord is permanently damaged. Experience shows that it can take up to a year for maximum improvement after surgery, and 80 percent of horses’ signs will improve by one grade, while only 50 percent will improve by two grades.

Of course, the joints of the neck are just like any other joint and may respond to common treatments targeting joint disease, such as Adequan, Legend, or oral joint supplements. Alternative therapies including acupuncture can also be beneficial for long-term management of a neck problem.

Even with better recognition of signs, improved diagnostics, and more access to treatments like cervical facet injections, neck problems remain difficult to diagnose and frustrating to treat. Only one thing is for sure: A “pain in the neck” may be a common underlying cause of a wide variety of performance problems.

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