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DIED: 1866 in Havana, CUBA.
CAMPAIGNS: Corinth and Vicksburg.
HIGHEST RANK ACHIEVED: Major General.
(Commisary General of the US Army.)
|Edward Otho Cresap Ord was born in Cumberland, Maryland, on October 18, 1818. His family moved to Washington, D.C. when Ord was a baby. Ord attended the US Military Academy at West Point, and graduated in 1839. After serving in the Mexican War, he took part in the expedition that resulted in the capture of John Brown at Harpers Ferry, Virginia in 1859. When the Civil War began, he was appointed a brigadier general of volunteers, to rank from September 14, 1861, and assigned to the defenses of Washington. After defeating the Confederate forces at Dranesville, Virginia; Ord was promoted to major general, as of May 2, 1862. He participated in the Battles of Iuka and Corinth, and was wounded during the retreat from Corinth. He returned from his recuperation in time to take part in the Siege of Vicksburg, and later led troops at the Siege of Jackson, Mississippi. Ord was wounded again during the assault and capture of Fort Harrison in September of 1864, but was later given command of the Army of the James and the Department of North Carolina. After joining in the final attacks on General Lee's Army of Northern Virginia, Ord was present at the Confederate surrender at Appomattox. He stayed in the Regular Army after the end of the Civil War, and was promoted to brigadier general to rank from July 26, 1866. Ord died on July 22, 1883, in Havana, Cuba.|
Early life and career [ edit | edit source ]
Ord was born in Cumberland, Maryland, the son of James and Rebecca Ord. Family tradition made James Ord the illegitimate son of George IV of England and Maria Fitzherbert Ώ] but he seems likely to have been the son of Ralph Ord, who was baptised at Wapping, Middlesex, in 1757, the son of John Ord, a factor from Berwick-upon-Tweed ΐ] . He was considered a mathematical genius and was appointed to the United States Military Academy by President Andrew Jackson. His roommate at West Point was future general William T. Sherman. He graduated in 1839 and was commissioned a second lieutenant in the 3rd U.S. Artillery. He fought in the Second Seminole War in Florida and was promoted to first lieutenant.
In January 1847, he sailed on the steamship Lexington around Cape Horn with Henry Halleck and William Sherman. He arrived in Monterey, California, and assumed command of Battery F, 3rd U.S. Artillery, with orders to complete Fort Mervine, which was renamed Fort Halleck. Its construction was superintended by Lieutenant Ord and his second in command, Lieutenant Sherman. On February 17, 1865, the fort was renamed Ord Barracks. (It is now known as the Presidio of Monterey.)
Edward O. C. Ord and his family.
Ord was in California when the gold rush began, with its resultant skyrocketing prices. Since their military salaries no longer covered living expenses, Ord's commander suggested that the younger officers take on other jobs to supplement their income. In the fall of 1848, Ord and Sherman, in the employ of John "August" Sutter, Jr., assisted Captain William H. Warner of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers in the survey of Sacramento, California, helping to produce the map that established the future capital city's extensive downtown street grid. Ord also produced a map of the Gold and Quicksilver district of California dated July 25, 1848. Later, Los Angeles officials needed to have a survey of the public lands in order to sell them, and Ord was hired as the surveyor. He chose William Rich Hutton as his assistant, and together the two mapped Los Angeles in July and August 1849. Thanks to the efforts of these two men, historians have a fairly good view of what the pueblo of Los Angeles looked like at the middle of the 19th century. Lieutenant Ord surveyed the pueblo and his assistant Hutton sketched many scenes of the pueblo and drew the first map from Ord's survey. Α] The Los Angeles City Archives has the original map produced by Hutton from Ord's survey. Ord was paid $3000 for his work on this survey.
Ord was promoted to captain in 1850, while serving in the Pacific Northwest. He married Mary Mercer Thompson on October 14, 1854, and they eventually had thirteen children. One of their notable children was Jules Garesche Ord who was killed in action after reaching the top of San Juan Hill in Cuba. He was the officer who started and led the charge which Teddy Roosevelt followed. Another was Edward Otho Cresap Ord, II who was also a United States Army Major who served with the 22nd Infantry Regiment during the Indian Wars, the Spanish–American War and the Philippine-American War. He was also a painter, inventor and poet.
In 1859, while attending artillery school at Fort Monroe, Virginia, Ord was summoned by Secretary of War John B. Floyd to quell John Brown's raid on the Harpers Ferry Federal arsenal. However, Col. Robert E. Lee reached Harpers Ferry first, and Colonel Lee telegraphed to Captain Ord that the situation was under control and Ord and his men would not be needed at Harpers Ferry. They were instructed to halt at Fort McHenry in Baltimore.
Ord Family papers 1
Edward Otho Cresap Ord was born at Cumberland, Maryland, Oct. 18, 1818. He was educated at the West Point military academy, and after being graduated in 1839 was appointed a brevet second lieutenant in the 3rd U.S. artillery. He served with distinction in the Seminole Indian war in the Florida Everglades, 1840, and during the Civil War. The battle of Dranesville, in 1861, was won under his leadership. He was severely wounded at the battle of Hatchie 1862, and at the assault on Fort Harrison, 1864. He was promoted several times for meritorious conduct and became commander of the department of Virginia and North Carolina in 1865, leading the Army of the James until the end of the war. In March, 1865, he received the brevet of major-general in the regular army, and subsequently held successive command of the departments of Arkansas, California, Texas, and the Platte. In 1880 he was placed on the retired list, and soon after accepted the position of engineer in the construction of the Mexican railway. General Ord died July 22, 1883, in Havana, Cuba where he had been taken ashore en route from New York to Vera Cruz after an attack of yellow fever. He is buried in Arlington Cemetery, Virginia.
Edward Otho Cresap II, was born at Benicia Barracks, California, November 9, 1858. He attended the public schools of San Francisco and Omaha, Nebraska. He was appointed to the U.S. Naval Academy in 1876, but withdrew the following year. In 1879 he was appointed second lieutenant in the 22nd Infantry, U.S. Army. He served in the Indian campaign in Texas in 1880, and commanded the Seminole Indian scouts in 1882. He participated in the campaign against Sitting Bull in 1891-1892. At the beginning of the Spanish-American war (1898) the 22nd Infantry was among the first troops landed in Cuba, and he was promoted captain of infantry. After the war, Captain Ord remained in Cuba for nine months as interpreter on the staff of Gen. Alexander R. Lawton. He was then sent to the Philippines when rebellion broke out, but was forced to retire on October 10, 1903 due to physical disabilities contracted in Cuba. Subsequently, Captain Ord did relief work after the San Francisco earthquake. He was then military instructor at St. Matthew's school, San Mateo, California, and later military aide on the staff of the governor of Arizona, and saw service on the Mexican border. On June 3, 1916, he was advanced to the grade of major on the retired list. After a year as military instructor at the University of Alabama he returned to full active duty, serving at Big Bend, Texas Fort Sill, Oklahoma and Tuscaloosa, Alabama. He eventually retired in 1918 because of ill health and spent the rest of his life in California. Ord was also an expert linguist and possessed exceptional artistic ability, devoting much of his leisure time to landscape and marine painting and to writing poetry. He was a Roman Catholic by religion. He died at Eagle Rock, California, April 4, 1923.
James Ord's background is somewhat mysterious, if not controversial. The following biographical sketch is drawn from material currently in the Georgetown University Archives Alumni Files. Sources include a xerox copy of a manuscript entitled “History of James Ord as related by himself with other facts collected by his sons” (located in Maryland Province Archives GTMGamms119, Box 19, Folder 5) and a xerox copy of a privately printed pamphlet entitled, “Memoranda Concerning James Ord who died January 25th, 1873 by his granddaughter Mary Ord Preston 1896” [original publication located in Booth Family Center for, Special Collections, Rare Books Collection # 90A469].
James Ord never knew the identities of his true parents, but was led to believe from papers of, as well as comments by, his reputed uncle James Ord, Sr., that he was in fact the son of Mrs. Fitzherbert, wife of King George IV of England. Ord's first recollection is that of living with his so-called uncle James Ord and the latter's sister Mary. James Ord, Sr., had apparently emigrated from England in 1790. He resided at Great Bridge near Norfolk, Virginia, and was employed by John Brent as ship builder. James Ord remembers that his uncle “always gave me to understand that I was his nephew, the child of Ralph Ord and his sister Mary” [from “History of James Ord…”]. Ralph Ord was already deceased at the time of the Norfolk residence, and his wife Mary died in 1796. After her death, James Ord, Sr., moved to Charles County, Maryland, to a residence of John Brent's, and lived there until 1799, still in the ship building business. At the end of 1799, the family moved again, to Washington, D.C., where they resided on a farm called "Non Such" near the city. The farm belonged to a Rev. Notley Young, a Catholic priest and teacher at Georgetown College.
According to Georgetown University records, James Ord was entered as a student at the college on April 24, 1800. He eventually joined the Society of Jesus in 1806, intending to become a Jesuit priest. From 1810 to 1811 he taught at the college. In 1810, his uncle died, and in 1811, James Ord left the Society, "it being decided that it was not my vocation" [from “History of James Ord…”]. He then joined the navy as midshipman from 1811 through 1813, and later, the army as first lieutenant of the 36th Infantry from 1813 to 1815, serving in the War of 1812. He was eventually promoted to army general.
In 1815, James Ord married Rebecca Ruth Cresap, the daughter of Col. Daniel Cresap of the Revolutionary War. On February 14, 1815, Ord resigned his commission in the army and went to live with his wife and her family in Allegheny County, Maryland, until 1819. From 1819 to 1837, Ord lived in Washington, D.C., holding various government positions. He was a magistrate from 1821 to 1837. In April 1837, he traveled to Chicago with Gen. John Garland as an Indian disbursing agent, and subsequently, to Sault St. Marie as an Indian agent until April 1850. He then returned home to Washington until July 1855, when he embarked for California.
James Ord died at the home of his son Gen. Edward Otho Cresap Ord in Omaha, Nebraska, on January 25, 1872. He was first buried in a Catholic cemetery there, but was later reinterred at Arlington Cemetery, Virginia, October 3, 1931.
Regarding his parentage, James Ord states that his uncle was always very reticent in speaking about the subject. In spite of the fact that he every reason to believe that he was the son of Mary and Ralph Ord, James Ord recounts instances when his uncle made impressive and mysterious comments about his heritage: ". shortly after the death of my reputed mother, as he was walking with me in the streets of Norfolk holding me by the hand, he said, "James, if you had your rights you would be something very great" [from "History of James Ord…”].
James Placidus Ord, born December 25, 1821, died after being thrown from a carriage by a runaway horse, July 9, 1876, in San Antonio, Texas. [See obituary and biographical details, Folder 3:43.] He attended Georgetown College 1835 1837, and was a major in the army during the Civil War, often serving under his brother, Gen. Edward O.C. Ord. James Placidus Ord also served as a member of the Michigan legislature, 1846.
Other Ord family sons who attended Georgetown College include [sources are cited in brackets]
James Lycurgus Ord, entered 9/15/1835, left 7/25/1837 [Georgetown University Alumni Files].
John Stephen Ord, entered 5/27/1850, left 1/30/1851 [ibid.]
Jules Garesche Ord, son of Edward Otho Cresap Ord. Born 1865, killed at San Juan Hill 7/1/1898, a member of the 6th US Infantry. Although an alumni card exists, a note indicates, "No evidence that he was ever here except in College Journal xxviii 216, xxvii 189."
James Cresap Ord, son of James Placidus Ord. Entered Georgetown 9/23/1864 [Georgetown Alumni Files].
A rough genealogical tree was created during the processing of this collection and is available to view on request. It should by no means be considered either definitive or error free, and was drawn from the biographical sources cited above, the correspondence in the collection, and largely from the genealogical typescript by Vida Ord Alexander.
Sources include the Dictionary of American Biography, the National Cyclopedia of American Biography, and material from the Georgetown University Alumni Files.
Photo, Print, Drawing [Major General Edward Otho Cresap Ord of 3rd Regular Army Light Artillery Regiment and 4th Regular Army Light Artillery Regiment in uniform, his wife, Mary Mercer Thompson Ord, and daughter, probably Lucy Maud Ord Mason] / From photographic negative in Brady's National Portrait Gallery. digital file from original, front
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- Reproduction Number: LC-DIG-ppmsca-59893 (digital file from original, front) LC-DIG-ppmsca-59894 (digital file from original, back)
- Call Number: LOT 14043-2, no. 1161 [P&P]
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Gilder Lehrman Collection #: GLC06394 Author/Creator: Grant, Ulysses S. (Ulysses Simpson) (1822-1885) Place Written: City Point, Virginia Type: Autograph letter signed Date: 12 December 1864 Pagination: 1 p. 14.5 x 20 cm.
Grant, Commander-in-Chief of the United States Army, instructs General Ord to "Please telegraph any news from Sherman the Richmond papers of to-day may contain." Written on Head-Quarters, Armies of the United States stationery. Contains a handwritten "W" on verso. Probably a telegram.
General William T. Sherman undertook the March to the Sea, or Savannah Campaign, 15 November- 22 December 1864.
Head-Quarters, Armies of the United States, City Point, Va. Dec. 12th 1864
Please telegraph any news from Sherman the Richmond papers of to-day may contain.
U. S. Grant
[verso:] W [or "3"] / 605
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--> Ord, Edward Otho Cresap, 1818-1883
Edward Otho Cresap Ord, born in Maryland about 1818, was an army officer who participated in several territorial surveys and expeditions. Ord also commanded troops during the Civil War. He retired from active service in 1880 and died in Havana, Cuba in 1883.
From the description of Letters, 1854-1885. (Unknown). WorldCat record id: 122447932
Edward Otho Cresap Ord (October 18, 1818-July 22, 1883) was the designer of Fort Sam Houston, and a United States Army officer who saw action in the Seminole War, the Indian Wars, and the American Civil War. He commanded an army during the final days of the Civil War, and was instrumental in forcing the surrender of Confederate General Robert E. Lee. He retired In 1880 and accepted the position of engineer in the construction of the Mexican Railway. En route from Vera Cruz, Mexico to New York, General Ord contracted yellow fever aboard ship. He was taken ashore in Havana, Cuba, where he died on July 22, 1883. He is buried in Arlington Cemetery.
From the description of Edward Otho Cresap Ord papers, 1840-1887. (University of California, Berkeley). WorldCat record id: 50012567
Born to James Ord and Rebecca Ruth Cresap in Cumberland, Maryland, Edward Otho Cresap (E. O. C.) Ord (1818-1883) enrolled in the West Point Military Academy in 1835. Ord was appointed a second lieutenant in the Third Artillery Regiment following his graduation in 1839, and was promoted to first lieutenant in 1841 as a result of his efforts fighting the Florida Seminoles. Shortly after the Mexican War, he was promoted to captain while stationed in California. During the Civil War, Ord served as brigadier general in the U. S. Army, commanding several different corps, including the Thirteenth, Eighth, and Eighteenth. Following the war, he assumed command of the military departments of California and Texas as well as the Fourth Military District. Additionally, Ord directed the construction of Fort Sam Houston while stationed in San Antonio, Texas.
Cutrer, Thomas W. Ord, Edward Otho Cresap. Handbook of Texas Online . Accessed July 27, 2011. http://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/online/articles/for01 .
From the guide to the Ord, E. O. C. Item 70-024., undated, (Dolph Briscoe Center for American History, The University of Texas at Austin)
Born to James Ord and Rebecca Ruth Cresap in Cumberland, Maryland, Edward Otho Cresap (E. O. C.) Ord (1818-1883) enrolled in the West Point Military Academy in 1835.
Ord was appointed a second lieutenant in the Third Artillery Regiment following his graduation in 1839, and was promoted to first lieutenant in 1841 as a result of his efforts fighting the Florida Seminoles. Shortly after the Mexican War, he was promoted to captain while stationed in California. During the Civil War, Ord served as brigadier general in the U. S. Army, commanding several different corps, including the Thirteenth, Eighth, and Eighteenth. Following the war, he assumed command of the military departments of California and Texas as well as the Fourth Military District. Additionally, Ord directed the construction of Fort Sam Houston while stationed in San Antonio, Texas.
From the description of Ord, E. O. C., Item, undated (University of Texas Libraries). WorldCat record id: 754848455
Edward Otho Cresap Ord, born in Cumberland, Maryland in 1818, descended from a family of military forebears. His mathematical ability early won for him an appointment to West Point, from which he graduated in 1839. For his first assignment, with the third artillery, he fought the Seminole Indians in Florida in 1840. In 1847 he was sent around the Horn to California, where he aided in maintaining order in Monterey, was made a captain in 1850, and in 1854 married Mary Mercer Thompson. From 1850 he participated in the coast survey, working mainly in the vicinity of San Pedro, California. He led a successful campaign against the Rogue River Indians of Oregon in 1856, and later against the Spokane Indians of Washington.
At the beginning of the Civil War, Ord was stationed at the San Francisco Presidio, He was soon ordered east, defended Washington, D. C. from November 1861 to May 1862, and then headed the Army of Tennessee, taking part in the battle at Iuka, Mississippi. He was wounded while driving back Confederate troops at Hatchie. From June to October 1863, he led the Army of Western Louisiana. In March 1864 he campaigned against Staunton, Virginia and later led operations against Richmond. He was again wounded at the capture of Fort Harrison. He commanded the Army of the James and the Department of North Carolina from January 8, 1865, and actively assisted in the battle of Petersburg, Virginia.
After the war, Ord was sent to various posts - Ohio, Arkansas, California, and Texas. He was retired with the rank of major general in 1880, and while on his way from New York to accept a position as engineer for the construction of a railroad in Mexico, fell ill with yellow fever, dying at Havana, Cuba, when taken ashore, on July 22, 1883.
From the guide to the Edward Otho Cresap Ord Papers, 1850-1883, (The Bancroft Library)
- 1818 : Born Maryland
- 1835 - 39 : Cadet, Military Academy
- 1839, July 1 : 2nd Lt., 3rd Artillery
- 1839 - 42 : Florida War against Seminole Indians
- 1841, July 1 : 1st Lt., 3rd Artillery
- 1842 - 44 : Ft. Macon, North Carolina
- 1845 - 46 : Coast Survey
- 1846 : Recruiting Service
- 1846 - 47 : Voyage to California
- 1847 - 48 : Mexican War--serving in California
- 1847 - 50 : Monterey, California
- 1850, Sept. 7 : Capt., 3rd Artillery
- 1851 - 52 : Ft. Independence, Massachusetts
- 1852 - 55 : Coast Survey
- 1855 : Benicia, California
- 1855 : Yakima Expedition
- 1856 : Benicia, California
- 1856 : Rogue River Expedition action of Mackanootney Villages and Chefeco Creek
- 1856 - 58 : Benicia, California
- 1858 : Ft. Miller, California frontier duty
- 1858 : Spokane Expedition combat of Four Lakes and Spokane Plain, skirmish of Spokane River
- 1859 : Ft. Monroe, Virginia (Artillery School for Practice)
- 1859 : On Harper's Ferry Expedition to suppress John Brown's Raid
- 1859 - 60 : Ft. Monroe, Virginia
- 1861 : Ft. Vancouver Washington frontier duty
- 186l : Benicia, California and San Francisco
- 1851 - 62 : In command of a brigade of the Army of the Potomac
- 1861, Sept. 14 : Brig. General, U.S. Volunteers
- 1861, Nov. 21 : Major, 4th Artillery
- 1861, Dec. 20 : In command of engaged troops at Drainsville, Virginia
- 1861, Dec. : Bvt. Lieut. Col. for gallant and meritorious service at Battle of Drainsville.
- 1862, May - 1862 June : In command of division in the Department of the Rappahannock
- 1862, May 2 : Major General, U.S. Volunteers
- 1862, June - 1862 Aug. : In command of Corinth, Mississippi
- 1862, Aug. - 1862 Sept. : In Major General Grant's operations in Mississippi, commanding left wing of army
- 1862, Sept. 19 : Battle of Iuka Bvt. Colonel for gallant and meritorious services
- 1862, Sept. - 1862 Oct. : In command of the District of Jackson, Tennessee
- 1862, Oct. 5 : Battle of the Hatchie, severely wounded while commanding
- 1862 - 63 : Military Commission investigating Gen. Buell's Campaign in Kentucky and Tennessee
- 1863, June - 1863 Oct. : In command of 13th Army Corps--engaged in Siege of Vicksburg, capture of Jackson
- 1864, Jan. - 1864 Feb. : Commanded 13th Army Corps in the Department of the Gulf
- 1864, April - 1864 July : Commanded troops in West Virginia
- 1864, July : Commanded 8th Army Corps and all troops in Middle Department
- 1864, July - 1864 Sept. : Commanded 18th Army Corps in operations against Richmond wounded in assault and capture of Ft. Harrison (Sept. 29)
- 1865, Jan. - 1865 Feb. : Commanded Department of Virginia and North Carolina
- 1865, Feb. - 1865 June : Commanded Department of Virginia engaged Siege of Petersburg, pursuit of Rebel Army to capitulation of Lee at Appomattox
- 1865, March 13 : Bvt. Brig. General for service at Battle of the Hatchie
- 1865, March 13 : Bvt. Major General U.S.A. for services in assault on Ft. Harrison
- 1865 - 66 : Commanded Department of the Ohio
- 1866 - 67 : Commanded Department of the Arkansas
- 1866, Sept. 1 : Mustered out of Volunteer Service
- 1867 - 68 : Commanded: Fourth Military District (Arkansas and Mississippi)
- 1868 - 71 : Commanded: Department of California
- 1871 - 75 : Commanded: Department of the Platte
- 1875 - 80 : Commanded: Department of Texas
- 1880, Dec. 6 : Retired from active service
- 1881, Jan. 28 : Major General
- 1883, July 22 : Died at Havana Cuba
From the guide to the Edward Otho Cresap Ord Letters, 1854-1885, (Stanford University. Libraries. Dept. of Special Collections and University Archives.)
Edward Otho Cresap Ord
About Major Edward Ord II
Edward Otho Cresap Ord, II (November 9, 1858 – April 4, 1923) was a United States Army Major who served with the 22nd Infantry Regiment during the Indian Wars, the Spanish𠄺merican War and the Philippine-American War. He helped direct relief work after the 1906 San Francisco earthquake. He was a military instructor, an expert linguist and spent time in painting and writing poetry. He was also an inventor who patented a new type of gold pan and different types of rifle and handgun sights.
Young Edward Ord was the eldest male of 15 children (13 lived past childhood) and was born at Benicia Barracks, San Francisco, now part of the Benicia Arsenal, Benicia, California on November 9, 1858. His father, the then Captain Edward Otho Cresap Ord (October 18, 1818 Maryland–July 22, 1883 in Havana, Cuba and buried on July 22, 1898 in Arlington Cemetery), married Mary Mercer Thompson (January 22, 1831 Virginia–July 15, 1894 San Antonio, Texas) on October 14, 1854. His father was a career military officer who was a hero in the Civil War and had served as a Major General of Volunteers. After the war, he reverted to being a Brigadier General in the Regular Army.
On August 2, 1870, the family was in San Francisco, California with seven children. Young Edward, the eldest son, lived with servants and was taught by tutors and in public schools. His life in the west was one of which his father was a senior military officer, a decorated Civil War hero and he was “his father’s son.” His life was privileged compared to others. As he grew up he watched both military officers and men show respect and courtesy to his parents. Later young Edward attended the public school in Omaha, Nebraska. He was appointed to the U.S. Naval Academy in 1876, but withdrew after his second year.
In 1879 he was appointed second lieutenant in the 22nd Infantry Regiment, U.S. Army.
By June 1880 his parents were in San Antonio, Bexar County, Texas. His father was the Commanding General of the Department of Texas. His father retired from the Army on December 6, 1880 after serving 41 years. His father began a second career that built the Mexican Southern Railroad from Texas to Mexico City. His family stayed in San Antonio.
In 1880, young Edward was stationed at Fort Mckavett, Menard, Texas. He married Mary Frances Norton (May 27, 1857–June 27, 1947) on November 10, 1879 in Bexar County. She was the daughter of Charles Gilman & Frances (Brown) Norton.
They had the following children:
Edward Ord, born September 1880 in Bexar County, Texas.
Harry Ord, born October 1881 in Bexar County, Texas.
Jules Garesche “Garry” Ord, born October 1886 in Colorado.
Ellen F. “Nellie” Ord, born October 1889 in Benecia Barracks, Solano, California.
Mary N. Ord, born October 1895 in Arkanas.
In July 1883, his father died in Havana, Cuba of yellow fever while enroute from Vera Cruz, Mexico to New York City. Young Edward was given leave for his father’s funeral at Arlington National Cemetery which was attended by many politicians and Army personnel.
His brother, Jules Garesche “Gary” (September 9, 1866–July 1, 1898), was a United States Army First Lieutenant who was killed in action after leading the charge of Buffalo Soldiers of the 10th U.S. Cavalry up San Juan Hill. History now records that “Gary” Ord was responsible for the "spontaneous" charge that took the San Juan Heights during the Spanish-American War in Cuba on July 1, 1898.
The 22nd Infantry Regiment coat of arms.Second Lieutenant Ord of the 22nd Infantry served in the Indian campaigns in Texas in 1880, and later commanded the Seminole Indian scouts in 1882 to about 1890. Since 1870, the U.S. Army invited Black Seminoles to return from Mexico to serve as army scouts for the United States. The Seminole Negro Indian Scouts (originally a black unit despite the name) played a lead role in the Texas Indian Wars of the 1870s. The scouts became famous for their tracking abilities and feats of endurance. Four men were awarded the Medal of Honor. They served as advance scouts for the commanding white officers and the all-black units known as the Buffalo Soldiers, with whom they were closely associated. After the close of the Texas Indian Wars, the scouts remained stationed at Fort Clark in Brackettville, Texas.
First Lieutenant Ord participated in the feared revolt of the Ghost Dancers supposedly led by Sitting Bull in mid-December 1891 and took part of patrols in Montana through the end of 1892 trying to keep the peace. This was during the time when Sitting Bull was killed by an Army officer.
Lieutenant Ord with the 22nd Infantry Regiment fought at Santiago July 3 to July 17, 1898. There he was promoted to Captain. After the war, Captain Ord remained in Cuba for nine months as interpreter on the staff of General Alexander R. Lawton. There he suffered from a mild case of yellow fever.
In late 1900 or early 1901, Captain Ord was sent to the Philippines from Benicia Barracks when Philippine rebellion broke out. He participated in battle at San Isidro then other battles during the Moro Rebellion on Mindanao and Jolo.
Ord, like his father would continue to suffer from yellow fever and its second phase. Unlike his father, he would live but require a long sabbatical from military service. He was forced to retire on October 10, 1903 due to the physical disabilities of yellow fever contracted in Cuba.
On April 18, 1906, just after the San Francico earthquake Ord was appointed a Special Police Officer by Mayor Eugene Schmitz and liasioned with Major General Adolphus Greely for relief work. He wrote a long letter to his mother on the 20th regarding Schmitz' "Shoot-to-Kill" Order and some spicable” behavior of certain soldiers of his former 22nd Regiment from the Presidio who were looting.
In 1908, he was the military instructor at St. Matthew's school in San Mateo, California and later at the University of Alabama. During this time period he continued his correspondence with Mexican leader Geronimo Trevino (1836), mostly about the health of Trevino's son Geronimo Trevino y Ord, but also discussing aspects of the Mexican Revolution until his friend’s death in 1914.
In 1915, Ord was a military aide on the staff of the governor of Arizona. He was also a liaison with Army unit that included his former regiment. He saw service on the Mexican border due to the rise of tension along the border following the Battle of Agua Prieta. This was where Pancho Villa sustained his greatest defeat and his units were disorganized and wandered around northern Mexico foraging for supplies. Desperate for food and fresh horses, Pancho Villa camped his army of an estimated 500 horsemen outside of Columbus, New Mexico on the Mexican side of the border in March 1916. On March 9, 1916, he invaded the United States for supplies and arms which resulted in the Battle of Columbus. Ord had been given the rank of Major and served Arizona well in organizing and arming militia units. No major raids across the border took place in Arizona.
As the result of his Arizona service, on June 3, 1916, Ord was advanced to the grade of major on the Army retired list. In early 1917, he returned to full active duty, serving at Big Bend, Texas Fort Sill, Oklahoma and Tuscaloosa, Alabama.
In December 1918, due to complications of his yellow fever sustained in Cuba, he retired due to ill health from the Army.
In 1920, Ord was residing in Oakland, Alameda, California. Ord was listed as an expert linguist and possessed exceptional artistic ability, devoting much of his leisure time to producing landscape & seascape paintings and to writing poetry.
Ord was also an inventor who patented a new type of gold pan and different weapon sights. He was a co-owner of several mines in Arizona, California, Mexico and Utah. Papers pertaining to the inventions of E.O.C. Ord II are in the special collections section of the Bancroft Library at the University of California, Berkeley. These include Ord’s patents, original drawings and diagrams, advertising material and instructions on use of the "Gold-Pan-Batea", an improved Gold Pan which recycled water. This led to the formation of the California Gold Pan Company and later of the Household Utilities Manufacturing Company. Papers include correspondence and business papers of mine holdings and interests in and around California, Arizona, Utah and Mexico. There are also three diaries 1) One by William Ord in 1869 of surveying and prospecting in California and Nevada. 2) Two by E.O.C. Ord II, from a prospecting trip to Inyo County, California in 1908-1909 and in 1910 to Zero Mine in Arizona. This collection also includes a sketch of Bradshaw Fissure drawn by Ord.
Ord was a Roman Catholic by religion. He died at Eagle Rock, Los Angeles, California on April 4, 1923.
Military career 1 [ edit | edit source ]
Indian Wars [ edit | edit source ]
The 22nd Infantry Regiment coat of arms.
Second Lieutenant Ord of the 22nd Infantry served in the Indian campaigns in Texas in 1880, and later commanded the Seminole Indian scouts in 1882 to about 1890. Since 1870, the U.S. Army invited Black Seminoles to return from Mexico to serve as army scouts for the United States. The Seminole Negro Indian Scouts (originally a black unit despite the name) played a lead role in the Texas Indian Wars of the 1870s. The scouts became famous for their tracking abilities and feats of endurance. Four men were awarded the Medal of Honor. They served as advance scouts for the commanding white officers and the all-black units known as the Buffalo Soldiers, with whom they were closely associated. After the close of the Texas Indian Wars, the scouts remained stationed at Fort Clark in Brackettville, Texas. Γ]
First Lieutenant Ord participated in the feared revolt of the Ghost Dancers supposedly led by Sitting Bull in mid-December 1891 and took part in patrols in Montana trying to keep the peace through the end of 1892. This was during the time when Sitting Bull was killed by an Army officer. Δ] Ε]
Spanish–American War [ edit | edit source ]
Lieutenant Ord fought at Santiago in Cuba during the Spanish-American War with the 22nd Infantry Regiment from July 3 to July 17, 1898. There he was promoted to captain. After the war, Captain Ord remained in Cuba for nine months as interpreter on the staff of General Alexander R. Lawton. There he suffered from a mild case of yellow fever. ΐ]
Philippine-American War [ edit | edit source ]
In late 1900 or early 1901, Captain Ord was sent to the Philippines from Benicia Barracks when the Philippine rebellion broke out. He participated in battle at San Isidro then other battles during the Moro Rebellion on Mindanao and Jolo. ΐ]
Ord, like his father would continue to suffer from yellow fever and its second phase. Unlike his father, he would live but require a long sabbatical from military service. He was forced to retire on October 10, 1903 due to the physical disabilities of yellow fever contracted in Cuba. ΐ]
Civil War service [ edit | edit source ]
At the outbreak of the Civil War in April 1861, Ord was serving as Captain of Battery C, 3rd U.S. Artillery, and also as post commander at the U.S. Army's Fort Vancouver in Washington Territory. On May 7, 1861, Ord led two companies of the 3rd Artillery from Fort Vancouver to San Francisco. After relocating to the east, Ord's first assignment was as a brigade commander in the Pennsylvania Reserves. In this capacity, he figured prominently in the Battle of Dranesville in the fall of 1861.
On May 3, 1862, Ord was promoted to the rank of major general of volunteers and, after briefly serving in the Department of the Rappahannock, was assigned command of the 2nd Division of the Army of the Tennessee. Maj. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant sent Ord with a detachment of two divisions along with Maj. Gen. William S. Rosecrans's forces to intercept Sterling Price at the town of Iuka. Due to a possible acoustic shadow Ord's forces were never engaged and Rosecrans fought alone. Ord likewise missed the fighting at Corinth but engaged the Confederate forces in their retreat at the Battle of Hatchie's Bridge. There he was seriously wounded and had to leave field command only for a short time. When Grant relieved Maj. Gen. John A. McClernand from his command, Ord was conveniently situated to assume command of the XIII Corps during the final days of the Siege of Vicksburg.
After the fall of Vicksburg, Ord remained in command of the XIII Corps in the Department of the Gulf. In 1864, he was transferred back to the Eastern Theater to assume command of the XVIII Corps. His forces were present during the Battle of the Crater but did not actively participate in the fighting. In the fall of 1864 he was seriously wounded in the attack on Fort Harrison and did not return to action until January 1865. In March 1865, during a prisoner exchange in Virginia, Ord spoke with Confederate General James Longstreet. During their conversation, the subject of peace talks came up. Ord suggested that a first step might be for Lee and Grant to have a meeting. General Longstreet carried this idea back to General Lee, who wrote to Grant about the possibility of a "military convention" in the interest of finding what Lee called "a satisfactory adjustment of the present unhappy difficulties". Grant forwarded Lee's proposal to President Abraham Lincoln, with a request for instructions. In the end, Lincoln directed Grant to decline all such offers unless it was for the explicit purpose of accepting the surrender of Lee's army. Β]
It was at this time, during the spring of 1865, that Ord's career peaked. He was assigned command of the Army of the James during the Appomattox Campaign. Maj. Gen. John Gibbon's corps of Ord's army played a significant role in the breakthrough at Petersburg. On April 9, he led a forced march to Appomattox Court House to relieve Maj. Gen. Philip H. Sheridan's cavalry and force Lee's surrender. General Sherman said that he "had always understood that [Ord's] skillful, hard march the night before was one of the chief causes of Lee's surrender." Γ]
General Ord was present at the McLean house when Lee surrendered, and is often pictured in paintings of this event. When the surrender ceremony was complete, Ord purchased as a souvenir, for $40, the marble-topped table at which Lee had sat. It now resides in the Chicago Historical Society's Civil War Room.
After Abraham Lincoln's assassination on April 14, 1865, many in the North, including Ulysses S. Grant, wanted strong retribution on the Southern states. Grant called upon Ord to find out if the assassination conspiracy extended beyond Washington, D.C. Ord's investigation determined the Confederate government was not involved with the assassination plot. This helped greatly to quench the call for revenge on the former Confederate states and people. Δ]
Edward Otho Cresap Ord (October 18, 1818 – July 22, 1883)
Edward Otho Cresap Ord was born in Cumberland, Maryland, on October 18, 1818. He was the second of twelve children born to James and Rebecca Ruth (Cresap) Ord. Ord's father was a United States naval officer, and his mother was the daughter of Daniel Cresap, an American officer during the Revolutionary War. In 1819, the Ord family moved to Washington, DC, where young Edward was educated.
An excellent student of mathematics, Ord received an appointment to the United States Military Academy at the age of sixteen years in 1835. Among his classmates were Henry Halleck and Edward R.S. Canby, both of whom went on to become general officers in the U.S. Army during the American Civil War. Ord graduated from the Academy on July 1, 1839, placing seventeenth in his class of thirty-one cadets.
Following his graduation, Ord was commissioned as a second lieutenant with the 3rd U.S. Artillery and sent to Florida, where he participated in the Second Seminole War (1835– 1842). On July 1, 1841, Ord was promoted to first lieutenant. At the conclusion of the campaign against the Seminoles, Ord was stationed at several forts along the East Coast, until he was sent to California in 1846. He arrived in time to serve on garrison duty at Monterey during the Mexican-American War (April 25, 1846–February 2, 1848).
While serving in California, Ord took on work as a surveyor to supplement his military pay. In 1849, he created one of the first maps of Los Angeles. In 1850, Ord was transferred to the Pacific Northwest, where he worked on a coastal survey. While serving there, he was promoted to captain on September 7, 1850. Ord returned to garrison duty at Benicia, California in 1852. On October 14, 1854, he married Mary Mercer Thompson, the daughter of a California judge, in San Francisco. Their union, which lasted for twenty-nine years, produced eight children. Ord spent the next four years in the West, including expeditions to Oregon and Washington to campaign against American Indians.
In 1859, Ord returned to the East, where he served on garrison duty at Fort Monroe, Virginia. When John Brown raided the federal arsenal at Harper’s Ferry, Virginia in October of that year, U.S. Secretary of War John B. Floyd, dispatched Ord on the expedition to suppress the rebellion.
When the Civil War erupted Ord was back on the West Coast serving as commander of Fort Vancouver in Washington Territory. He was soon ordered to San Francisco and then back east. Promoted to brigadier-general of volunteers on September 14, 1861, Ord joined the Army of the Potomac as a brigade commander defending Washington, DC. On November 21, 1861, he was promoted to major in the regular army and assigned to the 4th U.S. Artillery. One month later, troops under Ord's command defeated several Confederate regiments led by Brigadier-General J.E.B. Stuart at the Battle of Dranesville (December 20, 1861).
After briefly commanding a division in the Department of the Rappahannock, Ord was transferred to the Western Theater and promoted to the rank of major general of volunteers with Major General Ulysses S. Grant's Army of the Tennessee on May 2, 1862. In mid-September 1862, Grant dispatched Ord and eight thousand soldiers to attack Major General Stering Price's three thousand-man Army of the West, encamped at Iuka, Mississippi, from the northwest. At the same time, Grant ordered Major General William S. Rosecrans and nine thousand soldiers to attack Price from the southwest. Grant accompanied Ord's headquarters during the expedition. Ord's force reached Iuka on the evening of September 18, ahead of Rosecrans. Rosecrans telegraphed Grant that he would not be in position to attack until the next day. Grant and Ord agreed to hold off their assault until they heard the sounds of Rosecrans' engagement with the enemy. Rosecrans resumed his march at 4:30 a.m. on September 19 and was within two miles of Iuka by the afternoon. At that point, Price decided to attack first. The ensuing battle lasted approximately three hours and ended when darkness fell. Realizing how precarious his situation had become, Price decided to evacuate Iuka overnight, using a road that Rosecrans had failed to secure.
Although the Federals captured Iuka, their victory was hollow because of the failure to coordinate the Union attack and to involve Ord's forces enabled Price's army to escape. After the battle, controversy swirled regarding why Ord's troops never entered the fray. Grant and Ord claimed that unusual weather conditions, marked by high winds, prevented them from hearing the sounds of the battle to their south. Some Union soldiers later swore that there were no high winds that day, and others stated that they not only heard the battle but that they could see smoke on the horizon. Despite the fact that Ord's troops did not engage, he was later brevetted to colonel in the regular army for "Gallant and Meritorious Conduct" in the Battle of Iuka.
On October 3, 1862, General Earl Van Dorn's Confederate Army of Tennessee mounted a spirited attack against Rosecrans's garrison at Corinth, Mississippi, forcing the Yankees back toward the center of the city. As nightfall approached, Van Dorn called off the assault, confident that he could finish the job in the morning. Rosecrans regrouped his soldiers overnight and drove the Rebels back the next day. Realizing that the tide had turned, Van Dorn halted the assault and withdrew. Because his soldiers were exhausted, Rosecrans chose not to pursue the retreating Rebels until the next day. On the same day that Van Dorn withdrew (October 4), Grant had dispatched two separate detachments, led by Ord and Major General Stephen A. Hurlbut, to reinforce Rosecrans. On the morning of October 5, the two forces combined, with Ord assuming overall command. Hoping to catch Van Dorn’s retreating forces in a pincer between Ord and Rosecrans, Grant ordered Ord to cut off the Confederate escape route across the Hatchie River at Davis Bridge.
Sensing the seriousness of his situation, Van Dorn ordered his men to hold at Davis Bridge, while he searched for an alternate route across the river, which he found at Crum’s Mill to the south. Ord’s forces engaged the lead elements of the Confederate force and drove them back to Davis Bridge. During the action, Ord was wounded, and Hurlbut assumed command. The Federals eventually drove the Rebels across Davis Bridge, but not before the bulk of Van Dorn’s army crossed the river at Crum’s Mill and escaped back to Holly Springs, Mississippi.
Due to the severe nature of Ord's injuries, he was on sick leave from October 6 to Nov. 24, 1862. After serving in some administrative positions, Ord returned to combat duty, on June 18, 1863, as commander of the 13th Army Corps in time to participate in the late phases of the Siege of Vicksburg. Following the fall of Vicksburg, Ord participated in the capture of Jackson, Mississippi on July 16, 1863. He then moved on to Louisiana, where he served with the Army of Western Louisiana from August to October, before going on sick leave again from October to December. On January 8, 1864, Ord returned to active duty as commander of the 13th Army Corps, in the Department of the Gulf, until February 20, when he was ordered east.
After serving briefly in the Shenandoah Valley, Ord was given command of the 18th Army Corps on July 21, 1864 during General Grant's Petersburg Campaign. On the night of September 28-29, Ord led the 18th Corps across the James River at Aiken's Landing, Virginia. His orders were to capture Fort Harrison, to destroy the Confederate bridges near Chaffin’s Bluff, and then, to assault Richmond from the southeast. On September 29, Ord's soldiers began their assault on Fort Harrison. Led by Brigadier-General George Stannard's division, the Yankees rushed the lightly defended Confederate position, sending the eight hundred Rebel defenders scurrying for shelter behind a secondary line to their rear. The triumph, however, was costly all three Union brigade commanders were killed or wounded during the action. When Ord personally took charge, he too was seriously wounded. Devoid of leadership, the Federal assault soon bogged down. Alarmed by the initial Yankee successes, Robert E. Lee redeployed ten thousand reinforcements to the Petersburg defenses overnight. On the next day, he ordered an unsuccessful counterattack to retake Fort Harrison. Reaching an apparent stalemate, both sides re-entrenched in their new positions eight miles outside of Richmond, where they remained until Lee evacuated the Confederate capital in April 1865.
After the Battle of Chaffin’s Farm and New Market Heights, Ord went on sick leave for nine weeks to recover from his wounds. On December 3, 1864, the U.S. War Department issued General Orders No. 297, reorganizing the Army of the James. The 10th and 18th Army Corps were discontinued. White infantry troops from those two corps were consolidated to form the new 24th Army Corps commanded by Ord. Black troops from the two discontinued corps formed the new 25th Army Corps commanded by Major General Godfrey Weitzel.
Later in December, Ulysses S. Grant appealed to President Lincoln and Secretary of War Stanton for authorization to replace Major General Benjamin F. Butler as commander of the Army of the James. On January 7, 1865, the Adjutant-General's Office issued General Order Number 1, which stated in part that, "By direction of the President of the United States, Major General Benjamin F. Butler is relieved from the command of the Department of North Carolina and Virginia." On the same day, U.S. Army Headquarters issued special orders appointing Major General Edward Ord to temporary command of the department and of the Army of the James.
Ord commanded the Army of the James throughout the Petersburg Campaign and the Appomattox Campaign. When Richmond, Virginia fell on April 2, 1865, black soldiers of the 24th Corps of the Army of the James were among the first Union troops to occupy the city on the following day. At Appomattox, the 25th Corps of the Army of the James cut off the Army of Northern Virginia's last avenue of escape, prompting Robert E. Lee's surrender on April 9, 1865.
As the Civil War drew to a close, Ord was brevetted to the rank of brigadier-general in the regular army for gallant and meritorious services at the battle of the Hatchie's Bridge and to major general in the regular army for gallant and meritorious services at the assault of Fort Harrison. Both promotions were effective to March 13, 1865.
At the conclusion of hostilities, the U.S. War Department issued General Orders No. 118 on June 27, 1865, which divided the United States into military districts and divisions. The order placed Ord in command of the Department of the Ohio, headquartered in Detroit. Ord assumed his new command on July 5, 1865 and served until August 6, 1866. During his tenure with the Department of the Ohio, Ord was promoted to lieutenant colonel in the regular army on December 11, 1865 and to brigadier-general in the regular army on July 26, 1866. On August 29, 1866, Ord was assigned to command the Department of Arkansas. Three days later, on September 1, 1866, Ord was mustered out of the volunteer army.
Ord remained in the U.S. Army for the next fourteen years, holding various commands in the West, including the Fourth Military District (March 26, 1867 to January 9, 1868), the Department of California (April 24, 1868 to December 4, 1871), the Department of the Platte (December 11 1871 to April 6, 1875), and the Department of Texas (April 11, 1875 to December 6, 1880).
Ord retired from the army on December 6, 1880 at the age of sixty-two years. The next year, Congress enacted special legislation promoting him to the rank of major general, effective January 28, 1881.
Following his retirement, Ord accepted a position as a civil engineer with the Mexican Southern Railroad. Upon assuming his duties in Mexico, Ord contracted yellow fever. While travelling back to the United States, he was taken ashore at Havana, Cuba, where he died on July 22, 1883, at the age of sixty-five years. Ord's remains are buried at Arlington National Cemetery.