Situla AK-140 - History

Situla AK-140 - History

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(AK-140: dp. 14,360; 1. 441'6"; b. 56'11" dr. 28'4", s. 12.5 k.; cpl. 276; a. 1 5", 1 3", 2 40mm.; cf. EC2-S-C1)

Situla (AK-140, ex John Whiteaker MC hull 1590) was laid down on 9 January 1943 by the Oregon Shipbuilding Co., Portland, Oreg.; launched on 7 February 1943 - sponsored by Miss Anne Whiteaker, and commissioned on 14 January 1944, Lt. Comdr. Dewey F. Anderegg, USNR, in command.

Situla was accepted from the War Shipping Administration on a bare-boat basis on 2 December 1943 converted to a cargo ship at the San Francisco Navy Yard; fitted out at San Pedro; held her shakedown cruise from San Diego on 31 January 1944; and then returned to San Diego on 11 February for further routing. On the 17th, she sailed for Kahului, Hawaii discharged her cargo, and moved over to Pearl Harbor on 29 February.

The cargo ship sailed for the Marshall Islands on 21 March and operated from Majuro until 11 May. She returned to Pearl Harbor from 22 May to 19 June and then sailed for Eniwetok, via Kwajalein, to deliver cargo. From 26 September to 21 November, Situla plied between Eniwetok, Kwajalein, Saipan, and Guam. Following yard availability at Pearl Harbor from 21 November to 10 December 1944, the AK returned to her island resupply duty until sailing for Portland Oregon, on 5 April 1945 for drydocking and overhaul.

On 30 May, Situla stood out of Portland with a load of army cargo for Guam. She was diverted to Sadpan and loaded Army Air Force belly tanks destined for Ie Shima, Okinawa Gunto. The ship arrived at Ie Shima on 10 August and was anchored there when the war ended. She remained there until 7 October when she sailed for Yokohama, Japan, arriving on 12 October. On the 30th, Situla sailed for San Francisco, via Saipan, with all available passenger space filled by Army and Navy discharges.

Situla remained on the west coast from 29 November 1945 until 23 April 1946 when she was ordered back to Pearl Harbor for photographic services and layup. She was decommissioned at the Naval Shipyard there on 23 April 1946. The cargo ship returned to San Francisco on 28 November 1947 for disposal. She was stripped and turned over to the Maritime Commission at Suisun Bay on 30 December 1947. Situla was struck from the Navy list on 22 January 1948.

San Francisco Navy Yard

The San Francisco Naval Shipyard was a United States Navy shipyard in San Francisco, California, located on 638 acres (258 ha) of waterfront at Hunters Point in the southeast corner of the city. Originally, Hunters Point was a commercial shipyard established in 1870, consisting of two graving docks purchased and upbuilt in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century by the Union Iron Works company, later owned by the Bethlehem Shipbuilding Company and named Hunters Point Drydocks, located at Potrero Point.

The J. Paul Getty Museum

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Unknown 21 × 19.8 cm (8 1/4 × 7 13/16 in.) 71.AC.226.1

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Currently on view at: Getty Villa, Gallery 110, The Etruscans

Object Details

Object Number:

21 × 19.8 cm (8 1/4 × 7 13/16 in.)

Alternate Title:

Two-Handled Bucket (Display Title)

Object Type:
Object Description

The situla has a slightly concave base, steep walls that flare out and then angle in sharply at the shoulder, and a wide mouth with a vertical lip. A thickened rim was formed by folding the wall of the mouth over a copper alloy wire and crimping. On either side is a handle plate, which is affixed to the exterior of the mouth by means of two rivets. The rectangular plates have a pair of vertical rings projecting above the rim. Two twisted bail handles with S-curved terminals are looped through the vertical rings. The body of the vessel is composed of three hammered sheets of copper-tin alloy: one forms the base, and two sheets are riveted together to form the walls. Pan-head rivets have been applied at close intervals to attach the base to the lower wall a vertical series of pan-head and countersunk flat rivets fasten the two wall sheets at the lap-joint under the handle-plates. Non-structural pan-head rivets have been applied vertically at the center of the vessel's front and back sides to create a symmetrical decorative effect. Hanging from the s-curved ends of each handle is a double-spiral pendant. Double-spiral pendants dangle from pairs of serpentine hooks, which are attached to the center front and back rim, and which also served as rests for the lowered handles. The body of the situla has been restored at numerous points two of the original eight spiral pendants are missing: one from the base of a handle and another from the side. Typical of the Villanovan and early Etruscan culture, the pail or bucket shape is known as a situla. This example is distinctive for its delicately twisted handles and ornamental pendant spirals. Its steep walls are embellished with spherical rivets, a treatment favored by Iron Age metalworkers. Situlae were all-purpose containers used for domestic tasks and sometimes also served as burial urns. This type may have originated in Vulci, a famous bronze-working center. Rich metal deposits in the hills of northern Etruria supplied a thriving industry that produced armor and weaponry, jewelry and belts, and household utensils.

Related Works
Related Works

Royal Athena Galleries, sold to the J. Paul Getty Museum, 1971.


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The Basilewsky Situla

  • Including mask head height: 17.8cm
  • At top diameter: 12.2cm
  • At bottom diameter: 10.3cm
  • Weight: 0.92kg
  • AVXIT EZECHIE TER Q(U)INOS Q(U)I PATER ANNOS + OTONI AVGVSTO PLVRIMA LVSTRA LEGAT. CERNVVS ARTE CVPIT MEMORARI CESAR ALIPTES K (On the bottom band: For a different translation of the second sentence of the lower band see: H. Fillitz in Otto der Grosse: Magdeburg und Europa. Magdeburg, 2000, catalogue no. VI.2, p. 411. 'Ceasar be aware of the work of art and remember the aliptes (either translated as carver or translated as annointer i.e. the bishop who annoints the emperor at the coronation. It seems possible that the annointing bishop should be remembered in analogy to the situla in Milan which bears the inscription: Vates Ambrosi Gotfredus dat tibi Sancte -Vas veniente sacram spargendum Cesare Lypham (The bishop of Ambrosius , Gotfredus, gives you this vessel, holy Caesar, which shall be used to sprinkle at the entrance of the church.) In addition there are two other upper bands of inscriptions which contain lines from the fifth-centry book of the Hexameter rendering of the New Testament story by Coelius Sedulius)

Bought by Ferenc Pulszky in Florence. Then in the following collections: Spitzer, Aachen Dr. Chaffers (Sotheby's sale 17 February 1857) S. Attenborough, Basilewski, St Petersburg, Tsar Alexander III (1881-94), St Petersburg, and The Hermitage Museum, Leningrad.

Historical significance: The Basilewski situla stands out from the group of related ivories in the unusually high quality of its workmanship, and the great beauty of its compositions. Although it was strictly speaking a vessel used in the official liturgy, it encapsulates, however, the contemporary ideas of the Ottonian kingship, its aspiration to the Roman imperial past, and its connections with the church it is therefore a true imperial monument.

  • The Bible, The King James Version John 20:19-23
  • The Bible, The King James Version Matthew 28:16-20
  • The Bible, The King James Version Mark 16:14-18
  • The Bible, The King James Version Luke 24:36-49

A situla is a bucket designed to hold holy water. Ivory situlae are very rare and were apparently only made for special ceremonial occasions. Among the few situale which survive, this example stands out in the unusually high quality of its workmanship, and the great beauty of its composition. It is carved with twelve scenes from the Passion of Christ arranged in two rows and was probably made around 980 for the visit of the German Holy Roman Emperor Otto II to Milan.

Three situlas from the Ottonian period have survived, one in Milan of about 979, the present, and one in Aachen of about 1000. Ivory situlas were made for special ceremonial occasions, such as an Imperial visit and used to remain in the church visited by the Emperor. The situla and a relief of Christ enthroned with the Emperor Otto II, his wife and child, both in Milan relate stylistically to the present situla. The relationship of the two situlae and the relief suggests that they were all made in the same place (although not necessarily in the same workshop) and Milan is the most likely centre of origin.

  • P. Williamson (ed.), European Sculpture at the Victoria and Albert Museum, London, 1996, p. 77.
  • Mamat, U. Studien zu Mailandischen Elfenbeinschuifzenei der Ottonischen Zeit. PhD thesis. University of Vienna. 1968.
  • Lasko. Ars Sacra, 800-1200. London. Yale University Press. 1994. p.93-4
  • Little, Charles, T. The Magdeburg Ivory Group: A Tenth century New testament and narrative cycle. New York University. Ph D. 1977. p.10, pp.185-190
  • Little, Charles T. 'From Milan to Magdeburg: The place of the Magdeburg ivories in Ottonian Art' in Atti del 10 Congresso Internazionale di Studi sull' alto medioevo. Spoleto. 1986. pp.447-8.
  • Peroni, A. 'Nota sulla Situla di Gotofredo' in miscellanea Augusto Campana'. Medioevo e Umanesims. 45. 1981. pp.561-74.
  • Peroni, A. 'Magdeburg e Milano: precisazioni e questioni aperte sugli avori ottoniani milanes e sul ciborio di S. Ambrogio' in Ullmann, E. ed. Der magdeburger Dom Ottonisches Eründung und Stautischer Newban. Leipzig. 1988. pp.82-87.
  • Ribbert, M. Untersuchungen zu den Elfenbeinarbeiten der älteren Metzer Gruppe. Bonn. 1992. p.286, pl.190.
  • Fillitz, h. Die Gruppe der Magdeburger Elfenbeintafeln. Mainz. 2001. pp.5-6. figs. 5a and b.
  • Crivello, F and Grazzini, S. 'Aliptes est, ut quidam dieunt, sculptor' . 'Osservazioni sulla situla Basilewsky'. Annali della Sculoa Normale superiori di Pisa. IV/ I. 1999. pp.199-220.
  • Pevonii, A. 'Die Kunst Mailands und Obesitaiens vin 10. Jahrhundert: Elfenbein Plastik, Goldschuniedekunst' Zeitschuift des pleintschren Veuaiys für khugtwisseuschaft. 58. 2004. pp.197-223.
  • Trusted, Marjorie. ed. The Making of Sculpture. The materials and techniques of European Sculpture. London. 2007. p.117, pl. 211.
  • Williamson, Paul. Medieval Ivory Carvings. Early Christian to Romanesque. London, V&A Publishing, Victoria and Albert Museum, 2010, pp. 212-219, 53
  • Mende, Ursula. Die Mittelalterlichen Bronzen im Germanischen Nationalmuseum. Bestandskatalog. Nuremberg: Germanischen Nationalmuseums, 2013. ISBN 9783936688627
  • Williamson, Paul, The NACF and the National Collection of Sculpture. In National Art-Collections Fund Review,1986, pp. 79-80, fig. 3.
  • Williamson, Paul, and Motture, Peta (eds.), Medieval and Renaissance Treasures, Victoria and Albert Museum, London, 2010

USS Situla (AK-140)

USS Situla (AK-140) was a Crater-class cargo ship in the service of the United States Navy in World War II. It was the only ship of the Navy to have borne this name. It is named after the star Situla.

Situla (AK-140), formerly liberty ship SS John Whiteaker (MC hull 1590), was laid down on 9 January 1943 by the Oregon Shipbuilding Corporation, Portland, Oregon launched on 7 February 1943 sponsored by Miss Anne Whiteaker and commissioned on 14 January 1944, Lt. Comdr. Dewey F. Anderegg, USNR, in command.

Situla was accepted from the War Shipping Administration on a bare-boat basis on 2 December 1943 converted to a cargo ship at the San Francisco Navy Yard fitted out at San Pedro, California held her shakedown cruise from San Diego on 31 January 1944 and then returned to San Diego on 11 February for further routing. On 17 February, she sailed for Kahului, Hawaii discharged her cargo and moved over to Pearl Harbor on 29 February.

The cargo ship sailed for the Marshall Islands on 21 March and operated from Majuro until 11 May. She returned to Pearl Harbor from 22 May to 19 June and then sailed for Eniwetok, via Kwajalein, to deliver cargo. From 26 September to 21 November, Situla plied between Eniwetok, Kwajalein, Saipan, and Guam. Following yard availability at Pearl Harbor from 21 November to 10 December 1944, the AK returned to her island resupply duty until sailing for Portland, Oregon, on 5 April 1945 for drydocking and overhaul.

On 30 May, Situla stood out of Portland with a load of army cargo for Guam. She was diverted to Saipan and loaded Army Air Force belly tanks destined for Ie Shima, Okinawa Gunto. The ship arrived at Ie Shima on 10 August and was anchored there when the war ended. She remained there until 7 October when she sailed for Yokohama, Japan, arriving on 12 October. On the 30 October, Situla sailed for San Francisco, via Saipan, with all available passenger space filled by Army and Navy discharges.

Situla remained on the west coast from 29 November 1945 until 23 April 1946 when she was ordered back to Pearl Harbor for photographic services and layup. She was decommissioned at the Naval Shipyard there on 23 April 1946. The cargo ship returned to San Francisco on 28 November 1947 for disposal. She was stripped and turned over to the Maritime Commission at Suisun Bay on 30 December 1947. Situla was struck from the Navy list on 22 January 1948.

یواس‌اس سیتولا (ای‌کی-۱۴۰)

یواس‌اس سیتولا (ای‌کی-۱۴۰) (به انگلیسی: USS Situla (AK-140) ) یک کشتی بود که طول آن ۴۴۱ فوت ۶ اینچ (۱۳۴٫۵۷ متر) بود. این کشتی در سال ۱۹۴۳ ساخته شد.

یواس‌اس سیتولا (ای‌کی-۱۴۰)
آب‌اندازی: ۹ ژانویه ۱۹۴۳
آغاز کار: ۷ فوریه ۱۹۴۳
به دست آورده شده: ۲ دسامبر ۱۹۴۳
اعزام: ۱۴ ژانویه ۱۹۴۴
مشخصات اصلی
وزن: 4,023 t.(lt) 11,565 t.(fl)
درازا: ۴۴۱ فوت ۶ اینچ (۱۳۴٫۵۷ متر)
پهنا: ۵۶ فوت ۱۱ اینچ (۱۷٫۳۵ متر)
آبخور: ۲۸ فوت ۴ اینچ (۸٫۶۴ متر)
سرعت: 12 kts.

این یک مقالهٔ خرد کشتی یا قایق است. می‌توانید با گسترش آن به ویکی‌پدیا کمک کنید.

The astrological influences of the constellation Aquarius

Legend: Aquarius is said to represent Ganymedes, son of Callirhoe, the most beautiful of mortals, who was carried to heaven by an eagle to act as cupbearer to Jupiter. According to other accounts, however, it is Deucalion, son of Prometheus, who was translated to heaven in memory of the mighty deluge from which only he and Pyrrha were saved. [Robson , p.28.]

Influences: Ptolemy makes the following observations: "The stars in the shoulders of Aquarius operate like Saturn and Mercury those in the left hand and in the face do the same: those in the thighs have an influence more consonant with that of Mercury, and in a less degree with that of Saturn: those in the stream of water have power similar to that of Saturn, and moderately to that of Jupiter." By the Kabalists Aquarius is associated with the Hebrew letter Nun and the 14th Tarot Trump "Temperance," over which virtue the constellation appears to have some rule. The beauty of Ganymedes and his flight through the air also link it to the ideas of personal charm and aviation with which it is certainly connected. [Robson , p.28-29.]

The astrological influences of the constellation Aquarius given by Manilius:

"The youthful Waterman, who from upturned pot pours forth his stream, likewise bestows skills which have affinity with himself: how to divine springs under the ground and conduct them above, to transform the flow of water so as to spray the very stars, to mock the sea with man-made shores at the bidding of luxury, to construct different types of artificial lakes and rivers," and to support aloft for domestic use streams that come from afar. Beneath this sign there dwell a thousand crafts regulated by water. Why, water will even set in motion the face of heaven and the starry habitations, and will cause the skies to move in a novel rotation. Never will the sons of Aquarius grow tired of the works which come in the wake of water and follow springs. They who issue from this sign are a gentle sort and a lovable breed, and no meanness of heart is theirs: they are prone to suffer losses: and of riches they have neither need nor surfeit. Even thus doth the urn’s stream flow" [Astronomica, Manilius, 1st century AD, book 4, p.243.]

Biography Philip Frank Kantz

Philip Frank Kantz aka Philip F. Kantz aka Philip Kantz aka Phil Kantz, born Harlem Hospital, 506 Lenox Avenue, New York, New York 10037 14 July 1922 died Morrisania Hospital, 50 East 168th Street, Bronx, New York 10452-7929 4 October 1968.

Graduate of Incarnation School, 570 West 175th Street, New York, New York 10033-8026 and The High School of Commerce, 155 West 65th Street, New York, New York 10023-6905.

The unusual name "Frank" was chosen to honor "a family friend", otherwise unknown and forgotten.

He grew up surrounded by loving parents and sisters, supportive relatives sadly forgotten, magnificent teachers and accompanied by his felinicidal and bibulous dog Scout.

On 2 April 1941 he enlisted in the USMC and was given SN 308242.

On 8 November 1941 he sailed aboard the USS PORTER DD356 from Long Beach, California to TDy at Sixth Defense Battalion, Fleet Marine Barracks, Navy Yard, Pearl Harbor, Hawaii along with future combat buddies

PVT Grover Cleveland Fennell, Jr. (1922-1955)

PVT Philip F. Kantz (1922-1968)

PVT George Lulek (1919-1992)

PVT Carl R. Reisenweaver (1923-1976)

PVT LeRoy D. Werley, Jr. (1919-2007)

PVT James T. Whitefield (1922-1997)

The orders were signed by LtCdr Frederick Irving Entwistle (1899-1977)

On 29 November 1941 Phil sailed on the USS REGULUS AK14 from Honolulu to Midway with:

SGT Thomas Jefferson Eley, Sr. (1917-2005)

SGT Johny Blondel Joiner (1914-2010)

CPL Elwin D. Lipscomb (1919-2002)

PVT Philip F. Kantz (1922-1968)

PVT Carl R. Reisenweaver (1923-1976)

PVT Grover Cleveland Fennell, Jr. (1922-1955)

PVT George Lulek (1919-1992)

PVT LeRoy D. Werley, Jr. (1919-2007)

PVT James T. Whitefield (1922-1997)

//NOTE: Daniel Grace USMC (Ret.) was mentioned in John Walter Lord, Jr.'s (1917-2002) "Incredible Victory: The Battle of Midway" (1980) and thanked for his personal recollections while serving in the Sixth Defense Battalion.//

USMC 1941-1945 Pacific Theatre (Battles of Midway, Tarawa, and perhaps Peleliu) with the 1st and 2nd Marine Divisions. In addition to small-unit amphibious assault tactics, he was trained as a radar operator, which means he probably held a security clearance of some sort.

While fighting in the Pacific Theatre, Philip Frank Kantz was witness to the following curious incident: after joint US-UK combat operations against Japanese forces on Betio, Tarawa Atoll, Gilbert and Ellice Islands Colony (today the Republic of Kiribati), British soldiers hoisted the Union Jack on a beach. Enraged Americans demanded that it be hauled down. The two sides stood at gunpoint until a US officer intervened and prevented bloodshed.

An official history painted a different picture:

“The Marines on Betio conducted a joint flag-raising ceremony later that same morning. Two of the few surviving palm trees were selected as poles, but the Marines were hard put to find a British flag. Finally, Major Holland, the New Zealand officer who had proved so prophetic about the tides at Tarawa, produced a Union Jack. A field musician played the appropriate bugle calls Marines all over the small island stood and saluted. Each could reckon the cost.”

---Colonel Joseph H. Alexander, USMC (Ret), ACROSS THE REEF: The Marine Assault of Tarawa History and Museums Division, Headquarters, U.S. Marine Corps, Washington, D.C 1993 page 47

Immediately after the Battle of Tarawa, Phil was assigned to Graves Registration detail and noted that he had to pour a substance called "Forest Green" (not further identified anywhere a disinfectant of some sort) on the American corpses.

He noted that he killed 70 Japanese Marines (formal name Special Naval Landing Forces (SNLF), (. Kaigun Tokubetsu Rikusentai) consisting of 3rd Special Base Defense Force and the 7th Sasebo Special Naval Landing Force SNLF) in the assault.

NOTE: "Sasebo" derived from 'Sasebo Naval Arsenal' (. Sasebo kaigun k?sh??) one of four principal naval shipyards owned and operated by the Imperial Japanese Navy.

In one particularly hair-raising anecdote, Phil and a platoon-sized unit were repulsing a banzai (Kana: . Kanji: ??) charge when the Americans ran out of ammo. An unidentified officer ordered a counterattack and the Marines waded into the enemy. Phil's M1 10" bayonet at the end of his .30 M1 Garand got caught in the rib cage of a Japanese soldier and bent, making it impossible to withdraw. An unidentified Marine with a .45 shot the half-dead Jap but so close to Phil's right ear that he was deaf for days.

Phil spent an R&R on a farm in New Zealand and declared it “the most beautiful place on earth.”

On 17 February 1944 he was noted on the USS SITULA AK-140 sailing from San Diego, California to Pearl Harbor with:

Lant Horton, Jr. SN 292121 rating: M.T.S. enlisted 1 December 1938 Portland, Oregon

Obie Horton SN 822 01 03 rating: StM2c enlisted 6 May 1943 Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (1922-2002)

Harold Alexander Huber SN 871 91 86 rating: SC3c enlisted 21 June 1943 Omaha, Nebraska

Philip F. Kantz SN 308242 rating: CPL enlisted 2 April 1941 New York, new York

Harold A. Kemmerer SN 838357 rating: PFC enlisted 20 March 1943 or 5 April 1943 Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (1925-1989)

William Edward Kildoo SN 895 70 37 rating: Flc (MM) enlisted 17 August 1943 Erie, Pennsylvania (1921-1980)

Bert Charles Lemmon SN 368 41 46 rating: Slc enlisted unknown

Donald Eugene MacNeil SN 654 11 29 rating: WT2c enlisted 16 December 1941 Portland, Oregon

Julian Garcia Manrique SN 625 14 62 rating: Slc enlisted 17 July 1942 Houston, Texas

Albert R. Miller SN 473639 rating: SGT enlisted 23 October 1942 New York, New York

Byron Monroe Morton, Jr. SN 861694 rating: CPL enlisted 3 July 1943 Springfield, Massachusetts (1924-2013)

Robert J. Mulvey SN 539397 rating: PFC enlisted 1 July 1943 Boston, Massachusetts

Leonard B. Nelson SN 527491 rating: CPL enlisted 18 June 1943 Springfield, Massachusetts

Adolph Herman Oltmann SN 347 13 94 rating: F2c enlisted 3 December 1942 Little Rock, Arkansas (1924-2016)

William M. O'Melia SN 879872 rating: CPL enlisted 22 June 1943 Boston, Massachusetts

During transit of an unspecified airport in Hawaii, Phil went to drink from a water fountain and found that it dispensed---pineapple juice!

Married Marcella Marie Kantz née Shine (1929-2004) in 1950, Bronx County marriage license 2547.

After the War, Phil settled into a good job with State Elevator Co., Bronx, New York, now Tri-State Elevator Co., 511 Fifth Avenue, Pelham, New York 10803-1205 as an elevator mechanic.

Phil was a poetry lover with a fine voice for the lost art of declamation poetry by the late 1930s he had memorized dozens of works for formal public recitation including 'The Charge of the Light Brigade', 'The Congo', 'The Cremation of Sam McGee', 'The Green Eye of the Yellow God', 'The Highwayman', 'Lochinvar', 'The Raven', 'Woodman, Spare that Tree', 'The Wreck of the Hesperus', and his personal favorite, 'Horatio at the Bridge'.

The age, the art and the man are long since vanished, to the loss of us all.

He was a fine amateur artist (alas, only two or three of his works survive), handyman, tinkerer, carpenter, and friend to all: from every Jewish merchant on the Heights to the lively ethnic crew at the Nippon Club (located in those days at 1 Riverside Drive at 72nd Street near Riverside Park, New York, New York 10023) who loved seeing him show up to fix the elevators.

"It's the SPLING, Mr. Phil! The SPLING!"

"Could it be the SPLING?" Phil replied, enjoying the fact that the Japanese language has only one liquid consonant, while English is gifted with two.

His wake at McGonnell Funeral Home, 1295 St Nicholas Avenue, New York, New York 10033 was, according to the proprietor, "the best attended in years."

He was killed when a Ford (M-05435913 91780931 plate 43I5BC) operated by Joseph Francis Melnicki, Sr. (1909-?) (name erroneously as "Joseph H. Melnicki").traveling north on 3rd Avenue hit Phil 75' south of East 164th Street as he was walking east to west and "stepped out from behind an El pillar".

The investigation was conducted by Accident Investigation Squad (A.I.S.) Patrolman Levin (badge 22661).

His name was misspelled as "Phillip Kantez" on the 42nd Precinct police report filled out by Patrolman Edward Kramer (badge 17606) of the 42nd Precinct (30 Washington Avenue, Bronx, New York 10451).

Phil was taken to Morrisania Hospital, 50 East 168th Street, Bronx, New York 10452 (closed 1976) "attention Benefield" where he was pronounced.

Patrolman Murphy (badge 15084) of the 34th Precinct came to the door to notify at 1:40pm Andy and Philip were at home.

The report clearly stated "city not involved".

NOTE: Melnicki's son, Joseph Francis Melnicki, Jr. (1931-1973) was a Korean War hero---a Silver Star awardee.

(in r? the infamous leafy green wallpaper in the "spare room")

"An Egyptian one-eyed sandwich."

"I'm good at copying paintings, but not too good at doing originals."

"It's cold enough to freeze the nose off a brass monkey."

"Never point a gun at somebody unless you're gonna kill him."

"Stand back and let the man work."

The only men I saw on the beach with me were New Yorkers and Southerners."

"The poor guy looks like a taxicab with its doors open.”

Mary M. Buckley Kantz (1888 - 1968)

Marcella Marie Shine Kantz (1921 - 2004)*

Margaret Anna Kantz Green (1908 - 1959)**

Florence C. Kantz Leonard (1916 - 1972)

Grace Lillian Kantz Henderson (1918 - 2002)

Philip Frank Kantz (1922 - 1968)

Philip Frank Kantz (1922 - 1968)

Note: Upright headstone white marble, 42" x 13" x 4", weight approx. 230lbs.

Long Island National Cemetery

Submitted: January 11, 2018

© Copyright 2021 Ralph Monclar. All rights reserved.

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Book-size Late Antique ivory diptych dating to the late fourth or early fifth century, whose panels depict scenes of ritual pagan religious practices. Turning towards Christianity and rejecting the Classical tradition. Wikipedia

The use of bronze dates from remote antiquity. Alloy composed of copper and tin, in proportion which vary slightly, but may be normally considered as nine parts of copper to one of tin. Wikipedia

Sculpture in walrus ivory, probably from Paris c 1300, now in The Cloisters, New York. Lined with traces of paint and gilding. Wikipedia

Modern Alaska

At the same time a group funded some drilling at Dry Bay. These also were unproductive, as were the wells drilled at Puale Bay, near Cold Bay at the end of the Alaska Peninsula.

Alaska's first productive oil drilling operation was at Katalla, on the Gulf of Alaska, south of the Copper River delta. Seepages had been reported around the shore of Controller Bay for many years. Around 1900 a group of investors asked an English petroleum expert to evaluate the area's potential. He was positive, and soon afterward, drilling began. While some wells found oil, conditions were rough and the investors decided not to continue. .

In 1911 several new wells in the district began to produce significant oil. But the quantities were still not large enough to justify the cost of transportation, so most of the recovered oil was processed at a refinery constructed at Katalla. the oil was then shipped by tanker-barge to Cordova. This arrangement continued for nearly 20 years. The original investors sold their claims and improvements in 1916, and those buyers then sold to still other investors in 1920. The operation was still in operation hen a fire destroyed the refinery in 1933. The wells were abandoned. The properties at Katalla have changed hands since the 1930s. In the 1980s the Chugach Natives Inc, got leasing rights in the area as part of ANCSA.

The development at Katalla showed that oil production was possible in Alaska. It also demonstrated that the costs of exploration and production would be high, mostly because of the cost of transportation, and other higher costs of operating in Alaska. . Fields the size of Katalla that had been modest successes in the Lower 48 were modest failures in Alaska. When oil exploration began in Alaska, claims were filed under the Hardrock Mining Act of 1872. Around 1900 large mining and oil corporations began to file "blanket claims" to large areas of potential oil land. Concerned about the nation's need for fuel, in 1906 President Theodore Roosevelt withdrew all coal and most oil lands in the country from development until Congress could come up with a way to control coal and oil claims. Roosevelt used authority given to him by Congress in the 1906 Antiquities Actto make the withdrawal.

Congress did not provide a resolution of the national concern until 1920 when it adopted the Mineral Leasing Act, which established a leasing plan for coal, oil and natural gas. Most states soon followed with leasing acts of their own. At the same time Congress provided for the creation of several strategic oil reserves. The largest, Petroleum Reserve No. 4 (Pet. 4), was established on Alaska's Arctic coast. In 1980, the 23 million-acre reserve was renamed National Petroleum Reserve - Alaska (NPR-A).

When the Mineral Leasing Act passed, most lands with oil potential (though not all coal lands) in the country were re-opened to entry, including Alaska. Nearly 400 exploration permits were issued for Alaska in 1921. Many were for activities at Cold Bay, and near Kanatak on the Alaska Peninsula just across Shelikhov Strait from Kodiak Island. None of the permits for Alaska at this time resulted in profitable finds. Discoveries in Texas and Oklahoma flooded the market and drove down oil prices. Most oil activity in Alaska stopped .The establishment of the government reserve on the Arctic Coast was the result of several previous exploratory expeditions led by the U.S. Geological Survey. Eskimos had known of oil seepages on the north coastal plain since time immemorial. They had been reported by the English explorer Thomas Simpson in 1839,and U.S.Navy Lieutenant W.L. Howard in 1886. In 1901 W. J. Peters and F. C. Schraeder, both veteran Alaska surveyors, mapped much of the western coastal area. Between 1906 and 1914 Ernest de Koven Leffingwell undertook several trips across the area and reported optimistically on the distribution and the potential of seepages. The Navy conducted a geologic exploration in the year following the establishment of the Federal Reserve in 1923. During World War II the demand for petroleum caused much general concern. In response the U.S. and Canadian Army engineers completed an ambitious project - the construction of an oil pipeline from Norman Wells on the Mackenzie River in Canada's Northwest Territories to Whitehorse, Yukon Territory, and Skagway. By the time the 4-inch line was completed in 1944, shipments of petroleum products from Seattle up to Alaska ports and the small amounts of oil coming from the fields led the Army to abandon this project. But the construction of the pipeline showed the level of interest in developing potential oil fields in the North.

In 1946 the U.S. Geological Survey and the Navy began an eight-year exploration program. Teams drilled 36 test wells but found only two minor oil deposits. Gas from the Barrow field would be pumped to the village of Barrow for limited distribution, but otherwise none of the oil was used. Much information about northern conditions and transportation needs resulted from this program.Kenai Oilfields Details

The discovery of the large Swanson River oil field on the Kenai Peninsula in 1957 caused even more interest from potential oil investors like the Richfield Oil Company of California. Others included Phillips, Marathon, and Unocal, as well as Shell, Sunray, Mobil, Chevron and Texaco. Richfield was the first to drill. They struck oil with their first well. The discovery, reported on July 15, 1957, tested at 900 barrels a day, the first major, commercial discovery in Alaska .Other companies quickly began drilling programs in the area, and in 1959, Unocal discovered a major natural gas field, near the Swanson River oil field.

In 1960, following the statehood of Alaska and the creation of the state natural resources agencies, oil companies bought exploration leases for work in Cook Inlet. Two years later the Middle Ground Shoal oil field was discovered off Port Nikiski, at the same latitude as the onshore Swanson River field. Production began from Middle Shoal in 1967. Since then twenty successful wells have been drilled in upper Cook Inlet. All but four are in production at this time. Nearly 1.3 billion barrels of oil have been pumped, along with 5 trillion cubic feet of natural gas. The Cook Inlet oil and gas area is classified as a moderate-sized deposit.

The impact of the Cook Inlet development on the communities on the west shore of Cook Inlet the Native village of Tyonek, and Anchorage has been significant. Kenai, the village nearest the development, was home to about 500 people in 1957. . The boom in economic development and population growth after the discovery of oil was immediate and still continues. Most of the existing work force and many new settlers went to work for the oil companies. Commercial development followed including shopping malls in Kenai and Soldotna in the late 1970s. Today, the population of Kenai is about 7,000 nearly 4,000 live in nearby Soldotna. The population of all of the Kenai Peninsula Borough, which includes Seward, Homer, and Tyonek is nearly 50,000.

The economy of the Kenai region is very dependent on petroleum and gas production. Both have declined over the past decade, and there are now predictions that they will probably continue to decline.. This is consistent with the "boom - bust" character of Alaska, dependent on one natural resource to support modern settlement and economic development.

The story of how the Prudhoe Bay oilfields developed is interesting.
In 1966 Richfield Oil, the discoverer of the Swanson River field on the Kenai Peninsula, worked with Humble Oil, and then merged with Atlantic Oil to become ARCO. By 1967 Richfield had drilled a number of dry holes on its North Slope leases, and began to leave the Slope. Their final effort began with freeze-up in 1967. On the day after Christmas, the crew opened a rig to check the results. Natural gas burst into the air. When ignited from a two-inch pipe, it flared 50 feet in a 30-mile-per-hour wind. Richfield's second well was begun immediately to see if there was more gas and oil in the area. In March, 1968 it confirmed what the other well has produced. The early estimate for the field was 9.6 billion recoverable barrels. Today, technology has increased the estimate to 13 billion.

History of the Alaska Pipeline

A second obstacle lay with environmental protests to the idea of the pipeline. Even before Congress completed its work, environmental groups filed suit to stop the project, charging that industry plans for it did not meet the requirements of the new National Environmental Policy Act. A federal judge granted an injunction to stop construction. As the oil industry scrambled to produce a good plan, national leaders debated whether or not there should be a pipeline at all. Environmental concerns included the idea that America's last wilderness, the last vast stretches of open land in the country, should be preserved for future generations. Alaska is America's last wilderness.

The outcome of this debate was very much in question. National leaders once again recognized that Congress would have to make the final decision about Alaska land. In 1973, in a dramatic vote in the Senate (following approval of the measure in the House of Representatives), Senators reached a deadlock on a vote to clear the way for the project the vote was 49-49. Vice-president Spiro Agnew cast the deciding vote to approve the Alaska Pipeline Authorization Act on July 17, 1973.

Construction of the Alaska Pipeline began in the winter of 1973- and was completed by summer, 1977. Over 28,000 people worked on the project, which cost $7.7 billion, way beyond the industry's $900,000 estimate in 1970..

Money flowed easily. The industry decided to complete the project in record time, and it did, but at great cost. The separate company created by the leaseholders to build and operate the pipeline, the Alyeska Pipeline Service Company, had to pay high wages, and provide the best food, housing and other amenities to keep the labor force. The high wages resulted in boomtown conditions in Fairbanks and Anchorage. Unemployment dropped to near zero in both cities as Alaskans left their routines to take advantage of the high wages and unusual circumstances. Off-duty workers spent lavishly in Fairbanks and Anchorage, where crime rates increased dramatically. . Gang -style murders were associated with the Teamsters Union in Fairbanks, which controlled much of the labor and supplies for the project. At one point the union was banking $1 million a week in dues. The boomtown atmosphere scared many local residents, who learned first hand what it was like to live on "the last frontier".

The impact of modern oil development in Alaska has been huge.. Taxation on oil production on the North Slope has generated $50 billion for the state in nearly 25 years - $2 billion a year on average. For over two decades about 80% of Alaska's revenue has come from oil taxation. One third of Alaska's economic base is oil production and oil related activity. The character of Alaska would change dramatically if revenue from it disappeared. The state's citizens had a taste of this when oil prices crashed in 1985-86. From a high of $40 in 1981, and a steady rate of about $27 a barrel in 1985, by1986 the price of oil had fallen to less than $15. The impact on the state's economy was devastating, with a collapse felt in every aspect of the economy, and in people's lives across the state. The value of the state general fund revenues fell from $4.1 billion in 1984 to $2.9 billion in 1986 and then $2.1 billiion in 1988. By 1990 they had dipped to $143 million. State government officials acted quickly to cut l spending, but it was not enough to prevent a crisis. The deep budget cuts necessary in the state budget meant a widespread loss of jobs, reduced incomes, and loss of business and property values. Nine out of fifteen banks in the state failed. Federal banking inspectors moved from one bankruptcy to another, as if they were moving through the wreckage of a natural disaster.

The state recovered from that drastic downturn. But it is a reminder today of the important role oil plays in Alaska's economy and the lives of all Alaskans. The oil industry announced in 1999 that after falling to about 850,000 barrels a day, flow in the Alaska Pipeline should maintain at that level for thirty or forty more years. The North Slope also has some of the largest deposits of natural gas in North America. Oil and gas experts hope to be able to take that gas to national and world markets in the future. Alaska's economy would benefit from North Slope gas development.

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