Sculpture of Richard II of England

Sculpture of Richard II of England

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File:Jean Froissart, Chroniques, 154v, 12148 btv1b8438605hf336, crop.jpg

This work is in the public domain in its country of origin and other countries and areas where the copyright term is the author's life plus 100 years or fewer.

This work is in the public domain in the United States because it was published (or registered with the U.S. Copyright Office) before January 1, 1926.

Sculpture of Richard II of England - History

“Ladies and gentlemen, here it is: the big, blue… bird!” So proclaimed the Mayor of London Boris Johnson last week. On cue, assistants tugged at black drapes to reveal the latest public sculpture to occupy the Fourth Plinth in Trafalgar Square: a gigantic electric-blue cockerel by the German artist Katharina Fritsch.

When I cycled past the sculpture, which is called Hahn/Cock, later that morning, it made me laugh out loud. The colour of the rooster, reminiscent of the iridescent, otherworldly pigment patented by the French artist Yves Klein, offers a surreal, comical contrast to the drab bronze statuary and buttoned-up grey facades of the grand buildings nearby.

More importantly, the double entendre of its title is fully intended: with his stiff, punk-like coxcomb and jowly wattle, this puffed-up cockerel is meant to appear pompous and ridiculous. I particularly enjoyed his magnificently rumpled tail feathers. There’s something deliberately deflating about the manner in which they droop, so that the cockerel has the bleary aura of a whoring-and-roistering old rogue, worse the wear from drink, still strutting despite being unable to perform in the bedroom.

Here, then, is a sally by a female artist against the many vainglorious monuments commemorating self-important men that have been erected all over the world. Of course, the rooster isn’t the only sculpture of an animal in the vicinity – Edwin Landseer’s bronze lions at the foot of Nelson’s Column are some of London’s principal tourist attractions. Nevertheless there are several examples of statues of doughty old heroes in Trafalgar Square – not least Admiral Horatio Nelson, who surveys the British capital from the top of his tall Corinthian column. Fritsch’s work is the latest in a series of temporary sculptures to occupy the otherwise empty Fourth Plinth in the square’s northwest corner (the plinth was built in 1841 to support an equestrian statue of William IV for which funds were never raised). It got me thinking about the triumphs and pitfalls of public art.

In a broad sense, public art is as old as the hills: think of the statues of the pharaohs of ancient Egypt. The four colossal-seated sculptures of Ramesses II hewn out of the sandstone facade of his rock temple at Abu Simbel in southern Egypt were designed with a very specific public in mind – his Nubian enemies. A blunt display of imperial chest thumping, this is art that bludgeons the viewer into submission. Millennia later, Michelangelo’s marble statue of David offered another example of the symbiotic relationship between art and the state: positioned outside in the Piazza della Signoria, it became a public symbol of the independence of the Florentine Republic.

In the 20th century, though, public art really came into its own. Conscious that traditional bronze statuary commemorating dignitaries and worthies had become commonplace and overlooked, modern artists vied to produce memorable works of art for public spaces. In the decades after World War II, the British artist Henry Moore became the go-to man for prestigious public commissions, and today his distinctive bronze figures and abstract forms can be seen all over the world.

But today public art is a curious phenomenon. It is big business – the industry is thought to be worth tens of millions of pounds each year in England alone – but often it exists in limbo, pleasing neither art critics nor the public.

There are many examples of brilliant contemporary public art that were not allowed to flourish. The American sculptor Richard Serra’s Tilted Arc, a 120ft-long (37m) wall of slanting, weathered steel bisecting the Federal Plaza in New York, was constructed in 1981 but removed eight years later, following much public gnashing of teeth that so much money had been spent on a “rusted metal wall”. Serra’s critic-friendly sculpture did not chime with the public – though his unsettling Fulcrum (1987), which consists of massive sheets of steel propped together like a potentially lethal house of cards, is still standing near Liverpool Street station in London.

Meanwhile Rachel Whiteread’s concrete sculpture House, a cast of the interior of a demolished Victorian terraced townhouse, was one of the most important British works of art of the ’90s. Erected in the autumn of 1993, it haunted east London like a ghost until it was removed the following year, in part because locals deemed it an eyesore.

Woman in white

At the other extreme, a lot of public art gets commissioned that is popular despite being deemed execrable by the critics. After it appeared in Chicago, where it quickly became a hit with tourists, Seward Johnson’s kitsch statue of Marilyn Monroe grappling with her white dress as a blast of air blows it upwards (a tribute to the actress’s famous scene in the 1955 movie The Seven Year Itch) featured in a much-publicised list of the worst public art in the world. Depending on your opinion, it now adorns or blights Palm Springs, California.

When public art works, though, it pleases both camps – the elite as well as everyone else. Antony Gormley’s Angel of the North in Gateshead, England is a good example: a memorial for Britain’s declining industrial heritage, it has become a popular symbol for the country as a whole, starring in trails for the BBC’s flagship television channel in the UK.

Perhaps the best example, though, is Anish Kapoor’s Cloud Gate, aka ‘The Bean’, in Chicago’s Millennium Park. Like some extraterrestrial visitation, this stainless-steel sculpture resembles a massive blob of liquid mercury. Its distorting reflective surfaces warp the appearance of reality and do strange things to our perception of space. It also provides the perfect backdrop for a killer photo opportunity.

Fritsch’s Hahn/Cock isn’t in the same league as Cloud Gate – its jokey, ribald subtext ensures that it feels more ephemeral than Kapoor’s classic, timeless form. But it does play clever games with the historical expectations of public art, which so often privileges men by putting them on plinths.. Good public art doesn’t have to commemorate men – and it doesn’t have to be big.

Alastair Sooke is art critic of The Daily Telegraph.

If you would like to comment on this story or anything else you have seen on BBC Culture, head over to our Facebook page or message us on Twitter.

Sculpture of Richard II of England - History

William was born in 1028 in the city of Falaise which was part of the Duchy of Normandy. His father was the powerful Robert I, Duke of Normandy, but his mother was the daughter of a local tanner. His parents weren't married, making William an illegitimate child.

Despite being an illegitimate child, William grew up and was raised as the future Duke of Normandy. When William was seven years old, his father decided to go on a pilgrimage to Jerusalem. Since William was his only son, Robert assembled his nobles and had them swear that William would be his heir should he die. When Robert died on his return trip from Jerusalem, William was made Duke of Normandy.

William was crowned Duke of Normandy in 1035. Because he was only seven years old and an illegitimate child, many people challenged his right to rule as Duke. Over the next several years there were many attempts on William's life. For a time his great-uncle, the Archbishop Robert, looked after William. After the archbishop died, it was mostly King Henry I of France's support that helped William to keep his title.

It was when William was older, around twenty, that he nearly lost the title to his cousin, Guy of Burgundy. Guy had gathered the support of a number of nobles and formed an army to defeat William. William met Guy at the Battle of Val-es-Dunes in 1047. There he defeated Guy and began to establish his control over Normandy.

Over the next few years William would consolidate power across the region of Normandy. He fought down a revolt led by Geoffrey Martel (who would later be his ally) and by 1060 had firm control of Normandy.

In 1050 William married Matilda of Flanders. This was a political marriage that allied William with the powerful duchy of Flanders. Matilda and William would have four sons and five daughters.

The King of England, Edward the Confessor, died in 1066. He did not leave any heirs to the throne, but William was related to the king through Edward's uncle, Richard II. William also claimed that Edward had promised him the crown.

However, there were other men who also claimed the crown of England. One of them was the most powerful noble in England at the time, Harold Godwinson. The people of England wanted Harold to be king and crowned him King Harold II on January 6, 1066, the day after King Edward died. Another man who claimed the English throne was King Hardrada of Norway.

When King Hardrada of Norway invaded England and King Harold II went to meet him in battle, William saw his chance. He gathered an army and crossed the English Channel making camp near the city of Hastings.

After King Harold II defeated the Norwegian invaders, he turned south to face William. William, however, was ready for battle. William had brought archers and heavily armored cavalry called knights. Harold's foot soldiers were no match for William's forces and William won the battle and King Harold II was killed by an arrow.

Becoming King of England

William continued to march across England and eventually captured the city of London. Shortly after, on December 25, 1066, William was crowned king of England.

William spent the first several years of his reign putting down revolts. At one point William became so angry with the revolts in Northern England that he ordered much of the countryside destroyed. His army burnt farms, destroyed food, and killed livestock throughout the area. This act became known as the "Harrying of the North" and caused the death of at least 100,000 people.

One of William's most lasting legacies was his castle building. He built castles throughout England in order to maintain control. Perhaps the most famous castle William built is the White Tower of the Tower of London.

In 1085, William ordered a full survey of the landholdings of all of England. He had men go around the land and record who owned the land and all the property they had including such things as livestock, farm equipment, and mills. This information was all put into a single book called the Domesday Book.

William died while leading a battle in Northern France in 1087. His oldest son Robert became Duke of Normandy and his second son William became king of England.

Watch and discuss: Calendula's Cloak

Students from Gomersal Primary School wanted to find out more about female artists, and made this film about Jann Haworth's sculpture Calendula's Cloak.

  • What is Calendula's Cloak made of?
  • Why is it called Calendula's Cloak?
  • Why do you think Jann Haworth included ideas from her mother in the artwork?
  • How many faces does the artwork have? Why?
  • How has Jann Howarth represented the four seasons in the artwork?
  • Do you think Calendula's Cloak also represents anything else?

Students asked Jann Haworth questions about her work.

What questions would you ask?

The Richard III Society

Welcome to the website of the Richard III Society. We have been working since 1924 to secure a more balanced assessment of the king and to support research into his life and times. The rediscovery of his grave and reburial in Leicester Cathedral have raised the king's profile and provided us with new opportunities to make the case for a reappraisal of his life and role in English history.

In the belief that many features of the traditional accounts of the character and career of Richard III are neither supported by sufficient evidence nor reasonably tenable, the Society aims to promote, in every possible way, research into the life and times of Richard III, and to secure a reassessment of the material relating to this period, and of the role of this monarch in English history.

"… the purpose—and indeed the strength—of the Richard III Society derives from the belief that the truth is more powerful than lies a faith that even after all these centuries the truth is important. It is proof of our sense of civilised values that something as esoteric and as fragile as reputation is worth campaigning for." Our Patron - the present Richard, Duke of Gloucester. more &hellip

Visit the membership section to learn more about how to join the Society. Membership starts from as little as £12 per year.

The Ricardian is the academic journal of the Richard III Society. Since 2002 it has been published as an annual journal. Many of the editions and articles are now available online through the Ricardian Online website.

Ricardian Bulletin articles online

The Ricardian Bulletin, the Society’s quarterly members’ magazine, publishes a number of historical articles in each issue. The current selection can be accessed here.

The Society Shop contains books, postcards, prints and much much more. To see what is available to buy please view our catalogue.

The Barton Library contains hundreds of titles, both non-fiction and fiction that are available for members to borrow. For more information click here.

The Society has a Privacy Policy and you can view it here.

Richard III Society Mailing List

We will sometimes send out emails with the latest news, or information about events we think may be of interest to you. Any member wishing to join, or re-join, our mailing list should e-mail our Web Content Manager, Katie Dungate confirming their wish to be added to the list and providing their Membership Number details. Please note that the mailing list is available to Society members only, and your contact details will not be provided to any third parties.

Agreement regarding use of images

'A Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) agreement with the University of Leicester regarding the appropriate use of the images of King Richard’s remains has been obtained. Following a meeting with the University on 29th July 2016 to discuss the use of images, Philippa and I are pleased to announce that the MoU between our two organisations has now been signed and is published here.'

Robert Hamblin Award, 2020

Nominations for the 2020 Robert Hamblin Award, which was established in 2002 as a means of recognising members who have given significant long term service and made a contribution of particular merit to the work of the Richard III Society, are now being sought. The closing date for nominations is 1st August 2021. As a reminder, nominations must include full details of the nominee, the reasons why you think they qualify for the award and any relevant background information about them and their contribution to the Richard III Society. You should also include your own membership number. Nominations should be sent to the Secretary, Susan Ollier, by email (or letter to the address here). The final selection will be made by the Board and the recipient will be announced at this year's AGM on 2 October 2021.

The Board of the Richard III Society

Summer 2021 Zoom presentations

We are delighted to announce that we have two extremely interesting events to look forward to over the summer. As previously, both events will be free to Society members but please note that, although we have increased the number of places available for attendees, places are still restricted and you will need to register for these events.

Date: Saturday 17 July 2021

Subject: Margaret Beaufort - Saintly Mother or Scheming Dynast?

Date: Saturday 19 August 2021

International members please note that this is British Summer Time, one hour ahead of GMT. How to book.

Zoom presentation June 2021

We are delighted to announce that our June 2021 Zoom event presentation will be given by Annie Garthwaite. As previously, the event will be free to Society members. More &hellip.

Subject: Cecily Neville - Mother, Wife, Traitor, Survivor

Date: Saturday 19 June 2021

Royal Mail Wars of the Roses stamps

The Royal Mail are releasing a set of stamps commemorating the Wars of the Roses, featuring the wonderful paintings of Graham Turner.

Buckingham Covers are now offering sets of first day covers of these stamps. For each set they sell from this dedicated link, the Richard III Society will receive a commission, thereby enabling buyers to support the work of the Society. More &hellip

Society Shop postage charges

Please note that following a significant increase in US postal charges, all p&p rates for individual sales items have been updated. A new sales catalogue has been posted on-line and members are urged to check the p&p rates before completing their sales orders. If you are unable to do this, please contact E-Mediacy who will confirm the correct charge. A new sales catalogue will be included with the September Bulletin.

New Society Chairman appointed

The Richard III Society is delighted to announce that our new Chairman is Matthew Lewis. We will have further information following the first meeting of our new Board next month.

Matthew Lewis said: ‘I am looking forward to repaying the faith the Board of the Society and its membership have shown in me.

As part of its mission to promote research into the life and times of King Richard III of England, the Richard III Society has published several aids for those researching late medieval and early modern English history. These publications are now out of print or otherwise difficult to obtain and so the Society has created a website to make digitised versions available online. It is intended to add more digital research resources from the Society as time goes on. We hope that this site will provide useful resources to teachers, researchers and students of medieval history. Visit

Question: What took three years, untold amounts of grit and graft, and produced a glittering result?

Answer: Philippa Langley's quest for the lost grave of Richard III.

Many, including academics and archaeologists – not to mention the media – are still reeling from a success that can only be called stunning!

Philippa Langley knew King Richard III had been 'piteously slain' at Bosworth Field. And she knew the Franciscan Friars of Leicester had laid him to rest in a simple grave. But where to look? Was he still there? And would they let her try to find him?

On 25 August 2012 Philippa Langley's quest for the lost grave of Richard III finally came to fruition!

The Looking for Richard team have compiled some frequently asked questions about the project that found King Richard's final resting place in 2012.

Learn more about Philippa’s exciting new research project, and how you can help.

Richard III: Honoured at last

Read the Reburial Diary and Events held by the Society during the historic week in March 2015 and first anniversary in March 2016.

Updated versions of some of John's Powerpoint presentations are available on his web site where you can download them.

Permission granted to build on Bosworth

We are extremely disappointed that Hinckley and Bosworth Borough Council have decided to take the very short-sighted decision to grant permission for Horiba Mira to build on part of the registered battlefield of Bosworth, putting financial concerns above the history and heritage of this country. We will be consulting with our friends and colleagues in the Battlefields Trust over the next few days to decide on our next course of action. In the meantime, we would like to express our gratitude to the many hundreds of people who have supported us in our campaign to save the battlefield. Thank you!

The open letter written to the Hinckley and Bosworth Borough Council Planning Committee is available to view here.

John Morton's will transcript

In the June 2019 issue of the Ricardian Bulletin Dr Betty Knott wrote about the will of Cardinal John Morton. This article originated from Philippa Langley's The Missing Princes Project.

Space restrictions meant we were unable to include the full will in both its Latin and English form. However, these are available online in Latin version and English translation, and on the website of The Missing Princes Project.

Society Education Website Goes Live

The Society’s long-awaited education website on the life and times of Richard III, entitled ‘Wars of the Roses’ is now live. The website has been developed by Iain Farrell, the Society’s Education Officer, with the support of the Society’s Research Officer, Joanna Laynesmith.

The content of the website has been guided by the needs of teachers and exam providers to develop in pupils and students the critical analysis of sources and differing interpretations to reach a considered view of events in the distant past. More &hellip

&bull 19 June 2021: **fully booked** Cecily Neville - Mother, Wife, Traitor, Survivor by Annie Garthwaite on Zoom.

&bull 17 July 2021: **fully booked** Margaret Beaufort - Saintly Mother or Scheming Dynast? by Carol Southworth on Zoom.

&bull 19 August 2021: **fully booked** The Wydeviles by Lynda Pidgeon on Zoom.

&bull 2 October 2021: Society Members' Day and AGM Merchant Adventurers' Hall, York.

Find out more about events organised by Society Branches and Groups in your local area and beyond.

Membership Card Discounts

The list of venues which offer discounted entry rates for holders of a Richard III Society membership card.

Certain artists are household names… Pablo Picasso , Richard Serra , Salvador Dali , and Alexander Calder are just a few of the immediately recognizable artistic powerhouses. While there is only a select number of artists whose names circulate pop culture, in reality there are thousands of artists working across mediums and genres.

In our new series (Need To) Know, we’ll be identifying famous contemporary artists whose practice and work is similar to certain artists in our community. Get ready to learn about artists you know while discovering Indiewalls artists you Need To Know. Part 1 of this series looks at the ever growing, amorphous umbrella of sculpture.

Richard Serra’s imposing structures are made from industrial materials. Their size and stature is meant to make visitors contemplate the physicality of their body in relation to the world.

Indiewalls artist Steve Zolin also works with industrial materials. Even though his works are smaller in size, they command space through cascading, linear form.

Sculptor Alexander Calder is known for his floating mobiles and large, freestanding pieces. Even though his works are made from heavy materials such as steel and wire, they exude a relaxed, organic feel that betrays their materiality.

Michael Chiarello uses similar industrial materials. His metal and steel constructions command attention through non-linear combinations that extend the work’s presence into space.

The colorful, protruding sculptural wall hangings of Frank Stella , whose retrospective recently closed at the Whitney Museum in NYC, illustrate the artist’s interest in how form, color, and material harmoniously work together.

Even though his work is more literal in nature, Indiewalls artist Dave Rittinger also relies on color and form to create hanging wall sculptures. Rittinger pushes the boundaries of materiality by appropriating objects for artistic use.

The sculptures of Ursula von Rydingsvard manage to be at once imposing and delicate. Working predominantly with red cedar, she carves and combines this organic material into monumental works that embody human and geographical history.

Chicago based artist Barbara Cooper explores the process of evolution by working with natural materials and organic forms. She yearns to understand how external pressures can affect an object's form and incite physical transformation.

The eye catching work of Isa Genzken is bright, messy, and intriguing. Her assemblages of common objects explore how contemporary ideologies can be understood through material culture and historical movements.

Similar to Genzken, Indiewalls artist Lee Tal uses clothing in his paintings. As the found object fades into the painting, Tal encourages viewers to questions how materialism affects art and vice versa.

The ever amazing Haas Brothers are purveyors of fantastical (non) functional decorative objects. Each collection blurs the boundary between sculpture and design with the smallest addition of unexpected elements.

Indiewalls artist Heather Goodwind works in both two and three dimension. In addition to drawing and painting, she creates animalistic sculptures that seem to have a lives of their own.

Richard Serra Circuit 1972

Circuit is one of several sculptures Serra has made since the early 1970s that engage the full architectural volumes of their settings. After experimenting early in his career with materials such as lead and graphite, which he was drawn to for their capacity to be manipulated, Serra eventually turned to steel as his medium of choice, selecting it, he has said, for its “tectonic potential, its weight, its compression, its mass, its stasis” and its ability to stand supported by gravity alone.

Serra has had a long-standing interest in trying to “reveal the structure and content and character of a space.” Here equally sized steel plates are positioned upright, eight feet tall, extending diagonally from four corners of a square room. The plates approach but do not quite touch each other at the center. Sharply dividing the room into four triangular quadrants, Circuit belies its title, inhibiting easy circulation. It is impossible to comprehend the configuration of the space delimited by the sculpture from anywhere but at the exact midpoint. Instead, as the artist has described, “all your psychophysical coordinates, your sense of orientation, are called into question immediately.” Viewers are invited to enter the work, to walk into and through it with each step, the relationship between the body, the sculpture, and the surrounding environment shifts.

If you would like to reproduce an image of a work of art in MoMA’s collection, or an image of a MoMA publication or archival material (including installation views, checklists, and press releases), please contact Art Resource (publication in North America) or Scala Archives (publication in all other geographic locations).

All requests to license audio or video footage produced by MoMA should be addressed to Scala Archives at [email protected] . Motion picture film stills or motion picture footage from films in MoMA’s Film Collection cannot be licensed by MoMA/Scala. For licensing motion picture film footage it is advised to apply directly to the copyright holders. For access to motion picture film stills please contact the Film Study Center. More information is also available about the film collection and the Circulating Film and Video Library.

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Sculpture of Richard II of England - History


The museum is at 633 Osceola Ave., Winter Park. Hours are 10 a.m.-4 p.m. Tuesdays-Saturdays, 1-4 p.m. Sundays (Sept. 1-June 30). Admission is $5 adults, $4 seniors, $3 seniors, free ages younger than 12. Details: 407-647-6294.

The Art of Bohemia: Czech Glass: Sept. 1-Oct. 29. Hand-made Czech glass.

Relative Fantasies: Sept. 1-Oct. 29. Colorful paintings by siblings Alexander Boguslawski and Joanna Boillat.

Wind Sculpture II: Outdoor Art That Whirls and Twirls: Sept. 1-Oct. 29. Kinetic sculptures.

Zelda by Herself: Nov. 7-Jan. 7. Watercolors by Zelda Fitzgerald, wife of author F. Scott Fitzgerald.

Drawn to Nature: Works by Redenta Soprano: Nov. 14-Dec. 25. Botanical paintings and drawings.

Build for Success: Architectural Drawings: Jan. 9-March 4. Expressive drawings by Polasek and area architects.

Walter Arnold's Gargoyles and Grotesques: Jan. 16-Feb. 25.

The American Scene: Sunday Paintings: Jan. 16-March 4. Paintings by anonymous amateurs inspired by the Hudson River School.

Art at the Movies: Unforgettable Images by Bob Peak: March 6-May 20. Art by the illustrator who created posters for My Fair Lady and Camelot.

Decorated Eggs of Europe and America: March 13-Apirl 15.

Third Annual Art in Bloom: April 13-15. Indoor flower show.

An Elegant Gathering of Art and Ideas: May 1-June 30. Asian-inspired art from area collectors.

The Human Figure: Celebrating the Nude: May 29-June 30. Figure studies in a variety of media.

The gallery is at 813 Virginia Drive, Orlando. Hours are 11 a.m.-7 p.m. Tuesdays and Thursdays, 11 a.m.-4 p.m. Wednesdays, Fridays and Saturdays. Admission is free. Details: 407-894-4505.

Aesthetic Ramblings -- A New Language of Art: Group show Through Aug. 31. Natural and metaphorical landscapes.

Allegorical Grady Kimsey: Sept. 1-Oct. 31. Sculptures, paintings and mixed-media collages.

Expressionistic Explorations: Jean Banas, Donne Bitner and Karen Carasik: Nov. 1-Dec. 1. Abstract paintings.

Comma Invitational: Artists That Are Adored: Dec. 2-Jan. 5.

Journeys Women's Caucus for Art: Jan. 9-Feb. Works by Florida and Northern California chapters.

Oranges: An All-Florida Juried Show: Feb. 13-March 2.

Expletives Deleted: March 6-April 6.

The museum is on the campus of Rollins College, 1000 Holt Ave., Winter Park. Hours are 10 a.m.-5 p.m. Tuesdays-Saturdays, 1-5 p.m. Sundays. Admission is $5. Details: 407-646-2526.

Tranquil Vistas 19th Century Landscapes: Featuring the Marion and Samuel Lawrence Collection at the Cornell: Through Dec. 10. Survey of American painters.

Revising Arcadia: The Landscape in Contemporary Art: Aug. 29-Dec. 31. Views of the landscape in modern works.

Jerry Uelsmann: Mindscapes, Earth and Sky: Sept. 8-Dec. 31. More than 40 photo montages and large-scale black-and-white prints.

The school is at 600 St. Andrews Blvd., Winter Park, and features the Alice and William Jenkins Gallery and the Showalter Hughes Community Gallery. Galleries are open 9 a.m.-1 p.m. Fridays, 9 a.m.-4 p.m. Saturdays, 9 a.m.-5 p.m. Mondays-Thursdays. Admission is free. Details: 407-671-1886,

26th Annual Juried Student Exhibition: Through Sept. 2.

10th Annual Benefit Auction Exhibition: Monday-Sept. 16. Works by Nancy Jay, Terry Trambauer Norris, Steve Vaughn and Cheryl Bogdanowitsch. With auction at 7 p.m. Sept. 16.

Granted: A Celebration of United Arts Award Recipients 2003-2005: Sept. 22-Nov. 4. Works by Central Florida visual artists.

Stories and Gestures -- Drawings by Robert Rivers, Art Rosenbaum and Dennis Schmalstig: Nov. 11-Jan. 6.

Fourth Annual Crealde Faculty Holiday Exhibition: Nov. 17-Dec. 22.

Kyle: Constructions and Installations: Jan. 12-March 3. Shadowboxes by a Central Florida artist incorporating found objects, painting and photographs.

10th Bi-Annual Southeastern Photography Invitational: The Portrait: March 9-April 28. Images from Southeastern photographers.

The Maquette: Sculptures in Progress: May 4-June 23. Working models of sculptures, showing the creative process from concept to completion.

Creative Spirit Art Gallery

The gallery is at 820A Humphries Ave., Orlando. Hours are 10 a.m.-5 p.m. Tuesdays-Saturdays. Admission is free, with monthly open-house receptions at 6 p.m. second Friday of the month. Details: 407-898-8343. Exhibits include works by 15 juried members of the Art League of Orange County.

Visions of the Future: Sept. 1-30. Featuring artist Helga Wegener.

Alternative Reality: Oct. 1-31. Featuring artist Marcy Taylor.

Spirit of Nourishment: Nov. 1-30.

Enrichment of Life: Dec. 1-31.

Heartfelt Connections: Feb. 1-28.

Annual Artists League of Orange County Exhibit: March 1-31.

Symbols of Light: April 1-30.

Moonlight Symphony: June 1-30.

Shadows in New Light: Aug. 1-31.

The museum is at 600 N. Woodland Blvd., DeLand. Hours are 10 a.m.-4 p.m. Tuesdays-Saturdays, 1-4 p.m. Sundays. Admission is $2 for ages 12 and older. Details: 386-734-4371.

Simple Complexity: Through Sept. 3. Paintings by Richard Currier.

Sanctuaries: Through Sept. 3. Photographs and mixed-media works by Randall Smith, clay pieces by Steve Howell.

Elegant Egosystems: Sept. 15-Nov. 19. Photography by Clyde Butcher.

All Media: 30 Year Review of the Work of Dan Gunderson: Sept. 15-Nov. 19.

Priorities: Dec. 1-Feb. 11. Large-scale photographs by Lynn Whipple.

The Sculpture of Enzo Torcoletti: Dec. 1-Feb. 11.

Transparent Dimensions: Dec. 1-Feb. 11. Paintings by David McKirdy.

The museum is at 200B E. Orange Ave., Eustis. Hours are noon-4 p.m. Monday-Saturday. Details: 352-483-2900.

Highway Experience: Sept. 1-Oct. 13. Paintings from private collectors in Central Florida.

Folk Feast for the Arts: Oct. 5.

Intricacies: Nov. 3-Dec. 15. Works by multimedia artist Alina Eydel.

National Museum of Women in the Arts Exhibit and Holiday Gift Sale: Dec. 17-Jan. 12.

Lake Eustis Museum of Art Fine Art Festival: Jan. 27 and 28.

The center is at 231 W. Packwood Ave., Maitland. Hours are 9 a.m.-5 p.m. Monday-Friday, noon-4:30 p.m. Saturday and Sunday. Admission is $1.25. Details: 407-539-2181.

2 Plus 2: July 12-Sept. 1. Works by Betty Bay, Henry Berkowitz, Hugh Miller, Nita Marie Rizzo.

More Postcards from Paradise: Sept. 15-Oct. 29. Juried exhibition featuring works about the Art Center.

The Florida Landscape: Nov. 10-Dec. 22. Landscape artists Stephen Bach, Matthew Cornell, Larry Moore, Thom Sand and Steve Vaughn.

Recent Works by Ermin Tabakovic: Jan. 12-Feb. 25.

Photographs of Italian Memorial Sculpture, 1820-1940: March 9-April 29. Documenting monuments from cemeteries and historical sites in northern and central Italy.

Ex Voto: May 11-July 1. Votive paintings from Mexico.

pARTicipation 2007: July 6-8. Annual fundraiser.

Recent Acquisitions: July 20- Aug. 31.

Victor Bokas and the Return of Biff: Nov. 9-Dec. 21.

Mennello Museum of American Art

The museum is at 900 E. Princeton St., Orlando. Hours 10:30 a.m.-4:30 p.m. Tuesday-Saturdays, noon-4:30 p.m. Sundays. Admission is $4 adults, $3 seniors, $1 students, free ages 12 and younger. Details: 407-246-4278.

Of Southern Origin: From the Museum and the City of Orlando Permanent Collections: Through Oct. 6.

Cassatt to Wyeth: American Masters from the Mitchell Museum: Nov. 3-Feb. 25. Works by major American artists from the 19th and 20th centuries.

Michael Eastman: Horses/The American Landscape: March 16-June 3. Photographs capturing the spirit of horses and the American West.

Millenia Fine Art Gallery

The gallery is at 4190 Millienia Blvd., Orlando. Hours: 10 a.m.-6 p.m. Tuesday-Saturday. Admission is free. Details: 407-226-8701 or

Neil Leifer: Knock You Out: Sept. 15-Oct. 18. Sports photography.

Poteet Victory: Distinctive Light: Oct. 20-Nov. 26. Works by the artist of Choctaw-Cherokee descent and pioneer of color field mysticism.

Duncan McClellan: Nov. 3-Dec. 9. Art glass.

Rocky Bridges' Found Object Museum: Nov. 17-Dec. 9. Mixed-media works.

Robert Kipniss: Invitation to the Light: Dec. 14-Jan. 21. Oil paintings.

Barbara Sorenson: March 9-April 15. Ceramics and sculpture.

Richard Currier: Simple Complexity: April 20-May 25. Large-scale works.

Morse Museum of American Art

The museum is at 445 N. Park Ave., Winter Park. Hours are 9:30 a.m.-4 p.m. Tuesdays-Saturdays, 1-4 p.m. Sundays (also, 4-8 p.m. Fridays, September-May). Admission is $3 adults, $1 students and free ages younger than 12. Details: 407-645-5311.

Two Tiffany Windows: Opening Oct. 10. Two recently restored Tiffany windows from the Richard Beattie Mellon house.

Dickens to Benton -- Rare Books and Works on Paper from the Morse Collection: Jan. 30-Sept. 16, 2007. Including an 1844 edition of Dickens' Martin Chuzzlewit, prints and illustrations.

The center is at 138 E. Fifth Ave., Mount Dora. 10 a.m.-4 p.m. Mondays-Saturdays. Admission is free. Details: 352-383-0880

Artist of the Month: Herman Yokers: Through Sept. 1.

Plein Air Art Paint Out: Sept. 8-Oct. 13. Pieces by members of the Central Florida Chapter of Plein Air Painters.

Artist of the Month: Jane Slivka: Sept. 8-Oct. 13.

Student Teach Exhibit: Oct. 20-Nov. 10. Works by students and teachers from the Center's Arts Education program.

Artist of the Month: Marilyn Diesu: Oct. 20-Nov. 10.

Sixth Annual Great Holiday Gift Show: Nov. 17-Jan. 6. Art by center members, including jewelry, mosaics, glass and fiber art.

History of MDCA: Jan. 16-Feb. 9. "Best of Show" pieces from the Mount Dora Arts Festival, with posters and other memorabilia.

Annual Central Florida Juried Art Show: March 2-May 25.

The gallery is at 211 E. First St., Sanford. Hours are 11 a.m.-5 p.m. Wednesday-Saturday, 11 a.m.-3 p.m. Sunday (also by appointment). Admission is free. Details: 407-323-2774.

Fall Folk Art Auction: 12:30 p.m. preview, 2 p.m. auction Sept. 24. Featuring contemporary Southern folk art.

Folk Art for the Holidays: Nov. 18-Dec. 23. Seasonal works.

Whipple, Whipple and Banks: Objects of Imagination: Jan. 21-Feb. 11. Works by Central Florida artists John and Lynn Whipple, and Alabama artist Michael Banks.

Osceola Center for the Arts

The center is at 2411 E. Irlo Bronson Memorial Highway, Kissimmee. Hours are 10 a.m.-4 p.m. Mondays-Saturdays, noon-4 p.m. Sundays. Admission is free. Details: 407-846-6257.

The Photography of Tommy Tompkins: Sept. 8-Oct. 29.

Expressions of Osceola: The Orlando Sentinel Art & Crafters Show: Nov. 3-Nov. 20.

Reflections of Cocoa Beach: Jan. 5-26.

Dali on Tour: Feb. 2-March 2. Photo reproductions of 31 works by the Surrealist painter.

Images of Osceola: March 9-March 30. Photos by Osceola County residents.

Osceola Student Show: April 6-27.

Annual Juried Show: May 4-June 1.

The museum is at 2416 N. Mills Ave., Orlando. Hours are 10 a.m.-4 p.m. Tuesdays-Fridays, noon-4 p.m. Saturdays and Sundays. Admission is $8 adults, $7 seniors, $7 college students with ID, $5 ages 6-18, free ages 5 and younger. First Thursdays are 6-9 p.m. on the first Thursday of the month admission is $9. Details: 407-896-4231 or

Paths to Impressionism: French and American Landscape Paintings from the Worcester Art Museum: Aug. 26-Dec. 31. Works by Camille Pissaro, John Singer Sargent, Monet and others.

Divine Revolution: The Art of Edouard Duval Carrie: Aug. 26-Oct. 29. Mixed-media works focusing on the cultural and political impact of the Haitian Revolution.

First Thursdays: Art Academia: Sept. 7. Art and the art of teaching.

Contemporary American Graphics Collection: Sept. 16-Oct. 1. Limited-edition lithographs, etchings, silkscreen prints and more.

First Thursdays: Visions of Gratitude: Oct. 5. Art as therapy.

First Thursdays: Sculpture: Art in the Round: Nov. 2. Sculpture by Central Florida artists.

First Thursdays: Moulin Rouge: Dec. 7. Art, fashion, food and dance of France.

Seen in Solitude: Robert Kipniss Prints from the James F. White Collection: Dec. 10-Feb. 11.

First Thursdays: Letterhead -- The Fine Art of Graphic Design: Jan. 4.

Gee's Bend: The Architecture of the Quilt: Jan. 27-May 13. Quilts created by four generations of African-American women from Gee's Bend, Ala.

First Thursdays: Chocolate: Food of the Gods and Lovers: Feb. 1. Art focusing on chocolate.

First Thursdays: Let's Dance: March 1. Movement in dance and art with the Orlando Ballet.

First Thursdays: L.I.F.E. Love Is for Everyone: April 5. Works reflecting on the message "love is for everyone."

This Is Our Land: Discovering America and the World Through Original Children's Books: April 7-July 22.

First Thursdays: Art as Metaphor: May 3. Symbolism in art.

First Thursdays: Reflections of Art in Glass: June 7. Architectural, decorative, stained- and cast-glass works.

The museum is at 800 E. Palmetto St., Lakeland. Summer hours are 10 a.m.-4 p.m. Tuesdays-Saturdays. Admission is $5 adults, $4 seniors, free students, ages 5 and younger and museum members. Details: 863-688-7743.

Women Only! In Their Studios: through Oct. 15. Major works by 20 female artists.

Herman Leonard: Artistic Stylings: through Nov. 12. Portrait photography featuring legendary jazz musicians.

James Michaels: Passion for Paint: Oct. 21-Jan. 28. Large-scale sepia-tone paintings.

Gary Bolding: From Window to Wall: Oct. 21-Jan. 28. Bolding's paintings from the past decade.

The Art Resource Trust Selects: Works on Paper: Dec. 2-Feb. 21. Works on paper from major galleries.

Ansel Adams: Celebration of Genius: Feb. 3-April 1. Photographs by the notable landscape photographer.

Monica Naugle: March 3-May 20. Sculptures by the Colombian artist.

Mamie Holst: May 26-Aug. 5. Painting as therapy.

Japanese Textiles from the Permanent Collection: June 2-Aug. 12.

Fruits and Flowers: Dali's Botanical Prints: Prints featuring collage imagery.

Seminole Community College Fine Arts Gallery

The gallery is on the campus of Seminole Community College, 100 Weldon Blvd., Sanford. Hours are 9 a.m.-4 p.m. Monday-Thursday and on evenings of lectures and music and theater performances. Admission is free. Details: 407-328-4722.

SCC Gallery Silent Auction Benefit: Aug. 29.

Works by David Collins and Beth Ojavo: Sept. 5-28.

Works by Patrick Schmidt: Oct. 3-31.

Annual SCC Fine Arts Faculty Exhibit: Nov. 7-30.

Works by Janice Pittsley and David L. Engdahl: Jan. 2-Feb. 1.

Works by Suzanne Clements: Feb. 5-March 1.

Works by Marita Gootee and Jing Zhou: March 6-29.

38th Annual SCC Juried Student Art Exhibit: April 3-26.

Southeast Museum of Photography

The museum is on the campus of Daytona Beach Community College, 1200 International Speedway, Daytona Beach. Hours are 10 a.m.-4 p.m. Wednesday-Friday and Monday, 1-5 p.m. Saturday and Sunday, 11 a.m.-7 p.m. Tuesday. Admission is free. Details: 386-254-4475.

Taken for Looks: through Sept. 1. On the medium of photography, with works by Meredith Allen, Anita Calero, Tim Davis, Justin Jurland, Laura Letinsky, Martin Parr and Lyndon Wade.

Coal Hollow: Photographs by Ken Light: Aug. 31-Oct. 29. Documentary of the death of the coal industry, mining communities and coal companies in West Virginia.

Stetson University Duncan Gallery of Art

The galley is on the campus of Stetson University, 421 N. Woodland Blvd., DeLand. Hours are 10 a.m.-4 p.m. Mondays-Fridays, 1-4 p.m. Saturdays and Sundays. Admission is free. Details: 386-822-7266.

Silverpoint and Graphic Works by Carol Prusa: Thursday-Sept. 27.

Stetson Clay: Oct. 6-Nov. 3. Works by Stetson graduates.

17th Juried Student Art Exhibit: Nov. 10-Dec. 6.

Works by Donna Conlon: Jan. 12-Feb. 8. Installations and mixed-media pieces.

Stetson Art Faculty: Feb. 16-March 22. Works by Gary Bolding, Dan Gunderson, Cyriaco Lopes and Matt Roberts.

Senior Thesis Exhibitions: March 16-April 7 at DeLand Museum of Art, March 30-April 27 at Duncan Gallery of Art.

University of Central Florida Art Gallery

The gallery is in the Visual Arts building on the campus of the University of Central Florida, Alafaya Trail, Orlando. Hours are 9 a.m.-4 p.m. Monday-Friday. Admission is free. Details: 407-823-3161.

The Pull of Paradise: Images from Florida Springs by Rebecca Schrock: through Aug. 30. With student photographs by Charles McCurry, Jessica Libes, and Natalia Roman.

Faculty Show 2006: Sept. 7-Oct. 13. Works by the UCF Art faculty.

Out of the Darkness: The Contemporary Revival of Early Photography: Oct. 26-Dec. 7. Exhibition of works by artists using 19th century photograph techniques.

A Net of Invisible Signals / Daniel Reeves / Media Art 1979 2006: Jan. 18-March 2. Digital installation.

MFA Student Exhibition: March 19-31. Works by graduating MFA students.

Third Annual Juried Student Exhibition: April 5-13.

BFA Student Exhibition: April 19-May 5. Works by graduation BFA students.

Valencia Community College

The Anita S. Wooten Gallery is on the Valencia Community College East Campus at 701 N. Econlockhatchee Trail, Orlando. Hours are 9 a.m.-4 p.m. Mondays-Fridays. Admission is free. Details: 407-582-2268.

The Devil at the Door: Drawings by Carla Poindexter: Sept. 8-Oct. 27.

Selected Fine Art Faculty 2006: Nov. 17-Jan. 13

Fruit Tramps: Documentary Photography by Herman LeRoy Emmet: Jan. 26-March 10.

Graphic and Fine Art Annual Juried Student Show: April 20-May 25.

The Constructions of Jim Casey: June 15-July 27.

Graphic Arts Faculty Show: Aug. 10-Sept. 14.

Zora Neale Hurston National Museum of Fine Arts

The museum is at 227 E. Kennedy Blvd., Eatonville. Hours are 9 a.m.-4 p.m. Mondays-Fridays, 2-5 p.m. Sundays. Admission is free. Details: 407-647-3307.

The Ties that Bind: African Textiles and the Diaspora: Sept. 16-Dec. 29. Examining the history of African textiles and adornments.

The Eatonville Quilters -- A Celebration of Community Traditions: Jan. 20-April 27. Quilts by generations of Eatonville women.

African Metals: Objects as Art: May 19-Aug. 24. Metalwork used for trade and decoration.

Richard MacDonald American, b. 1946

Sculptor. Innovator. Inventor. Richard MacDonald is all of these and more - a consummate artist whose works serve as a stunning reminder of the good and the beautiful that life has to offer. Many consider Richard MacDonald to be the world's preeminent living sculptor. A leading advocate of the neo-figurative movement in the arts, MacDoanld believes that beauty connects people and lifts their spirits to a higher level. He has dedicated his career to creating passionate works of art that dramatically enrich the lives of others.

Richard MacDonald is a celebrated sculptor and a leading advocate of the neo-figurative movement in the arts. Known for his virtuosity in capturing impressions of live models while they are in motion, he is able to depict performers and dancers at the peak of their performance. According to author Tom Wolfe, MacDonald is "one of those rare artists who can feel the body in motion from the inside out."

Born in 1946 in Pasadena, California, MacDonald won a scholarship to study at Art Center College of Design where he graduated cum laude in 1971. Over the next 12 years, MacDonald was a successful illustrator working with Fortune 500 clients. In 1980, MacDonald taught himself to sculpt. Since then, he has spent more than 30 years creating a body of work that has changed the contemporary understanding of Figurative sculpture. As a world-renown artist, his sculpture has been shown in hundreds of solo and group exhibitions, including the Corcoran Gallery of Art in Washington, DC, the Boston Museum at Chesterwood and the European Museum of Modern Art (MEAM) Museum in Barcelona, Spain. Represented in galleries worldwide, MacDonald's sculptures are collected by people from all walks of life, including Bill and Hillary Clinton, Lynda and Stewart Resnick, Guy Laliberte, Tony Robbins, Dean Koontz, Richard Marx, Leanne Rimes, and opera legend, Luciano Pavarotti.

Among his greatest achievements are historically significant public monuments, such as the 26-foot bronze sculpture The Flair which was installed at Georgia International Plaza in Atlanta, for the Olympic Games in 1996, where it still stands today. In 2000 Richard MacDonald created the 15-foot tall bronze called Momentum to celebrate 100 years of the U.S Open, which was held at Pebble Beach, where the piece is permanently installed.

Committed to inspiring the next generation of artists, MacDonald's numerous philanthropic pursuits include Boys & Girls Club of America, The Royal Ballet and Royal Ballet School, Free Arts for Abused Children, and local community charities. He is involved with the development of the arts through mentoring programs, international artist workshops, and art education in schools and universities. MacDonald is an award-winning fellow of the National Sculpture Society and member of Bohemian Club, Cosmos Club, and National Society of Illustrators.

In recognition of his cultural achievements, MacDonald has received many awards, honors, and professorships, including the Medal of Honor from the United States Sports Academy and recognition by the United States Olympic Committee. In 2012, in recognition for his work and support of The Royal Ballet, he was invited to dine with Prince Charles at Buckingham Palace. MacDonald believes that beauty connects people and lifts their spirits to a higher level. He has dedicated his career to making a difference by creating passionate works of art that dramatically enrich the lives of others.

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