Where is Christopher Columbus really buried?

Where is Christopher Columbus really buried?


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DNA verifies Columbus’ remains in Spain

Spanish researchers said Friday that they have resolved a century-old mystery surrounding Christopher Columbus's burial place, which both Spain and the Dominican Republic claim to be watching over. Their verdict: Spain's got the right bones.

A forensic team led by Spanish geneticist Jose Antonio Lorente compared DNA from bone fragments that Spain says are from the explorer — and are buried in a cathedral in Seville — with DNA extracted from remains known to be from Columbus' brother Diego, who is also buried in the southern Spanish city.

"There is absolute matchup between the mitochondrial DNA we have studied from Columbus' brother and Christopher Columbus," said Marcial Castro, a Seville-area historian and high school teacher who is the mastermind behind the project, which began in 2002. Mitochondria are cell components rich in DNA.

He spoke a day before the 500th anniversary Saturday of Columbus' death in the northern Spanish city of Valladolid.

Castro and his research colleagues have been trying in vain for years to convince the Dominican Republic to open up an ornate lighthouse monument in the capital, Santo Domingo, that the Dominicans say holds the remains of the explorer.

Dominicans dismiss findings
Juan Bautista Mieses, the director of the Columbus Lighthouse — a cross-shaped building several blocks long — dismissed the researchers' findings and insisted Friday that Columbus was indeed buried in the Dominican Republic.

"The remains have never left Dominican territory," Bautista said.

The goal of opening the lighthouse tomb was to compare those remains to the ones from Diego in Seville and determine which country had buried the man who arrived in the New World in 1492, landing at the island of Hispaniola, which today comprises the Dominican Republic and Haiti.

Castro stressed in an interview that, although his team is convinced the bones in Seville are from Columbus, this does not necessarily mean the ones in Santo Domingo are not. Columbus' body was moved several times after his death, and the tomb in Santo Domingo might conceivably also hold part of the right body. "We don't know what is in there," Castro said.

Castro said that in light of the DNA evidence from Spain, the objective of opening the Santo Domingo tomb would be to determine who, if not Columbus, is buried there. "Now, studying the remains in the Dominican Republic is more necessary and exciting than ever," he said.

However, Bautista said he would not allow the remains to be tested. “We Christians believe that one does not bother the dead,” he said.

A little history
Columbus died and was buried in Valladolid on May 20, 1506. He had asked to be buried in the Americas, but no church of sufficient stature existed there.

Three years later, his remains were moved to a monastery on La Cartuja, a river island next to Seville. In 1537, Maria de Rojas y Toledo, widow of one of Columbus' sons, Diego, sent the bones of her husband and his father to the cathedral in Santo Domingo for burial.

There they lay until 1795, when Spain ceded Hispaniola to France and decided Columbus' remains should not fall into the hands of foreigners.

A set of remains that the Spaniards believed were Columbus' was first shipped to Havana, Cuba, and then back to Seville when the Spanish-American War broke out in 1898.

In 1877, however, workers digging in the Santo Domingo cathedral unearthed a leaden box containing bones and bearing the inscription, "Illustrious and distinguished male, don Cristobal Colon." That's the Spanish way of saying Christopher Columbus.

The Dominicans say that these were the genuine remains and that the Spaniards took the wrong body back in 1795.

Another mystery awaits
Lorente is the director of the Laboratory of Genetic Identification at the University of Granada. He usually works on criminal cases but has also helped identify people killed under military regimes in Latin America. His lab works regularly with the FBI.

Castro says the team is now focusing their DNA tools on another Columbus mystery: his country of origin. Traditional theory says he was from Genoa, Italy, but another line of argument says Columbus was actually from the Catalonia region of northeast Spain.

One piece of evidence supporting this latter idea is that when Columbus wrote back from the New World in Spanish — not Italian — he used words and phrases that reflected influence from the Catalan language, Castro said.

The new team has now collected DNA samples from more than 350 men in Catalonia whose last name is Colom — the Catalan way of saying Columbus — and from 80 in Italy whose last name is Colombo. The material is obtained by wiping the underside of their tongues with a cotton swab.

Checking the Y chromosome
The idea is to compare the genetic material with DNA from another authenticated Columbus relative, his son Hernando, who is buried in Seville. In this case, the analysis focuses on another kind of DNA: genetic markers from the Y chromosome, which men receive only from their fathers.

DNA from Y chromosomes is much more scarce than the mitochondrial kind and deteriorates more rapidly. The team is using Hernando's because that of his purported father is in bad shape.

Lorente and company want to see if the DNA pattern in Columbus' Y chromosome still shows up in men in either Catalonia or Italy, which would suggest he is from one place or the other, Castro said.

It is not known when the results of this second study will be available, because the data from Italy is still scant.

"The people whose last name is Colombo are cooperating less than the Coloms in Spain," he said.


Discovering the 500 Year-Old Mystery of Christopher Columbus' Tomb

Visitors to Seville’s enormous Gothic cathedral flock to see the ornate tomb of Christopher Colmbus, who was buried there in 1898. Yet Santo Domingo, the capital of the Dominican Republic, also claims to possess the explorer’s remains. Over 500 years since Columbus’ death, there is still mystery and intrigue surrounding his exact burial spot: read on to find out why.

The confusion has arisen because Columbus’ remains saw almost as much travel as the explorer did during his lifetime. He died in the northern Spanish city of Valladolid in 1506, after returning from his final expedition to the “New World”, only to be moved to a monastery near Seville three years later. But in 1537, the newly opened cathedral of Santa Maria la Menor in Santo Domingo – a territory founded by Columbus – was deemed a much grander burial site, so the Genoese explorer’s remains embarked on their second journey, this time to the Dominican Republic.

What was left of the revered navigator stayed in the cathedral at Santo Domingo until 1795, when France took control of Hispaniola (the Caribbean island that is now split between the Dominican Republic and Haiti) from Spain under the terms of a peace treaty. Not wanting the French to take possession of Columbus’ remains as well, the Spanish had them removed to Cuba, then part of Spain’s extensive global empire. Yet by the end of the 19 th century the Spanish Empire was a fading force and in 1898 the Spaniards renounced control of Cuba – as well as handing over Puerto Rico and The Philippines to the United States – in the Treaty of Paris. Columbus was moved back to Seville and buried in a forbidding tomb inside the city’s gigantic cathedral, thus completing his fourth posthumous journey.

But the Dominican Republic claims, not without foundation, that Columbus’ remains never made that final trip back to Spain. In 1877, workers in the Santo Domingo cathedral from which the explorer had supposedly been removed over 80 years earlier discovered a container of remains labelled “The illustrious and excellent man, Don Columbus, Admiral of the Ocean Sea”. Ever since, the Dominicans have claimed that Spain transported the wrong remains out of Santo Domingo in 1795 – a fact which, if true, means that someone else entirely lies in the imposing tomb in Seville’s cathedral. So convinced are the Dominicans that Columbus lies in their soil that in 1992 they opened a colossal (and, it has to be said, rather ugly) cross-shaped monument for the explorer called the Columbus Lighthouse, containing both a mausoleum and a museum.

The story doesn’t end there, though. In 2006, it seemed that the Spaniards finally had conclusive proof that Columbus lies in Seville rather than in Santo Domingo. At the conclusion of a project which had been running since 2002, a forensics team announced that DNA taken from the remains of the explorer’s brother Diego – who is definitely buried in Seville – were an “absolute matchup” with DNA extracted from the purported remains of Columbus in the same city.

When asked about the apparently conclusive findings in Seville, Juan Buatista, director of the Columbus Lighthouse in Santo Domingo, was dismissive yet again, he claimed that “the remains have never left Dominican territory”. There is, of course, one way to find out who exactly the Dominicans have interred in Santo Domingo, but they have forbidden DNA testing of the remains out of respect for the dead. Some experts have suggested that it’s entirely possible some of Columbus is in Seville and some in Santo Domingo, but until the latter remains are forensically examined we won’t know for sure. The mystery surrounding the final resting place of the “illustrious and excellent” explorer, now over 500 years old, remains unsolved.


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Was Christopher Columbus really from Italy? Scientists look to DNA for an answer

In this grab taken from video on Wednesday, May 19, 2021, Inmaculada Aleman, Professor of Physical Anthropology measures a bone from the alleged remains of Christopher Columbus and family members, at Granada University in Granada, Spain. Was Christopher Columbus really from Genoa, in Italy? Or was he Spanish? A definitive answer to the question of where the famous explorer came from could be just five months away as international scientists on Wednesday launched an effort to read the DNA from his remains and identify his geographic origin. (AP)

MADRID (AP) — Was Christopher Columbus really from Genoa, in Italy? Or was he Spanish? Or, as some other theories have it, was he Portuguese or Croatian or even Polish?

A definitive answer to the question of where the famous explorer came from could be just five months away as international scientists on Wednesday launched an effort to read the DNA from his remains and identify his geographic origin.

Their findings are to be made public in October.

Knowledge of the 15th-century navigator’s early life is scant.

A major breakthrough in establishing a fuller profile of the man who died 515 years ago came after DNA tests in 2003 established that bones in a tomb in the cathedral of Seville were those of Columbus.

But after that discovery, the research team from Spain’s University of Granada that is leading the Columbus research decided to halt its investigation. The reason: DNA technology at the time was neither accurate nor reliable and required a significant amount of genetic material.

After leaps in the sophistication of DNA testing in recent years, gene geography may now ascertain the rough area of a European person’s ancestry.

José Antonio Lorente, a professor of forensic medicine at Granada University, said there had been a “radical” improvement in DNA analysis, which now permits tests on very small fragments.

He said researchers are working with four small bone fragments from Columbus, seven bone fragments and a tooth from his son Hernando, and a dozen bone fragments in poor condition from his brother Diego.

The fragments are being sent to genetic identification laboratories in Rome and Florence in Italy, Mexico and the United States, Lorente told an online press conference.

Lorente said he believes the generally accepted theory that Columbus was from Genoa, but the project aims to resolve some “mysteries … and contradictions” in the historical record and obtain “as much information as possible … so that there is no argument.”

In this grab taken from video on Wednesday, May 19, 2021, a scientist controls a 3D scanner over the alleged remains of bones of Christopher Columbus and family members, in the Anthropology Laboratory at Granada University in Granada, Spain. Was Christopher Columbus really from Genoa, in Italy? Or was he Spanish? A definitive answer to the question of where the famous explorer came from could be just five months away as international scientists on Wednesday launched an effort to read the DNA from his remains and identify his geographic origin. (AP)

Granada University on Wednesday was hosting what it called the first world meeting of Columbus researchers, who are presenting evidence for their different theories about the explorer’s origins.

Columbus’s four transatlantic voyages on behalf of the Spanish monarchs between 1492 and 1504 opened a door to Europe’s colonization of the Americas, then known as the New World.

Columbus died on May 20, 1506 and was buried in the Spanish city of Valladolid, though he had asked to be buried in the Americas.


CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS WAS BLACK

CAMBRIDGE, U.K. – New research done by the University of Cambridge proves conclusively that Christopher Columbus was black.

DNA analysis of the remains of Christopher Columbus, done by forensic scientists at the University of Cambridge, prove beyond a shadow a doubt that the famed navigator was of African descent.

“A five-hundred-year-mystery has been solved,” said Wellington Malley, the head of the Cambridge research team. “Even though Columbus was born in Genoa, and spoke and wrote in Spanish most of his life, the DNA is clear – Columbus was 100% African. We believe he was from the west coast, probably from what is now Cameroon.”

“No way!”, said Carlo Minucci of Bayonne, New Jersey. “Columbus is a full-blooded Italian-America. He sailed here with his friends Nina and Pinta and discovered Hoboken. That’s the way it went down. He’s not black. This is our day!”

Sorry, Carlo. It’s the truth. .. Some of the remains of Christopher Columbus were found in Seville Cathedral, in Spain, and some bones were buried in Santo Domingo Cathedral in the Dominican Republic. “All of the bones and the remains from both locations have been checked and rechecked. He’s black.”

Columbus died in 1506. In 1537, the widow of his son Diego was allowed to take the bones of both her husband and his father to the Dominican Republic for burial in the cathedral of Santo Domingo. Diego was also black.

Not all African-Americans were pleased to know learn about Columbus’s ethnic identity. “What? Columbo was a thug, a punk. He sailed out over here and slaughtered the Indians, ” said Fred Johnson of Harlem. “I think the whole thing is bogus, trying to pin a crime on blacks again. This is B.S.”

But President Obama heard news over the weekend and was proud to know that one of the greatest sailors and navigators of all time was black. “I’m ordering all statues and monuments to Christopher Columbus be taken down and redone. We want his likeness to be accurate.”

Mayor Bloomberg in New York said that the big Italian-American parade down 5th Avenue would be changed to an African-American parade in honor of Christopher Columbus.

“Fuggedabout it,” said Tony Cinelli of Brooklyn. “This ain’t right. This is the only Italian day we get. And they take it away from us? We get no respect. Next thing you know they’ll be telling us that the Chinese invented pasta.”

The Grand Marshall of this year’s Columbus Day Parade – Maria Bartiromo has been replaced by Beyonce.

Native-American were indifferent to the news. “Either way we got screwed,” said Chief Walking Stick, a Navajo Indian.

Well, whether you are black, Italian, or just a Columbus-lover… get out there and celebrate the day!

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34 thoughts on &ldquoCHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS WAS BLACK&rdquo

Columbus wasn't black. He was an alien.

This is true. Christopher Deshaun Columbus was a brotha.

wtf he thought he was green

I can see it…the idea that Africans couldnt hold prominent European postiions is ludicris…if there were Black Greeks, Black Romans, off course there would be Black Spaniards…and was probably common…Race wasn't created untill after Columbus…I dont see why everybody is so surprised…Hell…the Moors ruled spain for 10 centuries….What the hell you expect…oh my fault people still beleive in the "Great White Race" theory..where all things great came from Europe…well many great things did come from Europe….like a Black Columbus…LMAO….the half hasnt been told…

Columbus wasn't black. He was an exiled alien.

Well stated I couldn’t have said it any better people would also be surprised to know that when Christopher Columbus came to the Americas he found black people already there and that the typically known Native Americans are in fact not Americans at all but are Mongolian Siberians who crossed the Bering Strait. The original people of America are black people so called African Americans ain’t African at all. And the Trans Atlantic Slave Trade has been told in reverse, the black Indians were the ones being shipped all across Europe and Africa

Bingo! All ancient empires were black

Moors ruled the area known as spain, france, holland, england, ireland, portugal, and some parts of italy for 800 yrs. 711ad to 1491ad. Columbus was not a navigator, he could not read. During this time period, most moors were forced into servatude, or forced to convert to christianity and also were kept out of lucrative business deals(just like in america), or kicked out of Europe back to Afraka. Why would Columbus be spared?

England, and Ireland, Are you retarded?

He could indeed read his Blackamor navigator Nino Pedro Alonso used 2 Edras to navigate to Arsareth Arzot haBrit land of the Covenant.

Please he was a republican.

Murderous black monster, responsible for untold genocide, and he was Israelite as was his family! This revelation makes me happy, as the truth about this black fool is now public knowledge! Now the Italians are free of the association with this International Criminal and his legacy of genocide, murder, rape, ethnic cleansing, and deportation. I thank the scientic community for this timely revelation, Columbus was a Pirate and great criminal, what black person could be proud of this fool or who would celebrate this criminals life or his stubbling upon a land already discovered by the native inhabitants, I hope his black body burns in hell forever, and anyone who celebrates Columbus Day. Columbus's picture, statutes and anything else should be torn down like Saddam's were torn down, damn muderer!

DON,T MENTION ALIEN OR THEY WILL COME AND TAKE A PIECE OF YOUR LAND (ASS)

I THINK PEOPLE ARE LOOSING SIGHT AND STARTING TO POINT FINGERS ALOT O PEOPLE IN THE PAST HAVE LIVED NOTORIOUS LIVES….NOT JUST COLUMBUS DONT TRY TO MAKE HIM OUT TO BE SOME HORRIBLE MURDERING….JUST BECAUSE WE NOW KNW HE WAS AFRICAN WHAT ABOUT HITLER WAS HE AFRICAN DONT THINK SO!! THE MAIN THING IS WE NOW HAVE A CHANGE IN HISTORY LESSONS A CHANGE IN STATUES AND THINGS OF THAT SORT!! QUIT POINTING FINGERS¡!! SERIOUSLY!

Well…hate to break it you. But the Indian reservations and holocaust was the model for hitler. Hitler was aware of the Indian holocaust and there were millions upon millions killed. Columbus is considered the first war in the indigenous people here of the turtle island. That was the original name for the North American continent you know today. Your walking on the largest burial ground known to man today. So I think you should also be aware indians are relocated every time the government finds coal or value in the lands. The indigenous still face tyranny. More than black people more than the Jews more than any other nation known to man. You can always trace your roots back to Africa. Natives from here can trace there ancestry as dead in the ground and no home, So be quite.

The Hon. Elijah Muhammad taught us 50 odd years ago that christopher Columbus was a half original(mixed race of black and white). So this is only news to us common people whilethe wise men have known this reality from the beginning.

Black or white or in between, he was Catalonian!
see the book by Charles J.Merrill, Edicions Consenta …
catalonians already use to know it but it is even reconfirmed now .

Reading these comments you would think the ppl leaving writing them didn't realize this was meant to be a parody. I know it wasn't very funny but still…

Christopher Columbus was Blavk but remember this Black Sailor sailed when everyone was afraid to, because they said the world was flat. So when Columbus got permission from King Ferdinand II to Sail they let out all the murderers and Rapist out of Spain jails to take the voyage with him assuming they would never return.

History in and of itself is a lie. History is written by the Victor’s. Those who’ve lost battles very seldom if ever get told.

Someone on here spoke about Hitler. Well Hitler response was due to the fact that in WWI, the Jews actually ran Germany. When WWI ended, the Jews were responsible for the concessions they gave. They put Germany masses in a depression. While many Germans suffered, the Jewish elite were well off. They lived a great life. That’s how Hitler was able to gain power. He turned the masses against the elite, bringing him to power. Yet, most history books never tell the complete story. They only make one side (Hitler in this case) look bad.

Columbus, here is made to look bad. Although he was Black, he was human. He didn’t come here on his own fruition. He was sent here because Europe had long tried to find their way to America (America is not a new word either as Amercua was the word used by the natives – Blacks). The initial meaning of the word discover (1300 – 1500) meant one was an informant (Webster Dictionary – 1828). So, Columbus was initially known as spy. Columbus had made many trips to Africa. There were many stories about the Americas. The Africans had been trading with the Indigenous people of Americas for thousands of years. Look at the hieroglyphs from the Egyptians. You will see Corn stalks In their hieroglyphs. Well, corn is only indigenous to the Americas so how would they have known about corn? So, what Columbus had convinced the King and Queen of Spain was that America was the place of vast amounts of wealth. He swore he could find it as he a discovered the lost trade route to get to America. So, this lie that he was trying to find a new trade route to India is a joke.

The reason Columbus was so readily accepted was because he looked just like the people he met. This wasn’t the first meeting that the indigenous people of Amercua had, had with outsiders. They were very comfortable. What the indigenous people didn’t know was those who came with Columbus true intentions.

When Columbus originally sailed back to Spain, he brought back GOLD as well as other trinkets. This is what allowed them to continue to finance his operation. Now what fallout happened between the King and Columbus and what made them jail him is up for debate. However, whats truly important and what is continuously overlooked is those indigenous people were not Mongoloid. Those people were black. They left plenty of evidence to confirm their existence (the Olmec heads in Mexico. The heads on Easter Island). These are just two examples but there are plenty others. Yet, history has whitewashed any and all accounts of truth. So, unless you truly spend time reading and uncovering evidence which will lead to the truth, you will continue to believe the lies which are taught.


Columbus: the Real Story

In popular myth, Christopher Columbus is the very symbol of European greed and genocidal imperialism. In reality, he was a dedicated Christian concerned first and foremost with serving God and his fellow man.

Peering into the future, Columbus (1451-15­06) could not have anticipated the ingratitude and outright contempt shown by modern man toward his discovery and exploration of the New World. Few see him as he really was: a devout Catholic concerned for the eternal salvation of the indigenous peoples he encountered. Rather, it has become fashionable to slander him as deliberately genocidal, a symbol of European imperialism,[1] a bringer of destruction, enslavement, and death to the happy and prosperous people of the Americas.[2]

In the United States, the vitriol directed against Columbus produces annual protests every Columbus Day. Some want to abolish it as a federal holiday, and several cities already refuse to acknowledge it and celebrate instead “Indigenous Peoples Day.”[3]

This movement to brand Columbus a genocidal maniac and erase all memory of his extraordinary accomplishments stems from a false myth about the man and his times.

The so-called Age of Discovery was ushered in by Prince Henry the Navigator (1394-1460) of Portugal. Prince Henry and his sailors inaugurated the great age of explorers finding new lands and creating shipping lanes for the import and export of goods, including consumables never before seen in Europe. Their efforts also created an intense competition among the sailing nations of Europe, each striving to outdo the other in finding new and more efficient trade routes. It was into this world of innovation, exploration, and economic competition that Christopher Columbus was born.

A native of the Italian city-state of Genoa, Columbus became a sailor at the age of fourteen. He learned the nautical trade sailing on Genoese merchant vessels and became an accomplished navigator. On a long-distance voyage past Iceland in February 1477, Columbus learned about the strong east-flowing Atlantic currents and believed a journey across the ocean could be made because the currents would be able to bring a ship home.[4] So Columbus formulated a plan to seek the east by going west. He knew such an ambitious undertaking required royal backing, and in May of 1486 he secured a royal audience with King Fernando and Queen Isabel of Spain, who in time granted everything Columbus needed for the voyage.

On August 3, 1492, Columbus embarked from Spain with ninety men on three ships: the Nina, Pinta, and Santa Maria.[5] After thirty-three days at sea, Columbus’s flotilla spotted land (the Bahamas), which he claimed in the name of the Spanish monarchs. Columbus’s modern-day detractors view that as a sign of imperial conquest. It was not: it was simply a sign to other European nations that they could not establish trading posts on the Spanish possession.[6]

On this first voyage, Columbus also reached the islands of Cuba and Hispaniola. He stayed four months in the New World and arrived home to fanfare on March 15, 1493. Unfortunately, the Santa Maria ran aground on Hispaniola so was forced to leave forty-two men behind, ordered to treat the indigenous people well and especially to respect the women.[7] Unfortunately, as Columbus discovered on his second voyage, that order was not heeded.

Columbus made four voyages to the New World, and each brought its own discoveries and adventures. His second voyage included many crewmen from his first, but also some new faces such as Ponce de León, who later won fame as an explorer himself. On this second voyage, Columbus and his men encountered the fierce tribe of the Caribs, who were cannibals, practiced sodomy, and castrated captured boys from neighboring tribes. Columbus recognized the Caribs’ captives as members of the peaceful tribe he met on his first voyage, so he rescued and returned them to their homes.[8] This voyage included stops in Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands.

The third voyage was the most difficult for Columbus, as he was arrested on charges of mismanagement of the Spanish trading enterprise in the New World and sent back to Spain in chains (though later fully exonerated). Columbus’s fourth and final voyage took place in 1502-1504, with his son Fernando among the crew. The crossing of the Atlantic was the fastest ever: sixteen days. The expedition visited Honduras, Nicaragua, and Costa Rica, and was marooned for a time on Jamaica.

Most accounts of Columbus’s voyages mistake his motives by focusing narrowly on economic or political reasons. But in fact, his primary motive was to find enough gold to finance a crusade to retake Jerusalem from the Muslims, as evidenced by a letter he wrote in December 1492 to King Fernando and Queen Isabel, encouraging them to “spend all the profits of this my enterprise on the conquest of Jerusalem.”[9] In this, he believed he was fulfilling conditions for the Second Coming of Christ. Near the end of his life, he even compiled a book about the connection between the liberation of Jerusalem and the Second Coming.[10]

Columbus considered himself a “Christ-bearer” like his namesake, St. Christopher.[11] When he first arrived in Hispaniola, his first words to the natives were, “The monarchs of Castile have sent us not to subjugate you but to teach you the true religion.”[12] In a 1502 letter to Pope Alexander VI (r. 1492-1503), Columbus asked the pontiff to send missionaries to the indigenous peoples of the New World so they could accept Christ. And in his will, Columbus proved his belief in the importance of evangelization by establishing a fund to finance missionary efforts to the lands he discovered.[13]

Contrary to the popular myth, Columbus treated the native peoples with great respect and friendship. He was impressed by their “generosity, intelligence, and ingenuity.”[14] He recorded in his diary that “in the world there are no better people or a better land. They love their neighbors as themselves, and they have the sweetest speech in the world and [they are] gentle and always laughing.”[15] Columbus demanded that his men exchange gifts with the natives they encountered and not just take what they wanted by force. He enforced this policy rigorously: on his third voyage in August 1500, he hanged men who disobeyed him by harming the native people.[16]

Columbus never intended the enslavement of the peoples of the New World. In fact, he considered the Indians who worked in the Spanish settlement in Hispaniola as employees of the crown.[17] In further proof that Columbus did not plan to rely on slave labor, he asked the crown to send him Spanish miners to mine for gold.[18] Indeed, no doubt influenced by Columbus, the Spanish monarchs in their instructions to Spanish settlers mandated that the Indians be treated “very well and lovingly” and demanded that no harm should come to them.[19]

Columbus passed to his eternal reward on May 20, 1506.

For more on European exploration and missionary activity in the New World, or to learn the facts about many other anti-Catholic historical myths, check out Steve Weidenkopf’s new book, The Real Story of Catholic History, available now from Catholic Answers Press.

[1] Carol Delaney, Columbus and the Quest for Jerusalem (New York: Free Press, 2011), xii.

[3] Marilia Brocchetto and Emanuella Grinberg, “Quest to Change Columbus Day to Indigenous Peoples Day Sails Ahead,” CNN.com, October 10, 2016, accessed April 7, 2017, http://www.cnn.com/2016/10/09/us/columbus-day-indigenous-peoples-day/.

[4] The sailors of Columbus’s day did not believe the earth was flat, as is commonly believed, but were afraid about the ability to get home after sailing across the ocean.

[5] Columbus demanded a patent of nobility, a coat of arms, the titles of Admiral of the Ocean Sea and Viceroy and Governor of all discovered lands, plus 10 percent of the revenue from all trade from any claimed territory. Isabel agreed to these terms and both parties signed the Capitulations of Santa Fe on April 17, 1492. See Delaney, Columbus and the Quest for Jerusalem, 68.

[6] See Delaney, Columbus and the Quest for Jerusalem, 92.

[10] The book was titled Libro de las Profecías or the Book of Prophecies.

[11] Delaney, Columbus and the Quest for Jerusalem, 83.

[12] Daniel-Rops, The Catholic Reformation, vol. 2, 27.

[15] Columbus, Diario, 281. Quoted in Delaney, Columbus and the Quest for Jerusalem, 107. Columbus was a literate man, which was rare for the day. He recorded his observations of the New World in his diary and ship’s log, at a time when keeping logs was not standard practice.

[16] See Delaney, Columbus and the Quest for Jerusalem, 181.

[19] See Samuel Eliot Morison, trans. and ed., Journals and Other Documents on the Life and Voyages of Christopher Columbus, vol. 1 (New York: Heritage Press, 1963), 204. Quoted in Delaney, Columbus and the Quest for Jerusalem, 125-126.


Death of Christopher Columbus

The man who ‘discovered’ the Americas died aged 55 on 20 May 1506.

The discoverer of the Americas had a strong sense of divine intervention in his life. In his thirties, when his ship was wrecked and he managed to grab a wooden oar and reach the shore in Portugal, Cristoforo Colombo believed that he had been personally saved by God, and there would be other occasions later when he saw the hand of God in his affairs.

By the time he had completed his four great transatlantic voyages, between 1492 and 1504, he had identified himself with his namesake, St Christopher, who carried the Christ-child across a swollen stream, despite the child’s massive weight. Columbus felt that he, too, had struggled across the water under the heavy burden of Christ and by 1501 he was signing himself Christo Ferens (‘Christ Bearer’). He had also long dedicated himself to the recapture of Jerusalem and believed that Jerusalem and Mount Sion would be rebuilt by a Christian from Spain, which he hoped would be him.

When he returned to Spain in 1504 after his last voyage, Columbus was fifty-three and in poor health. Inflammation of the eyes sometimes made it impossible for him to read and he suffered agonies from what was once diagnosed as gout or arthritis, but is now suspected to have been something called Reiter’s syndrome. He went to Seville and waited in vain for a summons to court. His patrons King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella had doubts about his mental condition and had no intention of giving him any official position, and Isabella was in any case only three weeks away from her death.

Columbus lived most of his last eighteen months unhappily in Valladolid, comfortably off and cared for by his family, but in an increasingly disturbed state of mind and ceaselessly agitating for the official recognition, money and prerogatives that had been promised him. He managed a brief word with the king at Segovia in 1505, struggling there on mule-back, but Ferdinand was noncommittal and Columbus was mainly represented at court by his elder son Diego, a member of the royal guard.

On 20 May Columbus took a sudden turn for the worse. His sons Diego and Ferdinand, his brother Diego and a few old shipmates were at the bedside when a priest said Mass and the great explorer was heard to say that into God's hands he commended his spirit. After the funeral at Valladolid, Columbus was buried in the Carthusian monastery of Santa Maria de las Cuevas in Seville. The body was exhumed in 1542 and taken to Santo Domingo in the Caribbean, where it remained until the island was ceded to the French in the 1790s, when it was moved again, to Havana. After the Spanish-American war of 1898 and Spain’s loss of Cuba, Columbus’s remains were at last returned to Spain and buried in Seville Cathedral. Columbus himself never knew that he had discovered the New World, nor did anyone else the time. All he thought he had found was outlying bits of Asia.


Was Christopher Columbus Italian or Spanish? Scientists Are Using Explorer's DNA to Find Out

Published May 19, 2021 &bull Updated on May 19, 2021 at 9:04 am

Was Christopher Columbus really from Genoa, in Italy? Or was he Spanish? Or, as some other theories have it, was he Portuguese or Croatian or even Polish?

A definitive answer to the question of where the famous explorer came from could be just five months away as international scientists on Wednesday launched an effort to read the DNA from his remains and identify his geographic origin.

Their findings are to be made public in October.

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Knowledge of the 15th-century navigator’s early life is scant.

A major breakthrough in establishing a fuller profile of the man who died 515 years ago came after DNA tests in 2003 established that bones in a tomb in the cathedral of Seville were those of Columbus.

But after that discovery, the research team from Spain's University of Granada that is leading the Columbus research decided to halt its investigation. The reason: DNA technology at the time was neither accurate nor reliable and required a significant amount of genetic material.

After leaps in the sophistication of DNA testing in recent years, gene geography may now ascertain the rough area of a European person’s ancestry.

José Antonio Lorente, a professor of forensic medicine at Granada University, said there had been a “radical” improvement in DNA analysis, which now permits tests on very small fragments.

He said researchers are working with four small bone fragments from Columbus, seven bone fragments and a tooth from his son Hernando, and a dozen bone fragments in poor condition from his brother Diego.

The fragments are being sent to genetic identification laboratories in Rome and Florence in Italy, Mexico and the United States, Lorente told an online press conference.

Lorente said he believes the generally accepted theory that Columbus was from Genoa, but the project aims to resolve some “mysteries . and contradictions” in the historical record and obtain “as much information as possible . so that there is no argument.”

Granada University on Wednesday was hosting what it called the first world meeting of Columbus researchers, who are presenting evidence for their different theories about the explorer’s origins.

Columbus’s four transatlantic voyages on behalf of the Spanish monarchs between 1492 and 1504 opened a door to Europe’s colonization of the Americas, then known as the New World.

Columbus died on May 20, 1506 and was buried in the Spanish city of Valladolid, though he had asked to be buried in the Americas.


Fourth Voyage 1502-1504

Columbus landed on Martinique in June 1502, this was to be his last voyage. He didn´t stay due to a hurricane forecast. They sailed onto visit Honduras, Costa Rica, Nicaragua, and Panama. In June 1503 the crew became stranded on Jamaica. The hurricane destroyed two of Columbus ships. They didn´t receive help from the new governor of Hispaniola and were there until June 1504.


Christopher Columbus: what do we really know?

I am not suggesting that the guy did not exist. At the same time, no matter where we look at, we appear to have the same issue with the original sources of information. I will voice my hypothetical opinion at the end of this article. Let's see what proof of anything, allegedly, accomplished by Columbus we have.

  1. 1492-1493 - he discovered land
  2. 1493-1496 - he encountered a hurricane, malaria, and cannibals
  3. 1498-1500 - he faced doldrums, rebellion, and was arrested
  4. 1502-1504 - he survived another hurricane, explored Panama, and was shipwrecked on Jamaica for a year

Before we get to the docs, let's see whether we really know what the famous discoverer looked like. For that it is important to remember, that per the narrative, Columbus was born before 1451 and died in 1506 .

Apparently, we have no idea what Christopher Columbus looked like. Officially, there is not a single known contemporary portrait of Christopher Columbus. This is not some secret info, but how often do we hear about things of this nature?

  • He writes that "His form was tall, above the medium: his face long and his countenance imposing: his nose aquiline: his eyes clear blue: his complexion light, tending toward a decided red, his beard and hair were red when he was young, but which cares then had early turned white."
    by Sebastiano del Piombo, 1519.

Painted in Rome by one of the outstanding Venetian masters of the High Renaissance, this badly damaged portrait purports to show Christopher Columbus. The inscription identifies him as "the Ligurian Colombo, the first to enter by ship into the world of the Antipodes 1519," but the writing is not entirely trustworthy and the date 1519 means that it cannot have been painted from life, as Columbus died in 1506. From an early date this picture became the authoritative likeness.

Here is one additional Christopher Columbus. Scanned from A Popular History of the United States by W. C. Bryant and S. H. Gay. Volume I. Copyright, 1878.

And the last one I will mention is this "in chains" one. I have no idea who the author was, but you can see it here.

KD on portraits: I am not gonna attempt to locate all 71 portraits of Christopher Columbus displayed at the 1893 Chicago Expo. I would love to see a photograph of the exhibit though. It is fairly obvious that we have no idea what this prominent historical figure looked like. I find it hard to believe that such a significant individual in reality looks like this, for this is all we know.

  • 1. Columbus's letter on the first voyage
  • 2. Columbus's letter on the second voyage - no link
  • 3. Columbus's letter on the third voyage - no link
  • 4. Columbus's letter on the fourth voyage
  • 5. Christopher Columbus's Journal
  • 6. O'Gorman Columbian Manuscript

There are two known editions of the (Spanish) Letter to Santangel, and at least six editions of the (Latin) Letter to Gabriel Sanchez published in the first year (1493), plus an additional rendering of the narrative into Italian verse by Giuliano Dati (which went through five editions). Other than the Italian verse, the first foreign language translation was into German in 1497. In all, seventeen editions of the letter were published between 1493 and 1497. A manuscript copy of the letter to the Catholic monarchs, found in 1985, remained unprinted until recently.

  • Historians have had to rely on clues in the printed editions, many of them published without date or location, to reconstruct the history of the letter.
  • It is assumed that Columbus wrote the original letter in Spanish. As a result, historians tend to agree that the Barcelona edition (which has no date or publisher name, and the appearance of being hurriedly printed) was probably the first to be published, and was the closest to the original manuscript.

This wiki article mentions Columbus's 1495 letter of his second voyage which had only one printing. I was unable to find any information pertaining to this letter. There is this Letter of Dr. Chanca on the Second Voyage of Columbus. I did not follow up on this letter due to the author not being Columbus himself.

KD: I was unable to locate any information pertaining to the original of the second voyage letter.

I am not sure this letter had ever existed. There are plenty of descriptions of the third voyage itself, but as far as Columbus writing any specific letters, I had no luck finding any. May be you will.

  • Bartolomé de las Casas did not have the original journal either and ordered a scribe to make a copy of the journal's abstract.
    • The scribe made several errors while copying the abstract, such as frequent confusions of Columbian leagues with Roman miles.
    • The authenticity of las Casas's copy was challenged by Henri Vignaud and Rómulo D. Carbia, both of whom believed the copy was largely or entirely a fabrication.
    • In 1939, las Casas's copy was proven to be authentic by Samuel Eliot Morison, and this view was endorsed in later studies.

    • John Sellers was not only an instrument maker, surveyor, cartographer, artist and Hydrographer to the King, but more over, he was responsible for the first English Pilots. Pilots which were continually reprinted and still in use centuries after his death in 1697..

    Additionally we have little issues like this: Columbus "discovered" America in 1592?

    And speaking of the above map snippet, how come 1592/1615 and 1599 (and the rest) have different #1, or "j", or "i"? Only Columbus and Spilberg have 1=j, the other ones have 1=i. Throwing this in for some brainstorming.

    The reason this difference could be significant could be hidden within this 1679 image below.

    When did they say Columbus discovered America? In 1490.

    Well, and if Columbus did not exist, than the absence of all of the above would be that much easier to explain, wouldn't it?


    Watch the video: 1492: Χριστόφορος Κολόμβος 1992 HD 720p ελληνικοί υπότιτλοι


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