On January 30, 1994, the American speed skater Dan Jansen sets a new world record of 35.76 at the World Sprint Championships in Calgary, Alberta, Canada.
Born in 1965 in Wisconsin, Jansen had been the youngest skater to compete at the 1984 Winter Olympics in Sarajevo, where he came in fourth place in the 500 meter event. Favored to win in Calgary in 1988, Jansen was devastated by the death of his sister Jane from leukemia on the day he was scheduled to race in the 500 meter final. He raced that night in hopes of winning in her honor, but fell 100 meters into the race. Four days later, he fell again during the 1000 meter event, and left Calgary without a medal. In Albertville, France, in 1992, Jansen came up short again, finishing fourth in the 500 meters and 26th in the 1000.
In December 1992, Jansen became the first man ever to skate 500 meters in less than 36 seconds, when he set a new world record mark of 35.92 seconds in Hamar, Norway. The January 30, 1993 finish marked the sixth time that Jansen had either tied or broke the world record in the 500 meters. He had come to dominate that event and the 1,000 meters in international competition, but an Olympic medal still eluded him.
The next Winter Olympics—Jansen’s fourth—were held in 1994, in Lillehammer, Norway. By that time, he had won an overall total of seven World Cup titles and set seven world records. After he slipped in the 500 meter skate, it looked like Jansen’s hopes for Olympic glory might be shattered. When he took to the ice for the 1,000 meter event four days later, however, Jansen turned things around, skating to a world record finish of 1:12.43 to finally win Olympic gold. He retired from competition after the Lillehammer games.
Dan Jansen skates world-record 500 meters - HISTORY
Dan Jansen, the youngest of nine children, grew up in a speed skating family. By the age of sixteen he had become a serious competitor, setting a junior world record in the 500 meters at his first international competition.
For the next twelve years he dominated speed skating everywhere except at the Olympics. He competed in the 1984 Olympics and just missed a bronze medal. In the 1988 Olympics, hopes were high for him, but he fell in both his races after learning that his sister had died of leukemia just hours before the 500-meter event. At the 1992 Olympics, his coach Peter Mueller predicted he would take home a gold, but though Dan finished both races he did not medal.
At the 1994 Olympics, everything came together for him physically and mentally, and in the last race of his career Dan won a gold medal and set a new world record.
After that, Dan became a motivational speaker and television commentator for speed skating events, including the 2006 Olympics.
1984, Sarajevo, Yugoslavia
500 meters: 4th
1000 meters: 16th
1988, Calgary, Canada
500 meters: Did not finish
1000 meters: Did not finish
1992, Albertville, France
500 meters: 4th
1000 meters: 26th
1994, Lillehammer, Norway
500 meters: 8th
1000 meters: GOLD MEDAL
Jansen Skates to World Record
American speedskater Dan Jansen set a world record in the 500-meter event at the World Sprint Speedskating Championships at Calgary, Alberta, on Sunday, dipping below the 36-second mark for the fourth time.
Jansen, of Greenfield, Wis., was clocked at 35.76 seconds and reached a speed of 33.24 m.p.h. in breaking his world record of 35.92 seconds, set Dec. 4 in Norway.
Three-time Olympic gold medalist Bonnie Blair, of Champaign, Ill., won all four races she skated during the two-day competition and set a world points record in winning her first world championship since 1989.
Blair led the women with 157.40 points, followed by Germany’s Angela Hauck with 159.02 and China’s Rui Hong Xue with 159.08.
Jansen topped the men with 144.81 points, followed by Russia’s Sergei Klevchenja with 145.31 and Japan’s Junichi Inoue with 145.67.
Cammy Myler became the first U.S. woman to win a World Cup luge race with a victory in 1:28.284 at Altenberg, Germany.
Local favorite Philippe LaRoche won a World Cup aerials meet at Lac Beauport, Quebec. LaRoche compiled 211.70 points on two jumps. Ray Fuerst of New York was second with 195.92 points, with three-time Olympian Kris Feddersen of Steamboat Springs, Colo., third with 192.86. In the women’s event, Lina Cherjazova of Uzbekistan won for the third time in a row with 171.14 points.
Alberto Tomba, despite a sore shoulder, won a slalom race in the men’s World Cup at Chamonix, France, with a total time of 2 minutes 1.37 seconds. Tomas Fogdoe of Sweden was second at 2:02.34.
Belgian Paul Herygers won the world cycle cross championship at Koksijde, Belgium, beating Dutchman Richard Groenendaal by six seconds. . . . Investigators in Indianapolis are trying to find out what caused a midget race car to lose control and crash into a pit area at the Hoosier Dome, killing one person and injuring eight.
Former Chicago Bear coach Mike Ditka has inquired about coaching the expansion Jacksonville Jaguars, team owner Wayne Weaver said. . . . Bob Bjorklund, co-captain of the undefeated 1940 University of Minnesota national championship football team, has died of pulmonary fibrosis at 75 in Hopkins, Minn. . . . John Daly, suspended from the PGA Tour last fall, said he will return for the tournament at New Orleans, March 31-April 3.
BAD LUCK HITS JANSEN AGAIN
They were raising the flags of the medalists for the Olympic men's 500-meter speedskating race, so Harry and Gerry Jansen rose to honor the winners.
Once again, there was no American flag being raised. Once again, their son, Dan, had failed to win an Olympic medal under sad and unusual circumstances.
Once again, the Jansen family was bearing the disappointment with humble dignity. They thanked the many well-wishers who stopped by their seats in the Hamar Olympic Hall to say, "I'm sorry," because a slip on the ice had left Jansen eighth in an event he had utterly dominated this season.
In the swirl of activity around her on this Monday afternoon, Jane Danielle Jansen, 8 months, slept in her maternal grandmother's arms. The baby girl was named after Jansen's sister, Jane Beres, a mother of three small girls when she died at age 27 of leukemia. That happened the morning Dan was to skate the 500 meters in the 1988 Olympics.
Then as now, it was Valentine's Day. Then, Jansen fell. Now, he nearly fell. Then as now, it seemed the fates had conspired against Jansen, 28, of Greenfield, Wis.
"As soon as I saw him slip, I said, 'Why, God? Why again?' " said Jansen's wife, Robin. "God can't be that cruel. I'm sure some day we'll find out. Some day, we'll understand."
The Jansens are not people who curse the fates, although, Lord knows, they would be forgiven for doing it. As Harry Jansen said, "We've had worse stuff happen to us."
This is a family far more inclined to count its blessings. Dan has done that many times in describing what it means to be father to Jane Jansen, whose Monday attire included a shirt adorned with the message, "Go, Dad, Go."
"She doesn't care what place he got," Gerry Jansen said, nodding toward her 25th grandchild. "He's still the best daddy to her."
Her daddy was going so well, on his way toward likely victory when it happened again. Jansen's skate slipped as the ice broke under the blade going into the final curve. He put his left hand down to keep from falling, and it cost him precious time in an event decided by hundredths of a second.
Jansen finished .15 seconds behind bronze medalist Manabu Horii of Japan, .35 behind winner Aleksandr Golubev of Russia. Jansen's time, 36.68 seconds, was slower by nearly a second - a light year in this race - than the world record, 35.76, Jansen set in his last 500 two weeks ago. Golubev's winning time, an Olympic record of 36.33, was well behind what Jansen had done (35.92 and 35.96) in this arena last November.
The other three Americans in the race were far back. David Cruikshank of Park Ridge, Ill., was 19th, Nathaniel Mills of Evanston, Ill., 20th, and Dave Besteman of Madison, Wis., 27th.
"For as much time as it cost me, I think I would have won the race by quite a bit if I hadn't slipped," Jansen said. "Right now, I feel a little worse for Robin and my mom and dad than I do for myself."
At the Winter Olympics in Albertville two years ago, Robin Jansen had resolved not to cry when she greeted her husband after his fourth-place finish in the 500. He was undone then by nature, forced to skate on outdoor ice turned soft by unseasonably warm weather, ice conditions that bothered him more than others because he is big for a speedskater at 6-feet, 195 pounds.
This time, Robin and Dan thought the indoor ice was too hard, although other skaters said it was soft. This time, Robin Jansen gave in to her emotions.
"We cried, both of us cried," she said. "And then we said, it's over."
It was over, at least temporarily, by the time the Jansens met Hillary Rodham Clinton, wife of the president, who told them she had never seen a speedskating race before. "She told Dan, 'We're proud of you. We think you did great,' " Robin said.
The sentiment was appreciated, but this time only a gold medal was great for Jansen, and only some kind of medal was good. He has yet to win one in four Winter Olympics, finishing fourth in the 500 meters and 16th in the 1,000 in 1984, falling in both events in 1988, then finishing fourth in the 500 and 26th in the 1,000 in 1992.
"There's still the 1,000 Friday," a friend said to Robin Jansen, referring to what may be her husband's final Olympic race.
"Yes, but this was the race," she answered. "This was when it was supposed to happen."
That it did not leads one to think Dan Jansen has formed some kind of mental block about skating in the Olympics. He has, after all, set 500-meter world records four times in other competitions, been world sprint champion twice and won 23 medals in world championship competitions.
"I believe Jansen is the fastest sprinter on earth," said Sergey Klevchenya of Russia, Monday's silver medalist. "So the eighth place he took just does not fit. I really feel sorry for him."
JANSEN FALLS SHORT OF GOAL SPILL DENIES HIM CHANCE TO WIN FOR SISTER WHO DIED EARLIER IN DAY
When Dan Jansen came out to warm up for his 500-meter race Sunday, a fellow speedskater, still in street clothes, stopped to embrace him. The skater held Jansen's arm as they walked, offering his sympathy. He then gently patted him on the back, wishing him luck.
This was not an ordinary gesture before a competition, especially the XV Winter Olympics. But then it was not an ordinary evening for Jansen or the rest of the U.S. Olympic speedskating team.
Lives and dreams of the team changed at dawn Sunday with a phone call. Hours before the biggest race of his career, Dan Jansen learned his sister, Jane, had lost her yearlong battle to leukemia.
Word spread. Jansen already had said he was dedicating himself to winning a gold medal for her. He would race.
Life's cards often are dealt from the bottom. Dan Jansen fell in the first turn, his skates betraying him in the 500 meters. He slid hard across the outside lane, tripping up Japan's Yasushi Kuroiwa before crashing into a padded wall.
Kuroiwa got another chance to race. Four years of training and dreaming ended in seconds for Jansen, and seemingly, a team tortured by trauma. Jansen was the first American to skate -- in the event's second pairing -- and his spill only added to the grim mood.
Nick Thometz, America's brightest hope along with Jansen, had the United States' top finish -- eighth. Racing third with Serguei Fokitchev of the USSR after Jansen's spill, Thometz also had false start and momentarily slipped in Turn 1.
"It's difficult to be real up when you have a tragedy like that," said Thometz, who finished more than a second behind East German gold medalist Jens-Uwe Mey. Mey skated the 500 meters in 36.45 seconds, breaking Eric Heiden's Olympic record of 38.03 set in 1980 and Thometz's world record (36.55). The Netherlands' Jan Ykema won the silver (36.76) and Japan's Akira Kuroiwa the bronze (36.77).
Jansen said he felt awkward all day, especially when he arrived at the Olympic Oval. "I felt like I couldn't push hard on the ice as I wanted."
"It was so fast, I can't remember much," Jansen said of the fall. "It wasn't a normal first 100 meters for me. I felt like it slipped out from under me. Next thing I knew, I was in the mats."
Jansen had had trouble with the Olympic Oval ice before. He was disqualified the last time he raced here, in a World Cup meet in December, for going out of his lane.
"Why it happened today, I don't know," Jansen said.
Jansen came into the competition supremely confident. He had won the 500 and the overall title in the World Sprint Championships two weeks ago. After missing out on a bronze medal in the '84 Games by .16 of a second, he overcame the flu and a foot injury to set the American 500-meter record (36.84).
After being called for a false start that "further confused my approach," he got off slowly through the first 100 meters (9.95 seconds), although he was even with Kuroiwa.
Jansen, 22, of West Allis, Wis., admitted his fall may have thrown off his teammates, especially Thometz.
"After the news this morning, it was hard on myself and Nick, who's my best friend. We wanted to go out and do our best," he said.
Thometz: "We did our best to sympathize with him. Unfortunately, it Jane's death came at a bad time. We tried to do our best."
Thometz said Jane's death may have contributed to the fall. "He seemed a little different today. That's understandable," Thometz said. "It might be part of the reason he went down."
U.S. team captain Erik Henriksen said he became "tight" after Jansen fell. He finished 15th.
"As soon as he fell, my heart sank," Henriksen said. "I'm not used to seeing so many bad things happen in what's supposed to be a wonderful time, the Olympics. I've never seen things go so sour."
Twelve members of Jansen's family journeyed here in two vans to lend him emotional support. Teammates dedicated their Olympic performances to Dan and to the memory of his sister at a meeting Sunday morning.
Asked if he thought of returning home with his father, who left for West Allis early Sunday, Jansen said: "Jane wouldn't have wanted that."
When Jane needed a bone-marrow transplant a few months ago, Dan volunteered even though the procedure would have interrupted his training. But he came down with mononucleosis, and another sister, Joanne, was selected as a donor. Jansen was awakened at 6 a.m. Sunday at the Athlete's Village by a call from his brother, Mike, a speedskater in the '84 Games. Jane, undergoing a second round of chemotherapy recently, had taken a turn for the worse.
"She was still alive. She could understand me but she couldn't talk," Jansen said. "She did understand what I said, and I'm happy about that."
They are remembered simply, sadly, as The Falls. They are among the most poignant moments of Olympic history.
During the 1988 Winter Games In Calgary, Dan Jansen, a gold-medal favorite, came out on the ice to skate the 500 meters only hours after learning that his sister had died of leukemia. As he rounded the first turn, the weight of the agonizing news seemed to crush him to the ice. Four days later Jansen tried again in the 1,000 nd again he fell, this time on a straightway. "It was very hard realizing that all my accomplishments didn't seem to matter, that all I would be known for was falling in the Olympics," he says. He need time just to believe "that it wasn't going to happen again." Since then, Jansen has matured and married-and emerged, at 26, ready for another run at the gold.
Since winning the 1988 World Sprint Championships on his home turf in West Allis, Wis., he's been America's most consistent male speed skater. This season Jansen has skated stride for stride in the 500 with defending Olympic gold-medalist Uwe-Jens Mey and last month broke the German's world record. Albertville will require extraordinary mental toughness for Jansen. "All I con do is give my very best and hope that everybody will be satisfied," he says. Yet Calgary forever altered his perspective. Losing a sister was a lot bigger deal than winning a medal could ever be," he says. "Winning the gold can never again be the most important thing in my life.
BLAIR, JANSEN ON TRACK
With eight World Cup sprints under their collective belts this weekend, American speedskating Olympic hopefuls Bonnie Blair and Dan Jansen appeared comfortably on track.
Blair sat snugly in the driver's seat in the National Sprints, adding stronger victories in Saturday's 500 and 1,000 meter races to the pair she won on Friday.
Jansen, however, occasionally skirted the edge of disaster on ice that he felt was not suitable to his game.
After losing Friday's 1,000 to world record holder Kevin Scott of Canada, Jansen redeemed himself under tough skating conditions on Saturday with a solid victory that kept him well atop the World Cup standings.
But he won his 1,000 after first making a mess of his specialty in the 500 meters. Having won the 500 decisively on Friday, Jansen slogged through his first turn on Saturday so poorly that he felt lucky to settle for a distant third behind defending world champion Yasunori Miyabe and his Japanese teammate, Manabu Horii.
"Dan thinks he's skating well, but he's actually running on seven cylinders," said his coach, Peter Mueller.
"All the racing here, the Olympic trials, have taken their toll, and he really needs to move on. He seemed a little tired, a little down this weekend. I'm just hoping this is his `down week' of the season. You can't skate much worse than he did. Yet, with all his mistakes, he still won a couple of races and placed well in the other two."
Sounding weary and slightly discouraged, Jansen blamed a fragile ice surface at the Pettit Center for draining power from his stroke. His technique employs powerful acceleration, followed by a relaxing glide. His mostly lighter opponents, by contrast, use quicker and lighter foot speed that digs up less ice.
"Dan was losing 20 percent of his power," Mueller explained. "He never could finish a stroke to gain maximum glide because the ice always seemed to crumble at the end. It was the same for several other skaters, but it really bothered Dan."
Jansen said he will delighted to set skates on Calgary's faster, harder ice for next weekend's World Sprint Championships. He also knows the ice should be hard and fast for the Olympics in Hamar, Norway, where he recently set a world 500 record.
"What I didn't want to do was change my skating style to adapt to the track here," Jansen noted. "So it was good for me to win that last 1,000. It was a lot better for my head."
But no one seemed to have her head screwed on more solidly than Blair, who firmed her role as the favorite to win the Olympic 500 and 1,000 with solid victories.
Blair's winning 500 time of 39.60 seconds represented a whopping gain of 21-hundredths over Friday's race. Furthermore, she expanded her margin over runner-up You Sun-hee of Korea by another 27-hundredths. With her 40.17, You trailed Blair by more than half a second-a tremendous margin at that distance.
Blair also hammered home her second straight track record in the 1,000 with a 1:20.24, again beating You by a decisive 34-hundredths.
"Obviously, winning four races here this weekend helps my confidence a lot," Blair said. "I felt my times were really solid, but I still believe I can go faster."
Her coach, Nick Thometz, said he expects her times to improve as she tapers toward a hoped-for peak in the Olympics. He noted that Blair's 10.67-second opening split in the 500 was her fastest start in several years, and her 1,000 was her second-fastest of the year.
"Bonnie is a person who lives to compete," Thometz said. "I expect her just to get better and better from now until the Games."
On the other hand, Jansen had to fight to maintain anything that resembled the confidence he brought here in December from Europe, where he dominated World Cup races.
This time he knew immediately he would lose when he felt himself decelerate in the first turn of his 500. "That's when you're supposed to pick up speed, not go slower," Jansen grumbled. "I was surprised to skate as fast as I did."
He posted a 36.68 behind Miyabe's 36.59 and Horii's 36.66-12-hundredths slower than his time on Friday. But Jansen's willful drive to victory in the 1,000 represented a heartening three-hundredths improvement on his Friday time-small, but not insignificant.
He clocked 1:14.01, with Miyabe second at 1:14.24. This time, Scott wore the goat's horns, dropping all the way to fifth. The Canadian suffered the same trouble as Jansen with the ice, his 1:14.71 more than a full second slower than his winning time on Friday.
Although the World Cup standings are relatively insignificant in an Olympic year-strong teams from China, Russia and Holland bypassed West Allis, for example-Blair and Jansen are riding at the top.
Blair now has won all four 1,000s for a 17-point margin over Germany's Angela Houck in that category. And, with three victories in four of five scheduled 500-meter races, she holds a 97-91 margin over Korea's You in that event.
Jansen has won four of six 500s among the eight scheduled so far to hold a solid 142-118 lead over Japan's Horii. And with three victories and a second in four of the five 1,000s, he comfortably leads Canada's Scott by an overwhelming 34 points.
But as Jansen and Blair so poignantly understand, no one remembers the 12 World Cup titles between them-only their historic quest for Olympic metal.
Dan Jansen skates world-record 500 meters - HISTORY
By Johnette Howard
Washington Post Staff Writer
Tuesday, February 15, 1994 Page A1
This wasn't a repeat of the 1988 Calgary Games, where Jansen thudded to the ice twice, dragged down by the weight of his sorrow over his sister's death just hours before his first race. And this wasn't a repeat of the 1992 Albertville Games, where Jansen slogged to a fourth-place finish as though he were wearing skis, not skates. This was nothing that drastic. Just three fingertips on the ice. The net effect was disastrous just the same.
Jansen was two strides into the last turn of today's Olympic 500-meter race about 110 meters from the finish line and long-delayed glory when his slip-up happened. By then, he'd already negotiated the track's first turn the haunted one where he'd fallen in the 500 in Calgary. By then he'd already blazed down the backstretch too the part of the track where he'd spun out in the 1,000-meter race in Calgary. Now all that seemed left was for Jansen to slingshot out of the final curve and power down the homestretch, his arms slashing, his teeth bared, and the capacity crowd of 11,000 still waving flags and still clanging cowbells to help him home.
Instead Jansen's left skate pivoted and nearly clipped his right blade. Then those three fingertips touched down, costing him two- or three-tenths of a second a lifetime in a sprint like this.
Perhaps the strangest thing was "It's not a place that I've ever slipped before," Jansen said, his eyes blank, his face shellshocked. "I don't know what to tell you. I think I would have won the race by quite a bit if I hadn't slipped. I was so confident. I felt I would skate a world record."
"There's not really any more chances for me," said Jansen, who already holds the world record in this event. "I'll have to live my life without an Olympic 500-meter gold medal."
It could be the last chance as well for U.S. luger Duncan Kennedy, 26, who started the second day of the competition in fourth place and was on a near-record pace in his first run today until he crashed spectacularly on the 14th turn of the 16-turn course and did not finish.
Kennedy, seeking to win the United States's first medal in luge, was battered in an attack by German skinheads in October in Oberhof, Germany, after he defended black teammate Robert Pipkins. He said today he will carry on with luging as long as his ailing back permits.
Jansen is 28, most likely too old to maintain his sprinter's speed until the 1998 Games. That's why the abbreviated two-year cycle between these Lillehammer Games and the 1992 Winter Olympics in Albertville was a boon for older sprinters like him. Jansen hadn't won a medal in his three previous Olympics trips, but the unprecedented two-year turnaround looked like a reprieve. Earlier this week, when U.S. coach Peter Mueller called Jansen the best sprinter of all time, it wasn't a reach.
In the wait for today's race, the Olympic Hall public address announcer had rattled off facts for the crowd, and nearly every one of them seemed to include Jansen's name. He had the best record in the 500 this year, the most 500 world championships among active skaters, the track record here in Hamar's so-called Viking Ship, a state-of-the-art indoor track. He is the only speed skater to crack the 36-second barrier in the 500 (his world record is 35.76).
Today, skating in the second pairing, Jansen had the advantage of clean ice too. But his time of 36.68 seconds was so sub-standard his name had tumbled off the leaderboard by the fifth pairing. His free fall finally stalled at eighth place, far behind Aleksandr Golubev (36.33) of Russia, silver medalist Sergey Klevchenya (36.39) of Russia and bronze medalist Manabu Horii of Japan.
But Jansen didn't stick around to see either Russian skate. Immediately after his race he yanked off his speed skating suit hood and put his hands on his head in disbelief. He bent at the waist, hands on knees, as though he'd just been sucker punched. By then he had glided near the far end of the track where skaters dress, and he grabbed his warmups, forsook the usual warm-down laps, and clattered off the ice, passing the spot where he fell, shooting down some steps, then duckwalking into the competitors' locker room, where he could be alone.
Mueller went to him eventually but "we didn't say much," Mueller said. Later, U.S. short-track speed skater Andy Gabel gave Jansen a hug but Gabel admitted, "I really didn't say anything either. A lot can be said without really saying anything. He's been in 300 races and six of them haven't been good."
Unfortunately for Jansen, the six bad races have all seemed to come at the Olympic Games. And fairly or not, the keyhole view of his life that the Games have provided is all America knows of him. Of the races he has finished at the Olympics, he has been fourth twice, each time by hundredths of a second. He's fallen twice and both of them have been, in the aftermath, as inexplicable to him as today's slip.
Still, he and Mueller obligingly tried their best to guess today what went wrong. They talked about the ice being "hard," which is just as bad as soft ice for a power skater like Jansen, because he depends on good grip. They pointed out that another strong skater in today's race, a skater who stylistically mirrors Jansen, fell at about the same point in the turn.
But Jansen's foible was different. The crowd gasped, knowing Jansen is this event's Colossus and this was to be his much-delayed coronation.
Though Jansen has a chance to medal in his other race here the 1,000 on Friday this 500 is speed skating's plum, this was for posterity, this was the event he was the prohibitive favorite to win. As he glided through the first three quarters of the race, it seemed Jansen would he'd sent Mueller's heart racing each time Mueller looked down at his stopwatch for Jansen's split times.
"His first three splits were the fastest all day," Mueller said. That would seem to back up Jansen's contention that "it wasn't nerves." Just a skate that slipped. Three fingertips brushing the ice. A bad break, that's all.
27/04/1994: Nam Phi tổ chức cuộc bầu cử đa sắc tộc đầu tiên
Biên dịch & Hiệu đính: Nguyễn Huy Hoàng
Vào ngày này năm 1994, hơn 22 triệu người dân Nam Phi đã đi bỏ phiếu trong cuộc bầu cử quốc hội đa sắc tộc lần đầu tiên ở đất nước này. Đại đa số đã chọn lãnh đạo chống phân biệt chủng tộc Nelson Mandela làm người đứng đầu chính phủ liên minh mới bao gồm Đại hội Dân tộc Phi (ANC) của Mandela, Đảng Quốc gia của cựu Tổng thống Frederik Willem de Klerk, và Đảng Tự do Inkatha (IFP) của lãnh đạo tộc người Zulu Mangosuthu Buthelezi. Tháng 5, Mandela được tấn phong làm tổng thống, trở thành vị nguyên thủ quốc gia da màu đầu tiên của Nam Phi. Continue reading /04/1994: Nam Phi tổ chức cuộc bầu cử đa sắc tộc đầu tiên”