Oakland II CI-95 - History

Oakland II CI-95 - History

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Oakland II
(CI~95: dp. 6,000,1. 541' b. 53', dr. 26'6", s. 31.8 k., cpl. 802; a. 12 5", 8 40mm, i6 20mm, 6 21" tt, cl. Oakland)

Oakland (CI~95) was laid down by Bethlehem Steel Co., San Francisco, Calif., 15 July 1941, Launched 23 October 1942 sponsored by Dr. Aurelia H. Reinhardt, and commissioned 17 July 1943, Capt. William K. Phillips in command.

Following a shakedown and training cruise off San Diego in the summer of 1943, Oakland sailed for Pearl Harbor arriving 3 November. Joining with three heavy cruisers and two destroyers' she linked up with carrier Task Group 50.3 near Funafuti m the Ellice Islands to help pave the way for operation "Galvanic", the amphibious push into the Gilberts. The carriers launched initial air strikes 19 November, and in retaliation, a wave of Japanese torpedo-bombers attacked the formation on the afternoon of the 20th. Oakland scored two kills and two assists in beating off the raiders.

On 26 November northeast of the Marshall Islands, Oakland again fought off strong coordinated torpedo plane attacks. At 2332 on 4 December a torpedo tore into the side of Lezington (CV-16) and Oakland covered her slow withdrawal, arriving Pearl Harbor 9 December.

Oakland departed Pearl Harbor 16 January 1944 with the carriers of TG 58.1 headed for the Marshalls. The task group launched strikes against Maloelap on 29 January and against Kwajalein on the 30th. An amphibious assault was made on Kwajalein 1 February. Oakland with her carriers supported American operations ashore until they entered Majuro Lagoon on 4 February.

Weighing anchor 12 February, the ships of TG 58.1 sailed from Majuro and launched air strikes against Truk 16 and 17 February, greatly damaging the important Japanese naval base there.

Then, despite a night-long series of Japanese aerial attacks, 21-22 February, to hit the Marianas with damaging blows, Oakland's gunners bagged two more enemy planes and assisted in splashing two others before returning to Majuro.

Oakland sortied with TG 58.17 March, bound for Espiritu Santo in the New Hebrides. The group skirted the Solomons and covered the occupation of Emirau Island, north of New Britain, on the 20th. On the 27th, the task group swept on to the western Carolines. Heavy air attacks greeted the carriers, but Oakland and her partners in the screen beat them off before any damage was incurred. They pounded Palau on 30 March, Yap on the 31st and Wolesi 1 April, before returnig to Majuro on the 6th April.

Through April the group carried out similar uperationY at Wake and Sawar. They again hammered Truk on the 29th and the 30th, as well as hitting Satawan on the later date. Allied surface and aerial bombardment battered Ponape on 1 May, before Oakland retired to Kwajalein on 4 May.

Following antiaircraft training, Oakland helped to attack Guam 11 June, then steamed north to hit the Voloano and Bonin Islands by the 14th.

West of the embattled Marianas, Task Force 58 sped to intercept a large Japanese surface force approaching from the Philippines. In the ensuing Battle of the Philippine Sea, the famed "Turkey Shoot" took place as the U.S. carrier planee decimated the trained air gronps of three Japanese carrier divisions, almost eliminating Japanese naval aviation.

Toward the end of the battle, as darkness was creeping in, the returning American pilots were scanning the sea for their carriers. Admiral Mitseher, on the bridge of his Flagship~ concerned about his men, gave the order to "Turn on the hghts". In response, Oakland's 36-inch search-lights were flieked on helping to light up the Philippine Sea like a motion picture premiere.

TG 58.1 next struck at Pagan on 23 June and Iwo Jima the 24th. On the 27th the units gathered at Eniwetok Atoll for replenishment and on the 30th nosed northwest to the Bonins. The group delivered a withering air-sea bombardment against Iwo and Chichi Jima 3 and 4 July, and bv the 5th vras speeding south for a return engagement in the Marianas.

The carriers then began launching on 7 July a series of alternating strikes against Guam and Rota. Oakland and Nelm (DD-388) teamed up to recover downed pilots off Guam, nnd fired nt targets on Orote Peninsula.

At 0800 4 August search planes reported a Japanese convoy zig-zagging out of Chichi Jima Bonin Islands. Two hours later, the carriers' planes reported they were attacking enemy veseels. A Naval assault team was quickly formed, consisting of the light cruisers Oakland, Santa Fe (CI~60), Mobile (CL 63) and Bilozi (CW80), plus Destroyer Division 91.

Detached from the task group at 1241, the killer band raced at 30 knots between Ototo and Yome Jima and arrived on the scene at about 1730. The destroyers formed an attack group ahead of the cruisers and, at 1845, sank a small oiler. Another straggler from the convoy, later identified as the destroyer Ma~u, was sighted at 1924 and subsequently sunk.

At 2145 Oakland and company contacted a 7500-ton supply ship and sank her, before turning south to rake Chichi Jima. Oakland made three runs shelling shipping in Chichi's harbor of Funtami Ko, and helped to silence an irksome shore battery before she retired at 1119 on 5 August. Several Japanese ships had been sunk, a seaplane base damaged, and fires started among the wharves and warehouses.

From 6 to 8 September, Oakland's task group hit the Palau Islands, Peleliu being the main target. On the evening of the 8th they steamed west to raid enemy airfields in the Philippines through the 22nd.

On 6 October, Oakland departed Ulithi shepherding her own carriers toward the Ryukyus and hit Okinawa on the 10th. They attacked installations on Formosa and the Pescadores 12 October and, at 1835, as they were withdrawing, fought off Japanese air counter attack.

They hit Formosa again on 13 October, and again the Imperlal Air Force lashed out in full fury as the task force withdrew at nightfall. Oakland assisted in turning back the aerial opponents but, at 1835, Canberra (CA-70) in TG 38.1 vras damaged by a torpedo, and on the 14th CAnberra (CI~81), received a torpedo hit. Oakland then covered the withdrawal of the two hit ships, before participating in the strikes against Luzon 17-19 October and supporting the landings on Leyte the 20th.

Enroute to Ulithi on the 24th, Oakland received orders to backtrack at once to help stop the Japanese Fleet which was converging on Leyte Gulf. By the time she arrived on the scene the enemy had been repulsed, and the carriers began long range strikes against the retreating enemy. The Battle for Leyte Gulf wrote a fiery finis to the Imperial Navy as an effective fighting force.

During November and December, Oakland operated with various task groups of TF 38 supporting the Philippine liberation campaign. On 18 December she rode out a raging typhoon in the Philippine Sea escaping serious damage.

Oakland returned to San Francisco 11 January 1945. She remained for repairs and trial runs until sailing for Hawaii 4 March. Arriving Pearl Harbor on the 9th, Oakland began additional training south of Oahu. She received movement orders on the 14th and sailed for Ulithi, the staging area for Okinawa.

Reaching Ulithi 30 March, she sailed again with other units the following day. On tap was the most ambitious amphibious assault of the Pacific war. On 2 April the group separated, Oakland going ahead to join TG 58.4. For five days she engaged in hitting Sakashima Gunto in the southern Nansei Shoto and then proceeded to Okinawa.

On 10 April Oakland was reassigned to TG 58.3 for the remainer of the Okinawa oampaign. She came under air attack again on 11 April with her AA gunners splashing a dive bomber.

With other groups of TF 58, Oakland moved northvvard on 15 April to launch strikes against airfields at Kyushu. Enemy planes tried time and again to pierce the task force's protective fighter umbrella. Twiee Oakland's guns cut loose, aiding in the destruction of one "Frances" and driving off another.

Okinawan defenses were struck again on the 17th. Kamikazes evaded the combat air patrol in the morning and Oakland took two under fire as they passed over the ship. Both were dropped within the formation, with Oakland scoring one. On the 29th Oakland drove away another enemy aircraft. TG 58.3 had taken the best the Imperial Air Force had to offer during 11 days of April. The rest of the month was utilized in making additional strikes against Okinawa and conducting gunnery exercises with drones and towed sleeves.

Snooper planes began winging near the group early in the morning of 11 May. After breakfast the Oakland crew scrambled to General Quarters but an attack failed to materialize at that time. When they did strike, it was like a bolt of lightening. Two kamikazes plummeted into the flight deek of Bunker Hill (CV 17) 2000 yards from the cruiser. A trio of life rafts were eut loose from Oakland to aid in the rescue of Bunker Hill suryivors sighted ahead.

The task force struck again at airfields on Kvushu on 13 May. On the 14th the Japanese reciprocated. Shortly after breakfast a lone "Zero" was spotted circling through the clouds and Oakland's guns quickly opened fire, but their quarry just as quickly disappeared from view. Then he came back like a comet. Enterprise (CV-6) bore the brunt of his crash-dive as he blew up in a blossom of flame on her flight deck.

Shortly a flock of kamikazes appeared and within the space of fifteen minutes Oakland took four separate suicide planes under fire. Oakland's claim of two assists was substantiated by the task group commander.

For the duration of May, Oakland remained with the task group off Okinawa. On the 29th she shifted back to TG 38.1 under Admiral Halsey and made for Leyte Gulf, anchoring in San Pedro Bay on 1 June.

On 10 July, TG 38.1 commenced raids on the Japanese mainland beginning with Honshu and then thundering north to Hokaido. 17-20 July, Oakland participated in strikes against Tokyo and 24-27 July against Kure and Kobe. Tokyo was hit again on the 30th along with Nagoya. On 7 August the ships turned north to strike the Honshu-Hokaido area for a second time. August 15th brought the long awaited "cease all offensive operations" order. Oakland then proceeded to her assigned operating area for the occupation of Japan.

Sailing on 30 August to the most important rendezvous of her Gareer, Oakland dropped anchor in Tokyo Bay the next day, outside the breakwater of the Yokosuka Naval Base. Berthed several thousand yards away from Missouri (BB 63), Oakland provided a box seat for her sailors to witness the unforgetable climax to their war.
While Oakland lay at anchor in Tokyo Bay, on the night of 27 September, a typhoon swept close to the harbor entrance. A tanker dragged anchor and struck Oakland's bow, causing minor damage.

On 1 October, Oakland sailed for Okinawa to embark homeward bound veterans for a "magic carpet" voyage to San Francisco. Leaving Okinawa on the 3rd, she arrived at San Francisco on the 20th. Navy Day (27 October) obervanees at Oakland, Calif. were highlighted by the presence of Oakland. "Magic carpet" duty in November and December took Oakland back to the Pacific twice, first to Eniwetok and then to Kwajalein. At the year's end the Navy turned the task of bringing home the veterans solely over to its transportation seryiee, and Oakland was ordered to an inactivation area at Bremerton, Wash.

Reprieve came in the form of a change in orders and, instead of inactivation, Oakland was slated to continue as an active postwar fleet unit. A thorough overhaul was afforded her at the Puget Sound Navy Yard to erase the effcets of long months of battle.

From July 1946 through January 1947, Oakland operated in and around San Diego as a Fleet Gunnery Training Ship. From 6 January to 8 September she participated in a Western Pacific training cruise

On 18 March, Oakiand was Reclassified CLAA-95. On July 1 1949, Oakland decommissioned at San Francisco. Struck on 1 March 1959, she was sold to Louis Simons on 1 December for serappmg.

Oakland earned nine battle stars for service in World War II.

Chevrolet big-block engine

The Chevrolet "big block" engine is a term for a series of large displacement 90° overhead valve V8s that were developed and produced by the Chevrolet Division of General Motors from the 1950s until 2009.

Chevrolet had introduced its popular small block V8 in 1955, but needed something larger to power its medium duty trucks and the heavier cars that were on the drawing board. The big block, which debuted in 1958 at 348 cu in (5.7 L), was built in standard displacements up to 494 cu in (8.1 L), with aftermarket crate engines sold by Chevrolet exceeding 500 cu in (8.2 L).

Oakland Population (Historic)

The City of Oakland, California has grown tremendously right from the very beginning of the early settlement into one of the major cities of the United States. This page provided information on the population growth of Oakland all in one location.

Total Population

  • 1860: 1,543 (18 black residents 2 the population of Oakland doubled from 1862 to 1866)
  • 1870: 10,500 (55 black residents- Daniels, Douglas Henry. Pioneer Urbanites: A Social and Cultural History of Black San Francisco. University of California Press: 1990.)
  • 1880: 34,555 (593 black residents- Daniels)
  • 1890: 48,682 (644 black residents- Daniels)
  • 1900: 66,960 (1026 black residents- Daniels)
  • 1904: 82,974 (special census for post office. See Thomas Dargie.)
  • 1910: 150,174
  • 1916:

Note on the 20s: In the 1920s, Oakland had half the population of San Francisco but twice as many black residents. (Daniels)

  • 1930: 284,063
  • 1940: 302,163 (8,462 black residents/2.8%- Daniels)
  • 1945: 405,301 (special census) 1

Note in the 1940s: By World War II, Oakland had more than 8,000 black residents. (Daniels)

Work and Patriotism

Posters like these linked shipyard productivity and patriotism. Produced by the Emergency Fleet Corporation, they reminded shipyard workers of the importance of their efforts and to do a good job.

Teamwork Wins, about 1918

United States Shipping Board, Emergency Fleet Corporation

Your Work Means Victory, 1917

United States Shipping Board, Emergency Fleet Corporation Gift of Frank O. Braynard

On the Job for Victory, about 1918

United States Shipping Board, Emergency Fleet Corporation

Plate puller, about 1918

Workers used this tool to align pre-punched holes in standardized hull plates before riveting them.

Gift of Capt. Raymond A. and Catherine M. Kotrla

Typical Wartime Freighter, 1919

The federal government’s massive investment in shipbuilding was a boon to American industry. In gratitude, the Association of Northwestern Shipbuilders presented this silver model to outgoing Emergency Fleet Corporation Director-General Charles Piez in April 1919.

Shipyard Volunteers

A push to recruit 250,000 additional shipyard workers in early 1918 led the Emergency Fleet Corporation to create the &ldquoU.S. Shipyard Volunteers.&rdquo Men who signed up to work in the yards were exempted from the military draft.

Shop-front sign advertising immediate wartime work, New York City, 1918

Courtesy of the National Archives and Records Administration

Shipyard volunteer’s button, 1918–19

Transfer from the U.S. Shipping Board, Emergency Fleet Corporation

Emergency Fleet Corporation badge and button

Transfer from the U.S. Shipping Board, Emergency Fleet Corporation

Gift of James D. Andrew Jr.

A Launching

To mark Memorial Day in 1919, the Hog Island shipyard launched five freighters in 48 minutes. Laura Andrew, wife of the yard’s ship-construction manager, christened the last of these, the Luxpalile, by breaking this bottle over its the bow. She received the broken glass in this box as a memento.

Five ships were launched in 48 minutes, Memorial Day, 1919.

From a scrapbook donated by James D. Andrew Jr.

Freighter American Merchant

Built at Philadelphia, 1920

A Standardized Ship

Hog Island produced 110 identical cargo ships and 12 identical troop transports. This model represents one of the transports. All of Hog Island’s ships arrived too late to play a role in the war. But the Liberty ships of World War II and the modular construction of ships today owe their success to the mass-production techniques tried and tested at Hog Island.

A SECRET HISTORY / The harassment of Italians during World War II has particular relevance today and serves as a warning of what could happen

2 of 21 Photo from the February 23, 1942 San Jose News of John Perata, 42, third from left in plaid jacket, and Felix Bersano, 44, center in trench coat and hat, both from the San Jose/Campbell area, being led to the county jail. Perata and Bersano are the father and uncle, respectively, of Don Perata of Saratoga. Handout photo. Jeff Chiu Show More Show Less

4 of 21 Italians at the U.S.Immigration registras office SF. HANDOUT Show More Show Less


7 of 21 Italian American internees watching a soccer game in their camp in Missoula. Story on Italians that where interned during world war II by Vince Maggiora VINCE MAGGIORA Show More Show Less

8 of 21 Lawrence DeStasi an author of books on Italians that where interned during world war II by Vince Maggiora VINCE MAGGIORA Show More Show Less

10 of 21 A notebook that Prospero Cecconi an Italian wrote about his arrest in San Francisco and internment during world war 11 By Vince Maggiora VINCE MAGGIORA Show More Show Less

11 of 21 Doris Giuliotti looking at a notebook that Prospero Cecconi her father an Italian wrote about his arrest in San Francisco and internment during world war 11 By Vince Maggiora VINCE MAGGIORA Show More Show Less

13 of 21 Doris Giuliotti family photo around 1942, L TO R Prospero Cecconi his daughters Rita and Doris and wife Amelia. by Vince Maggiora VINCE MAGGIORA Show More Show Less

14 of 21 Prospero Cecconi basic personnel record. Story on Italians that where interned during world war II by Vince Maggiora VINCE MAGGIORA Show More Show Less

16 of 21 Gian Banchero after his intervview with the U.S. Department of Justic Civil Rights Division interviewing italians about WWII travails at the Fratellanza club in Oakland. by Vince Maggiora VINCE MAGGIORA Show More Show Less

17 of 21 Lawrence DeStasi an author of books on Italians that where interned during world war II by Vince Maggiora VINCE MAGGIORA Show More Show Less

19 of 21 Joanne Chiedi executive officer with U.S. Department of Justic Civil Rights Division on thr right interviewing italians about WWII travails at the Fratellanza club in Oakland. L to R Anna Perata ,Don Perata , Bobby and Emily Michaels. by Vince Maggiora VINCE MAGGIORA Show More Show Less

20 of 21 Al Bronzini walking around the produce market in downtown Oakland . When Al was a young boy he came to the produce market to pick up produce for their store in Oakland. by Vince Maggiora VINCE MAGGIORA Show More Show Less

Al Bronzini's father lost his business and his mother lost her mind. Rose Scudero and her mother were exiled. Doris Giuliotti's father ended up in an internment camp. And Anita Perata's husband was held in a detention center and her house ransacked by the FBI.

They don't want reparations, apologies or pity. They simply want the history books rewritten to say that, almost 60 years ago, it was a crime to be Italian.

During World War II, 600,000 undocumented Italian immigrants in the United States were deemed "enemy aliens" and detained, relocated, stripped of their property or placed under curfew. A couple hundred were even locked in internment camps.

It's not something most people know about.

"This story has legs because people are so stunned that this happened to the Italians," said writer Lawrence DiStasi of Bolinas, part of a group of Bay Area Italian Americans who have led a nationwide campaign to exhume this chapter of American history.

"And we want to educate our own people, too, not just the rest of the public," DiStasi said. "Because if you don't know what happened to you, then in a certain sense you don't know who you are."

The past year has been pivotal. After almost six decades of virtual silence,

the issue has acquired a timeliness and sense of urgency - even more so since the Sept. 11 terrorist attack on the United States and subsequent backlash against people of Middle Eastern ancestry.

"The targeting of certain groups is chillingly

Joanne Chiedi, deputy executive officer in the civil rights division of the U.S. Justice Department, said: "What happened to the Italians was based on wartime hysteria. We're trying to educate people so it won't happen again. The story needs to be told."

Chiedi must produce a report by Nov. 7 on what did happen.

For Chiedi, 40, it is perfect casting: The daughter of Sicilian immigrants, she was also in charge of the Justice Department's redress project to provide reparations to the Japanese Americans interned in concentration camps during the 1940s.

The current investigation was ordered by President Bill Clinton when he signed the Wartime Violation of Italian American Civil Liberties Act last November. Finally, the government has admitted something went on.

And, finally, too, people are ready to talk about it.

Some Italians call this chapter of U.S. history "Una Storia Segreta," which means both a secret story and a secret history.

After Japan bombed Pearl Harbor on Dec. 7, 1941, the United States declared war and began a crackdown on those of German, Italian or Japanese descent that led, in its most extreme form, to the internment of 120,000 people of Japanese ancestry, two-thirds of whom were citizens. Germans managed to escape mass relocation but were subjected to internment and many restrictions.

In the case of Italians - the largest immigrant group in the country at the time - noncitizens were targeted. About 600,000 of the country's 5 million Italians had not been naturalized - for lack of time, language skills or any sense of urgency.

They were forced to register as enemy aliens, carry photo ID booklets and surrender flashlights, shortwave radios, guns, binoculars, cameras and other "contraband." There were FBI raids on private homes, arrests and detentions.

In California alone, said the 64-year-old DiStasi, a lecturer at the University of California at Berkeley, 10,000 were evacuated, mostly from coastal areas and sites near power plants, dams and military installations. Prohibited zones were created. And 257 people - 90 from the Golden State - were put in internment camps for up to two years.

Fishing boats were seized, and thousands of fishermen lost their jobs. In San Francisco, 1,500 were idled, including Joe DiMaggio's father. Another 52, 000 "enemy aliens" lived under nightly house

arrest, with a curfew from 8 p.m. to 6 a.m. Noncitizens could not travel more than 5 miles from home without a permit.

"A deliberate policy kept these measures from the public during the war," said the civil liberties act. "Even 50 years later much information is still classified, the full story remains unknown to the public, and it has never been acknowledged in any official capacity by the United States government."

Gladys Hansen, city historian of San Francisco, said she still knows nothing of the saga - except for vague memories of curfews and people "getting thrown out of Fisherman's Wharf."

"There's very little, when you come right down to it, about the Italians," said Hansen, 76, a native San Franciscan.

During a Justice Department hearing in Oakland in April - one of two in the United States this year - Chiedi echoed that assessment.

"We want to document that time in history through our report," she told the elderly Italians who had come to the Fratellanza Club to testify. "We're here today to say that it was wrong, that it was unjust."

All day long, old Italians told their stories to Chiedi and three colleagues from the same Justice Department that made their lives hell back in 1942. Chiedi admitted to feeling intense deadline pressure to deliver the report by Nov. 7. The date had the opposite effect on Anita Perata of San Jose.

"I'm kind of happy about that, because my birthday is in November. If I'm still around, I'll be 93," she said.

Perata, all dressed up and brimming with life, was accompanied by a son, a granddaughter, a 13-year-old great-granddaughter and a 14-year-old great- grandson.

"Even in the schools, people don't know," said Emily Michaels, of Saratoga, who listens attentively to her great-grandmother's tale.

Chiedi, meanwhile, scribbled it all down: The FBI picked up Anita's husband,

John Perata, at his San Jose appliance store, took him home in handcuffs to Campbell, turned mattresses over and took beds apart.

He was locked up in Sharp Park, an Immigration and Naturalization Service detention center in Pacifica, for two months. Oakland-born Anita Perata visited her husband once a week.

Their son, Saratoga resident Don Perata, 65, former chancellor of the Foothill-De Anza Community College District, remembered only a few things: Getting off the school bus the day of the raid and seeing several large black cars in the driveway. Chatting with his father through a detention center fence on Easter Sunday.

"Sometimes I'd take the little one with us," said Anita Perata, mother of three. "We'd kind of straighten her up when we got out of the car and he'd be up at the window watching for us. We'd get up there, and he'd been crying when he saw what we'd been doing."

On the day John Perata was released, he came home on the streetcar.

"He was too embarrassed to have us take him home," his wife said.

DiStasi said business owners like Perata, community leaders, newspaper reporters,

radio broadcasters and other prominent people were among those targeted - anyone who might be suspected of propaganda and promoting fascism - along with the Ex-Combattenti, veterans who had fought for Italy during World War I.

Ironically, 500,000 Italian Americans were serving in the U.S. armed forces at the time of the crackdown - the largest ethnic group in the military. One serviceman returned from the war to find his family's home boarded up. One woman received an evacuation order the day after she learned her son and her nephew in the U.S. military had been killed at Pearl Harbor.

To win the legislation that Clinton signed on Nov. 7, DiStasi mounted an intense

nationwide lobbying effort by Italian Americans that can trace its roots to San Francisco, with the 1994 debut of "Una Storia Segreta," an exhibit he helped organize at the Museo Italo Americano.

The tattered display of artifacts and documents - which was supposed to have a one-month run - is still making the rounds, more than 40 towns and seven years later.

The exhibit also rated a mention in the civil liberties act. Besides ordering the Justice Department probe, the act says the president should acknowledge what happened, the government should open its files and federal agencies should pay for conferences, seminars, lectures and documentaries to bring the wartime saga out of the closet.

DiStasi, president of the American Italian Historical Association, Western Regional Chapter, has been researching the subject for years. The result is a book that has just come out: "Una Storia Segreta: The Secret History of Italian American Evacuation and Internment during World War II," published by Heyday Books in Berkeley.

Now DiStasi's organization is collaborating on an unprecedented joint exhibit with the Japanese Peruvian Oral History Project and the National Japanese American Historical Society. The show, which opened Sept. 21 in Japantown and runs through Dec. 28, will detail the experiences of all three enemy alien groups.

For Italians, DiStasi said, the legacy of the wartime years continues to this day. The Italian language was one of the main casualties.

There is a government poster on his wall that was a familiar presence in 1942. "Don't speak the enemy's language," it warns, above a drawing of Adolf Hitler, Benito Mussolini and Emperor Hirohito. "Speak American."

The children and grandchildren of the immigrants avoided this forbidden language, DiStasi said - one of many examples of a blossoming literary and artistic Italian American culture "iced," as he calls it, by the war.

DiStasi's friend Gian Banchero, 60, a writer, artist and chef from Berkeley,

"A lot of people from my folks' generation didn't want to talk about being Italian, about having Italian blood," said Banchero, leaning on his cane. "My father used to say, Gian, you're so lucky. You can pass for Irish.' "

It maddens Banchero, whose bedroom became the hiding place for his family's new Philco radio, that so few "enemy aliens" will admit they're angry, instead blaming themselves for not becoming citizens.

They worked hard to appear harmless, to blend in.

"Twenty years ago, there was an orchestra conductor at the Fratellanza Club - Buzzy Buzzerino," Banchero said. "I went up to him. Can you play an Italian song or two? Nah, we don't do that,' he said. Hey, isn't this an Italian club?' I asked him."

On the other hand, DiStasi said, many people have been "galvanized" by fresh indignation over old wounds and "it gets them active in other areas of their heritage." They become, in effect, born-again Italians.

Rose Scudero, 71, of Antioch, went to Washington twice to testify at House or Senate hearings on the legislation. She raised money to place a bronze plaque at the foot of Railroad Avenue in Pittsburg honoring the "enemy aliens. " And she speaks to historical societies, church groups, schools and Italian fraternal organizations. Schoolchildren are her best audience.

"They put themselves in my place," said Scudero, who at age 12 was among 1, 600 Pittsburg residents evacuated on Feb. 24, 1942.

"I tell them, Picture going home today and your mom tells you she got a letter from the government and because she isn't a citizen, she has to leave the house and your father and your siblings.' And you don't know where you're going or for how long. And they go Whoa.' They get the feel of it, and it scares them."

Scudero, graceful and relaxed, sat on her couch, under a large painting she has done of Aci Castello, her mother's village in Sicily. Her father was building Liberty ships at the Kaiser shipyard in Pittsburg, her two brothers were working at nearby Columbia Steel. Her two older sisters lived at home. But children under 14 had to go with their parents.

She and her mother ended up in Clayton Valley. They ate strawberries for breakfast, lunch and dinner, from fields left by the Japanese.

"I didn't think we'd be coming back," said Scudero, a widow with two children. "I gave my collection of fancy pins - the kind you'd put on your sweater, little angora kitty cats and that sort of thing - to my classmates. My favorite - wish I had it today - was two jitterbuggers above a phonograph record."

Later, they moved to downtown Concord. Her mother, lacking a radio, would put her daughter on the bus to Pittsburg in search of news. On Columbus Day, when the restrictions were lifted, Scudero ran through her neighborhood, knocking on doors. "You can go home now," she told them.

And on Oct. 24, 1942, they all did.

Despite their anguish, some of the elderly Italians whose lives were disrupted, insist that the government was justified in the context of the times - the United States and Italy were at war. Others counter with tales of absurdity.

Mary Sabatini said her mother - who moved to the United States in 1919 - was among 1,800 evacuated from Alameda.

Teresa Sabatini had Parkinson's disease and encephalitis and could not go out of the house alone. Nevertheless, being a noncitizen, she posed a risk, in the eyes of Lt. Gen. John DeWitt, head of the Western Defense Command and architect of the wartime restrictions.

The Sabatinis had to leave Alameda. They moved to East Oakland, about 6 miles away.

"My mother didn't speak the language, wasn't well and was not going to bomb the Alameda Naval Air Station," said Mary Sabatini, 71, who had to catch a streetcar and two buses to reach her school - which was four blocks from her old house.

For most Italians, thanks partly to President Franklin Roosevelt's desire to hang on to their votes, the nightmare ended in October 1942. For Prospero Cecconi, it never really did.

A member of the Ex-Combattenti held in an Austrian POW camp during World War I, Cecconi arrived in the United States in 1924, said his daughter, Doris Giuliotti, 71, who lives in San Francisco's Marina District.

When he died 63 years later, Giuliotti found a small notebook among his belongings. It traces a journey from camp to camp, starting with his arrest at a North Beach macaroni factory through his internment at Fort Missoula, Mont.

The diary's entries are spare and intermittent,

alternating between English and Italian.

"I was arrested at 5 p.m. and took to the Immigration Station 108 Silver Ave.," he wrote on Feb. 21, 1942. Six days later, there were merely "Questions. " And on May 28, he "received prisoner clothing."

One entry, characteristically terse, is particularly poignant: "Morto il camarato Protto." His closest friend, fellow prisoner Giuseppe Protto, had died of a blood clot in the brain.

At that time, Cecconi's family was living in a small village in the Apennine mountains, having left their house and alterations shop in the Marina a few years before. They knew nothing - just that they had no money from America and no news about Prospero.

After the war, he went back to Italy, vowing to never return. And he never did, even when Doris moved to San Francisco in 1951.

"He said, No, they've humiliated me so much.' He told us all about it, down to the nitty-gritty," recalled his daughter, her blue eyes welling with tears.

For two years, Giuliotti tried to get her father's files from the government, last October finally asking Rep. Nancy Pelosi to help. A month later, 125 pages on Mr. Cecconi arrived, at a cost of $62.50.

"I would have paid $500 because I wanted to know what they said. My father died with a thorn in his heart, thinking of why they did that to him," Giuliotti said. "He was a very bitter man."

For others, the bitterness faded or never really took hold.

"My parents became good Americans," said Bronzini. "My mother's favorite song was The Star-Spangled Banner.' "

Scudero mirrored his words - her mother felt no outrage, just gratitude that she hadn't been deported or treated as badly as her Japanese neighbors.

"She loved this country, she loved Kate Smith, she'd sing God Bless America' every time she heard it on the radio," she said.

Still, Scudero is convinced history could repeat itself.

"It could happen again, to any nationality," she said. "Why not?"

Even those who lived through the crackdown on "enemy aliens" sometimes had no sense of its scope.

Only a few years ago, Castro Valley resident Al Bronzini discovered the mistreatment of Italians extended beyond the Oakland world of his childhood.

"I thought it was just an isolated thing," said Bronzini, a spirited and jocular man of 71. "How would I know? It's been a secret for 59 years. It just goes to show you they can keep secrets. Not atomic secrets or nuclear secrets, but these kind they keep. I knew about the Japanese because we had two Japanese kids in school, Suzy and Sugiyo Kato. They sat right behind me, and one day they're gone. They took them away because of the war, that's all they said, and I never saw them again.

"I made a sign for my desk, To hell with the Japs,' and the teacher gave me an A.' That was the climate. So you can imagine how people must have felt about Italians. We were the enemy, too, weren't we?"

The contradictions spill over Bronzini's dining room table, along with snapshots of the ancestral home in Tuscany and the tidy house in Oakland, his parents' passports and certificates bearing their names from Ellis Island's Immigrant Wall of Honor.

Like most "enemy aliens," Bronzini's family had been in the United States a long time.

His father had left a small town near Pisa in 1923, returning six years later to marry. By the time war broke out, Guido and Clara Bronzini had two sons, a thriving produce market, a new Pontiac and a home of their own in the Melrose District. They did not, however, have citizenship papers.

On a February 1942 evening, 13-year-old Al Bronzini was eating dinner when two police officers knocked at the door and confiscated the family's new Philco radio because of its shortwave band. Not long after, Guido Bronzini had to close his produce market because it was on the wrong side of the street - the west side of East 12th, a prohibited zone

because it was closer to the coast.

"The women from the neighborhood would huddle together, they'd all be in the kitchen talking and crying," Bronzini said. "They would soak the dish towels with tears."

A few weeks after resurrecting those memories, Bronzini took a "nostalgia walk" through one of his father's old haunts - the Oakland produce market near Jack London Square. He strolled past displays of tamarind pods, plantains, bok choy and tomatillos, shouting above the racket of forklifts and clamor in Vietnamese, Spanish, Korean and Chinese.

"My mother used to tell me how the fascisti police in Italy would come and kick the doors down if you were not willing to fly the fascist flag," he recalled. "That's why they were so terrified during World War II - they just came from a land where you had to do what the police said."

Afterward, the nostalgia tour headed south. Bronzini marveled at the number of Asian businesses along East 12th - "It's their turn," he said - before arriving at the spot where his father's market, the Fruitvale Banana Depot, once stood.

Now it's the Blue Bird auto body shop. Up the block, day laborers lined the street. Almost nothing was recognizable. No matter. Bronzini remembered it well.

"Across the street, we'd just sit in the truck. My father would park and gaze at his boarded-up building. He could drive north on East 12th because he was on the other side of the line, but on the way back he would have to take East 14th in order not to be in violation."

After losing the market, Bronzini's father worked in a machine shop, plucked chickens, hauled timber. His mother had a "total mental collapse" and was hospitalized two months in Livermore.

Bronzini said: "She used to repeat, over and over, 'Non e giusta. Non abbiamo fatto niente a nessuno.' (It isn't right. We haven't done anything to anyone.)"

N95 Respirators in Industrial and Health Care Settings

Most N95 respirators are manufactured for use in construction and other industrial type jobs that expose workers to dust and small particles. They are regulated by the National Personal Protective Technology Laboratory (NPPTL) in the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), which is part of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).

However, some N95 respirators are intended for use in a health care setting. Specifically, single-use, disposable respiratory protective devices used and worn by health care personnel during procedures to protect both the patient and health care personnel from the transfer of microorganisms, body fluids, and particulate material. These surgical N95 respirators are class II devices regulated by the FDA, under 21 CFR 878.4040, and CDC NIOSH under 42 CFR Part 84.

N95s respirators regulated under product code MSH are class II medical devices exempt from 510(k) premarket notification, unless:

  • The respirator is intended to prevent specific diseases or infections, or
  • The respirator is labeled or otherwise represented as filtering surgical smoke or plumes, filtering specific amounts of viruses or bacteria, reducing the amount of and/or killing viruses, bacteria, or fungi, or affecting allergenicity, or
  • The respirator contains coating technologies unrelated to filtration (e.g., to reduce and or kill microorganisms).

The FDA has a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) with CDC NIOSH which outlines the framework for coordination and collaboration between the FDA and NIOSH for regulation of this subset of N95 respirators.

For additional differences between surgical masks and N95 respirators, please see CDC's infographic.

Oakland II CI-95 - History




LT1 cylinder heads share the same head to block bolt pattern as the standard small block Chevrolet. The exhaust ports and holes are also in the same location. All LT1 heads use self-aligning rocker arms. The intake manifold is proprietary to the LT1, however, a standard small block Chevy intake can be modified to work. There are no coolant crossovers on the intake, coolant is routed through the back of the cylinder heads through a crossover tube. All LT1 engines use center bolt valve covers.

There are a total of 4 factory fuel rails for the LT series engines : 2 different Corvette rails, and 2 different Camaro/Firebird rails. All of the Corvette rails have the feed/return lines on the passenger side, while the Camaro/Firebird/Impala all have the feed/return lines on the driver's side. 92-93 fuel rails do not use the fuel crossover in the front. 94-97 fuel rails use the fuel crossover in the front. You can use the 92-93 fuel rails on all of the intakes, but you can only use the 94-97 fuel rails on the later model intakes.

There were basically 3 different front drive setups for the LT1 engines : Corvette, Camaro/Firebird and Impala. The Camaro/Firebird and Impala are very similar to each other. They are basically the same other than the main accessory bracket and power steering pump. The rest of the components are compatible with each other. Both of those setups had the accessories located on the passenger side. The Corvette had the accessories on the driver's side. The accessories and components are not interchangeable between Corvette and Camaro/Firebird/Impala.
There are 4 different LT1 hubs. Basically, there are 2 hubs for each style balancer : Corvette & Camaro/Firebird/Impala. Then there are 2 hubs, depending whether the car is OBD I or OBD II. The OBD II hubs are .100" shorter than the OBD I hubs, since there is a sensor ring (crank position sensor) sandwiched between the hub and the crankshaft timing gear, and the shorter hub is to keep proper belt alignment on cars with that ring. All OE hubs are neutral balanced and can be installed in any clock position. None of the LT1 hubs are keyed.

The LT1 Optisparks are very similar between years, but there are only 2 styles : 1992-1994 and 1995-1997. The 2 cannot be interchanged without front cover and camshaft modifications. There are 3 main differences in the units : drive method, ventilation system, and electrical connection.

The Optisparks use 2 different drive methods : Spline drive and Pin drive. On spline drive system (92-94), the Optispark has a splined shaft that mates to the camshaft timing gear. The gear is clocked so the shaft only goes in 1-way for precise timing. On the pin drive system (95-97), a pin extended from the camshaft runs through the timing gear and into a slot on the Optispark, and the shaft from the Optispark runs through the camshaft center for better bearing support.

Vented Optisparks have 2 small vacuum line attachments (left photo). These attachments allow for engine vacuum to remove moisture from the Optispark unit. Non-vented Optisparks have no vacuum line attachments (right photo). Instead, 3 small holes are located at the bottom of the unit to allow for ventilation. This causes failure when driving in rainy weather or through a puddle.


Some advantages of the vented Optispark are (1) the ventilation system allows for a longer life span and less misfires, (2) the bearing and drive method allow for longer bearing life, and (3) the larger diameter front seal reduces the change of oil leakage through the cover and into the Optispark. You can convert from a non-vented Optispark to a vented Optispark by changing the Optispark unit, the front timing cover to a 95-97 model, camshaft timing gear to a 95-97 model, adding the vacuum lines, and changing the Optispark extension harness to the later model. The camshaft does not necessarily need to be changed, but you will need to drill the cam centering hole deeper for the Optispark unit to slide in all of the way. We have a convenient kit available for those who wish to upgrade to the vented Optispark.

All text and watermarked photos are property of Nook & Tranny LLC, and are not permitted for use without written consent from Nook & Tranny LLC.
GM Trademarks are used under license to Nook & Tranny LLC.
Send written inquiries to Nook & Tranny LLC, 1440 Coral Ridge Drive, Box 220, Coral Springs, FL 33071

Build Some Power With a '92-'96 Gen II LT1

'The oddball, the anachronism, the redheaded stepchild-the Gen II small-block can be considered all these things. Conversely, it can also be regarded as the ultimate production version of the original small-block Chevy and a testbed for the technology that would advance the small-block into the new millennium. Since its introduction in 1992, much ink has been spilled (some in the pages of this very magazine) about the Gen II engine. We'll spare you the nostalgic musings on Chevrolet engine families and get to the heart of the matter: LT1s are available in junkyards right now. Complete engine, transmission, and ECM/wiring harness combinations are selling on eBay for less than a grand. So we thought it was time to take another look at these engines. We wanted to know why they were made in the first place, how they differ from the original small-block Chevy, what their strengths and weaknesses are, what their performance potential is, and what people are doing with them.

1992: Debut in Y-body
1993: Introduced in F-body
1994: Introduced in B/D-body
* Mass Airflow engine manage- ment replaces speed-density system
* Sequential fuel injection
* Smaller-displacement 4.3L L99 available in Caprice
* Opti-Spark upgrades made to B/D
1995: Upgrades to Opti-Spark applied to
Y- and F-body
1996: LT4 in manual transmission Y-body
OBD-II computers
B/D-body line discontinued
1997: LS1 replaces LT1/4 in Y-body
LT1 remains in F-body, LT4 installed
in some special-edition models
Y-body: Corvette
F-body: Camaro
B-body: Caprice
D-body: Fleetwood
Casting number: 10125327 (look for "327" cast on side near freeze plugs)
Block: Cast-iron two-bolt main bearing caps (middle three caps are four-bolt in Y-body)
Bore: 4.0 inches
Stroke: 3.48 inches
Crankshaft: Nodular iron
Connecting rods: Powdered-metal 5.7-inch
Pistons: Hypereutectic flat-top with valve reliefs
Cylinder heads: Aluminum
Cast-iron '94-'96 B/D-body
54cc combustion chambers
170cc intake port
212-cfm airflow
Valves: 1.94-inch intake, 1.50-inch exhaust
Rocker arms: Stamped steel 1.5:1
Camshaft: Roller lifter:
202/207 degrees of duration @ 0.050 inch
0.447/0.459-inch lift (varies slightly by year and application)
Horsepower: 300 @ 5,000 rpm
Torque: 340 @ 4,000 rpm

A Little HistoryDesigning a new engine is a tough balancing act. Stringent fuel economy and emissions standards are always being imposed on the auto manufacturers, so any new engine being developed has to run cleaner and be more fuel-efficient. But at the same time, cars get heavier each model-year with the addition of new safety features, infotainment devices, creature comforts, and power everything. The new engine has to make enough power to handle the excess weight, plus not feel slow to the driver and burn less gas. In an attempt to improve upon the outgoing L98's 250 hp, GM's designers set a goal of 300 net horsepower for the LT1. To meet these goals they employed fairly standard techniques of increasing the compression ratio and improving the cylinder-head design. But they supported these changes with some interesting technology.

Though the LT1 and its offspring, the LT4 and L99 4.3L V-8 (the standard engine in '94-'96 Caprices), are called Gen II, they have more parts in common with the original SBC than not: The reciprocating assembly and valvetrain are interchangeable with the Gen I engine, for example. But the differences, though few, are substantial enough to warrant the new-generation designation. The engine block and cylinder heads are unique and cannot interchange with the previous design. Also specific to the Gen II are the ignition and cooling systems.

Reverse flowThink LT1, and you likely think "reverse-flow cooling." This is understandable because the terms are used almost synonymously whenever mentioned in the magazines. But how well has the system ever been explained?

To be fair, reverse-flow cooling is not a new thing. Smokey Yunick developed a reverse-flow system for some of his Trans-Am race cars, and a few independent engineers and engine builders have developed systems of their own. But the LT1 was the first mass-produced engine with reverse-flow cooling. So how does it work?

Let's review the basics first. On the Gen I engine, the water pump bolts to the front of the block. It draws coolant from the radiator and pushes it into both sides of the block, where it circulates around the cylinder bores and up through a passage at the back of the block into the cylinder heads. Coolant then flows to the front of the heads and out through the crossover in the intake manifold where the thermostat is located. If the coolant temperature is high enough, the thermostat will allow coolant out of the engine into the upper radiator hose and back to the radiator.

This system worked fine for almost 50 years, but it could be more efficient. The engine is not cooled evenly with this flow pattern because the bores of cylinders 1 and 2 will always be cooler than the bores of cylinders 7 and 8. But the reverse is true for the combustion chamber temperatures because numbers 1 and 2 are the last to be cooled.

In the LT1, however, coolant is pumped into the cylinder heads first. Though the water pump still bolts to the block per the original SBC design, the coolant makes a sharp, 90-degree turn just inside the block and is routed up into the cylinder heads first. It then flows, like a parallel electrical circuit, evenly down the coolant jackets of all the cylinders in the engine block, then returns to the water pump through the lower pair of ports at the pump-to-block mating surface. A two-way thermostat (also unique to the LT1) is located in the water-pump housing. If the coolant temperature is hot enough, it is routed out to the radiator. If not, coolant flows through a bypass circuit and back into the engine.

The combustion chambers are the hottest part of any engine, and they are cooled first in a reverse-flow system. And because of the flow pattern, they are closer to uniform cooling from cylinder to cylinder. This provides a more stable and efficient environment for combustion to occur. More efficient combustion means lower emission levels. Plus, cooling the heads first allows the engine to safely run a higher compression level than would otherwise be possible, and we all know more compression means more power.

The reverse-flow design can also contribute to longer engine life. Since temperatures in the combustion chambers can reach 1,400 degrees, the result is a substantial difference in temperature between the top and bottom of the cylinder bores, and therefore the bores are wider near the top than they are at the bottom due to thermal expansion. The piston rings have to expand and contract slightly as they seal the bores from top to bottom, causing wear on the ring faces and ring lands. And since the temperature at the bottom of the bores can be below the dew point, water vapor, a by-product of combustion, can condense on the bottom of the bores and drip into the crankcase, eventually contaminating the motor oil and contributing to sludge buildup over time. However, in a reverse-flow system, the bore temperatures are more even from top to bottom, reducing the effects of those two problems.

So if reverse flow is so awesome, why don't all the manufacturers use it? The answer, of course, is cost. Reverse-flow cooling, while inherently better than standard-flow systems, requires some additional engineering for it to work properly. In any given engine, under most operating conditions, the coolant is boiling somewhere in the engine-usually in the coolant passages in the cylinder head. This is because the walls of the combustion chamber are much hotter than the boiling point of coolant. The layer of coolant directly in contact with the combustion chambers, particularly near the spark plugs and exhaust valve seats, is being vaporized. This is called nucleate boiling it is normal and does not pose a problem to the operation of the cooling system as long as the vapor is not allowed to accumulate. Usually the coolant flow rate is strong enough to sweep the vapor away, constantly dousing the area with a steady stream of liquid coolant, and any vapor bubbles that did form usually condense back into the coolant stream. But if a steam pocket does form, the vaporized coolant can impede the flow of the liquid to that particular area of the water jacket and a hot spot will develop on the inside of the chamber-setting up a situation that can cause detonation at best, and engine failure at worst. This is because vaporized coolant can't transfer heat as efficiently as liquid coolant it essentially acts as an insulator, allowing the temperature in the area to spike.

In a standard-flow system, the pattern of coolant flow is always carrying vapor bubbles up and out of the engine. In a reverse-flow system, however, the coolant flow rate is not strong enough to "blow" the vapor from the cylinder heads down through the engine block and out to the radiator. The vapor, instead, will remain trapped in the cylinder head, eventually filling it with steam until the engine melts down.

The solution to this problem is very simple. The cylinder heads are vented at a location where coolant vapors would normally collect. On the Gen II engines, these vents are on the back of the cylinder heads. Steam and a small amount of liquid coolant escape through a banjo fitting into a metal tube that eventually runs to the coolant overflow reservoir. The opening of the banjo fitting acts as a restrictor-it is small enough to hinder liquid coolant from flowing through it, but steam will easily enter. As the steam passes through the banjo fitting, it experiences a pressure drop that allows it to condense more easily back to a liquid state.

This vent tube is an essential part of the cooling system. If you're pulling an engine from the junkyard, make sure that the vent tube is in fact there and that it's not kinked or damaged.

We talked to several engine builders to get their take on reverse-flow cooling. Their reactions were mixed but affirmed what we suspected: Reverse-flow cooling works well-better, probably, than a standard-flow system. But most cars just don't need it. For the type of driving the average person does, a standard-flow system does the job adequately, and without the added parts needed to make a reverse-flow system work. For a performance application, though, Chad Golen of Golen Engine Service and Mark McKeown of McKeown Motorsports Engineering are firm believers in reverse flow and say that the LT1 wouldn't be able to generate the power levels it's capable of without the reverse-flow design. McKeown actually modified one of the Ford Clevor engines he built for a recent Jegs Engine Masters Competition to run a reverse-flow system. "It just makes sense to cool the hottest part of the engine first," McKeown tells us. Karl Ellwein of Ellwein Engines-a builder who deals solely with LT1s-is a little less enthusiastic. He says that reverse flow may not contribute that much to the engine's performance it doesn't hurt it, either, but it really limits the amount of aftermarket parts available for this engine.

Geardriven Water PumpThe Gen II's water pump is a unique design. It looks like an electric pump, but it's actually geardriven, using the camshaft sprocket. It was designed this way to be more reliable throughout its service life by eliminating the bearing failures caused by accessory drivebelt tension. The thermostat housing is on top of the pump housing on the inlet side of the system. Placing the thermostat on the inlet eliminates thermal shock, because cold water from the radiator can be gradually mixed with warm coolant already circulating through the engine. Also, the pump is designed to maintain full coolant flow through the engine and heater core even with the thermostat closed. This reduces the possibility of impeller damage by cavitation and allows the engine to warm up more quickly.

There are currently no aftermarket performance mechanical water pumps available, but Meziere and CSR sell electric pumps that replace the impeller section of the stock housing. Flow rates range from a near-stock 35 gallons per minute to 50 gpm. You need access to a hydraulic press to perform this conversion because the driveshaft bearing assembly must be pressed out.

Opti-SparkAnother big change from the traditional small-block design was the Opti-Spark ignition system, which incorporates two functions in one unit: It's a crank-angle sensor as well as a distributor. An optical sensor made of matched pairs of LEDs and phototransistors resides in the distributor housing. Light from the LEDs excites the transistors, causing them to generate a voltage. The light is broken up by a disc sandwiched between the two. The disc has two tracks of slots or windows cut into its perimeter. The outer track has 360 windows the inner has only eight windows, but these eight windows are all of differing widths. The disc is driven by the cam, so as it turns with the engine, the phototransistor reads the "on and off" of each window as it breaks the beam of light and generates a voltage for each event-a total of 720 pulses per camshaft revolution, which corresponds to one revolution of the crankshaft. At the same time, the inner phototransistor is generating a signal for the eight windows that correspond to the top dead center of each piston. A processor called the EBT reads both signals and determines the exact position of the crankshaft, accurate to 1 degree. The ECM then uses this information to determine the proper ignition timing per cylinder on an individual basis.

Of course, the Opti-Spark performs its duties as a distributor, too. Spark energy comes via a remote-mount coil, like later HEI systems, but through a series of paths embedded in the cap, the plug wire terminals exit the cap according to which side of the engine the cylinder is located on.

The Opti-Spark has earned a bad reputation as an unreliable unit. But those claims are largely unwarranted. The early units, of 1992 and 1993, had problems with carbon tracking and ozone and moisture collecting inside, but improvements were made in the 1994 (or 1995 depending on application) and later units. The bodies were sealed and vented via ported vacuum drawing filtered air from the intake ductwork. No Opti-Spark likes moisture, though, and a water-pump leak can kill it. Since the water pump must be removed to replace an Opti-Spark, it's prudent to replace both parts together if one or the other fails. Chad Golen recommends using an MSD cap and rotor. He says the MSD parts are made of better materials than the GM pieces were. They are less expensive, too.

1992-1994: Nonvented, spline-driven
1994-1996: Vented, pin-drive
B/D-body only
1995-1996 Y: Vented, pin-drive
1995-1997 F: Vented, pin-drive

Intake And Cylinder HeadsBoth of these parts had to flow better if the designers were going to meet their 300hp goal. The engineers were successful on both counts. Not only did the LT1 intake flow better than the Tuned Port Ignition manifold, it was shorter and lighter, which aided in packaging it to fit the new cars' low-profile hoods. Also, its one-piece design eliminated the labor associated with fitting the three-piece TPI manifold on the assembly line.

GM has discontinued the LT1 manifold, but Edelbrock makes a replacement. It accepts all emissions equipment and is machined to accept a 52- or 55mm throttle body as well as the stock 48mm one. Its Air-Gap design will help cool the intake charge, too.

The LT1 cylinder-head design was one of Chevrolet's best. It outflowed the legendary Bow Tie heads and was the basis for the Vortec head, one of the best bargain performance cylinder heads on the market for the small-block Chevy. Much work was done to improve airflow into and out of the combustion chamber. The intake parts were redesigned to flow as a continuation of the intake runner, and the exhaust ports were reshaped to move more air at higher engine speeds. The shape of the combustion chambers was updated, and the valves and seats got three-angle valve jobs where the previous L98 engines had two-angle jobs. It's interesting to note that all LT1s came with aluminum cylinder heads except the B/D car applications. Apparently, the law enforcement community was concerned about heat soak and the longevity of aluminum heads in police service.

Trick Flow, Airflow Research, and Edelbrock each manufacture aluminum heads to fit most people's budgets. The builders we spoke to also emphasized the option of porting the stock heads. Since they are a good design to begin with, they respond very well to porting.

LT4The LT4 was the last hurrah of the Gen II small-block, and did it go out with a bang. Though its torque rating was the same and it only made 30 more horsepower than the LT1, it was loaded with high-tech parts. The crankshaft was stronger, the valvetrain was lighter, and the heads flowed even better. The accompanying chart lists the specifics, but putting the valvetrain on a serious diet shed enough weight to allow the LT4 to rev to 6,300 rpm. Bigger intake runners moved more air in a more direct path into the engine. LT4s were standard in '96 Corvettes with manual transmissions and also came in a select few special-edition '97 F-body cars. There are some interchangeability issues to be aware of, though. LT4 intake runners are raised 0.100 inch higher than the LT1. They will bolt onto an LT1 block but require an LT4 intake manifold (Edelbrock PN 7109).

You can still buy LT4 cylinder heads from GM. "We have them on the shelf right now," say the guys at Scoggin-Dickey Chevrolet. At a little over $1,000 each, they're not cheap, but they're a viable option for the guy who already has a good block. Scoggin-Dickey also has a killer-sounding, race-spec CNC-ported LT4 head with 64cc chambers, 205cc intake, and 77cc exhaust runners that flow 262 cfm at 0.050-inch lift. Don't have a good block? Scoggin-Dickey sells those, too. A new LT1 long-block with four-bolt mains can be purchased for just under $5,000. If you want to go all out, Scoggin-Dickey also sells a race-prepped 383 short-block for almost the same amount of money. It comes with Milodon splayed four-bolt main bearing caps, a forged Lunati crank, Pro Mod 5.850-inch rods, SRP flat-top pistons, and JE rings.

PotentialAll the builders we spoke to agreed that 450 hp is easy to get out of an LT1. Chad Golen built his business on LT1s and was the guy everyone told us to talk to. Golen Engine Service moves about 200 LT1s a year and offers a variety of packages to choose from, including a 460hp package that will pass California emissions. The most popular package Golen sells is the 440hp 383, but he can put together a 396 that will crank out 520 naturally aspirated horsepower.

"Four or five hundred horsepower is easy you only need to do a few things to the motor," Golen tells us. "You need to port the stock heads, but you can keep the stock intake, run a 52- or 55mm throttle body, 30 lb/hr injectors, add headers and exhaust, and reprogram the ECM."

Mark McKeown has been working on a custom centrifugal supercharged application, and naturally aspirated his 8.5:1 engine is pulling 515 hp on the dyno. This is possible through careful selection of all the components. "You need to look at the engine as a whole," he says. "By maximizing efficiency, you make sure that every molecule of gasoline reacts with every molecule of oxygen during the combustion process. Nothing is wasted. We match the intake to a good set of heads with back-cut valves and a good valve job." He expects to make an easy 600 hp from the engine once the blower is on.

Karl Ellwein started out as an Impala SS owner, saying, "I just liked the looks of the car." He bought one and began modifying it and started making big power, too. Soon other Impala and 9C1 Caprice owners were asking him to build engines for them as well, so he opened a business building engines. "Guys are buying ex-police cars at auctions for cheap and racing them," he tells us. A popular customer request is for a 355-inch package that adds Mahle pistons and Scat rods to the stock crank. This $2,400 budget rebuild is a good starting point for the high-mileage, ex-cop cars. Ellwein will also build a $12,000 one-off boosted and juiced race engine. He said he has enough work to keep himself busy for several months, and he's actually been turning customers away.

To Build Or Not To BuildShould anyone build this engine? That's a tough call. The LT1 has a number of glaring strikes against it. Its run was short and its major parts don't interchange with the original small-block. The prices of used or salvage LS1s are dropping, and those engines make more power than LT1s do. All our builders agree that the LT1 isn't obsolete, however. Chad Golen says most of his customers are current LT1 owners rather than swappers. "There will always be the guy who wants to keep the engine that originally came in his car," he tells us. Mark McKeown says that the LT1 is a popular swap for the street rodder guys who want a different look for their fiberglass-bodied deuces, but it would also make a good swap candidate into older musclecars because of its affordability and tunability. The other builders agree. "They use the same oil pan and mounts. They fall right into place," Golen says. "But you get a much more modern engine with a lot of tuning potential."

Another interesting point that all the builders mentioned was that LT1s are good-looking engines. Not that aesthetics should rate high on our list of criteria when putting an engine together, but the point is still valid. Thanks to its low-profile, tunnel-ram-style intake and front-mount distributor, it is a very clean install into an older car. "They're not as difficult to wire up as people might think, either," continues Golen. "You can buy a premade wiring harness, and there aren't that many sensors to hook up-throttle-position sensor, idle air control, mass airflow, MAP, two oxygen sensors, two knock sensors. Plug in the fuel injectors, distributor, and the ECM, and you're ready to go."

Armed with this knowledge, if you're considering an LT1 swap, the general consensus among LT1 Internet geeks is that engines from the B/D-bodies make the best swap candidates, since they were in thousands of cars that are making their way to the junkyard at this very moment. They have a couple of other things going for them. They all have the upgraded Opti-Spark unit, and because their overflow reservoir is mounted higher than the engine, their system of coolant lines and vapor vent tubes is the least complicated. Also, unlike most F-body applications, they were all dual-catalyst cars-a huge plus to guys living in states with tight emission laws. By those states' guidelines, if the engine was originally a dual-catalyst application, you are able to run a true dual exhaust in your project car. If not, you're stuck running a Y-pipe into a single cat.

If you are scoping out a Caprice in the junkyard, beware the 4.3L V-8. Though it looks the same as an LT1, it is a low-compression, grandma-friendly engine that would make for an embarrassing swap into a performance car. Let the VIN be your guide-a P in the eighth position of the vehicle identification number is what you should be looking for. A W indicates the engine in question is the 4.3 that will turn your hair blue and make you walk with a cane. RPO geeks can also check the sticker on the inside of the trunklid. The regular production option code for the 4.3 motor is L99. If all else fails, check the exhaust. All LT1 cars ran true dual exhaust, while the 4.3 cars were all single catalyst, single tailpipe.

There is one fitment issue that seems to crop up in all LT1 swaps we've seen so far. The A/C compressor won't clear the passenger-side framerail of most musclecars. An idler pulley is available for those who have no use for air conditioning, but some ambitious swappers end up notching the frame for clearance. Because of the front-mount water pump and distributor, GM stacked all the engine-driven accessories up on one side of the engine. The B-, D-, and F- bodies mount the accessories on the passenger side, while they're on the driver side in Corvettes. The Y-body accessory-drive system is usually expensive, but if you can find one it may solve most of the clearance issues.

From College to University

In 2001, the College began expanding its programs to regions beyond the East Bay, offering graduate nursing education at its Sacramento Regional Learning Center. In 2005, a grant from the Betty and Gordon Moore Foundation enabled the college to develop additional learning centers in San Francisco and San Mateo to address the critical nursing shortage through the expansion of its innovative 12-month Accelerated Bachelor of Science in Nursing degree. It also began offering a number of courses online and degree programs to serve students from a distance.

SMU became a doctoral degree-granting institution with the merger of the California College of Podiatric Medicine (CCPM) and the development of a clinical doctorate in physical therapy in 2002. CCPM, now known as the California School of Podiatric Medicine (CSPM), was originally established in San Francisco in 1914.

In 2008, SMU and Saint Mary's discontinued their historic joint degree program. The University developed a new program in collaboration with Saint Mary's, Mills College, Holy Names University, and Notre Dame de Namur University. Students enrolled in this program complete course work at one of the partner schools and then transfer to SMU to complete nursing courses and obtain a Bachelor of Science in Nursing degree.

In 2009, Samuel Merritt College was renamed Samuel Merritt University to recognize its growing contribution to research and its success in broadening its mission to provide bachelor's-, master's-, and doctoral-level programs in multiple health disciplines, preparing tens of thousands of students for entry-level and advanced professional practice in a variety of critical health disciplines.

World War II reshaped the Bay Area and its people

5 of 6 National Park Service employees, Betty Reid Soskin, left and Lucy Lawliss, right, walk around an old shipyard warehouse at the Rosie the Riveter/World War II Home Front National Historic Park in Richmond, Calif., Wednesday, Oct. 31, 2007. The Richmond shipyards produced 747 ships during World War II, an enormous effort that required round-the-clock shifts. Eric Risberg/AP Show More Show Less

Memorial Day is an occasion to remember the men and women who went off to war and never returned. But it is also fitting on this day to recall the soldiers, sailors and Marines who served in World War II and came back.

Those men and women and their families set off a huge postwar boom that completely changed the Bay Area - and produced the region that today's residents have inherited.

World War II had a huge impact on the Bay Area. It resulted in major changes in the area's racial makeup, its economy, even its physical appearance.

The conversion of the orchard-rich Santa Clara County from "The Valley of Heart's Delight" into Silicon Valley can be directly traced to wartime electronic research.

Author Marilynn Johnson studied the impact of the war on the East Bay, where Oakland and Richmond were turned into boom towns. She called it "The Second Gold Rush." The war, she said, "marked the coming of age of West Coast cities."

"The city still looks the same. It is still beautiful, but it's a totally different place than the one where we grew up," said Wallace Levin, who was born and raised in San Francisco and lived in the city during World War II. Levin is coordinator of Monday's Memorial Day ceremonies at the Presidio.

Shipbuilding boom

After Pearl Harbor was attacked, the Bay Area became a centerpiece of what President Franklin D. Roosevelt called "the arsenal of democracy."

Shipyards went up with lightning speed to construct the ships that would take the war to the Japanese in the Pacific. In San Francisco, the executives of the Bechtel Corp. got a telegram from the government on March 2, 1942, asking if the company would be interested in building and operating a shipyard on San Francisco Bay.

The answer was "yes," and within 10 days, Bechtel began clearing marshland in Sausalito for a shipyard called Marinship. Just over three months from the call from Washington, the keel of a freighter was laid, and in September, the ship, named for William Richardson, the founder of Sausalito, was launched.

In the East Bay, Henry J. Kaiser built three shipyards, which during the war built 747 large ships - one in only four days, a world record.

During the height of the wartime shipbuilding boom, 244,000 people worked in Bay Area shipyards - a workforce equal to more than 13 Army divisions.

Fort Mason, on San Francisco's northern waterfront, became the main port of embarkation for the Pacific war.

Off to war

Government records show that 1,647,174 passengers - soldiers, sailors, Marines and civilians like Red Cross personnel - boarded ships at Fort Mason bound for the Pacific. Two-thirds of all the troops sent to the Pacific in World War II passed through San Francisco.

"They saw the city for the first time, and it made a strong impression on them," wrote Wayne Bonnett, who produced a book on Bay Area shipyards.

Strong impression is right. Those service members who got shore leave in San Francisco never forgot it.

"It couldn't be better," said Johnny Johnson, who was aboard the cruiser San Francisco on leave in the city. "A sailor couldn't buy a drink in a bar. Couldn't buy a hot dog. It was all free."

Historian Kevin Starr noted that streetcars going up Market Street were so jammed with sailors "they looked like ships at sea."

These were service members from the Midwest, the South and the East Coast, and many of them promised themselves that if they survived the war, they'd be back.

San Francisco grew from a city of 634,000 residents in 1940 to 774,821 by 1950. In Contra Costa County beyond the hills, the little towns of Walnut Creek, Orinda and Concord saw their populations double, then double again. Walnut Creek was a little farm town of 1,578 in 1940 Orinda had 1,373 people before the war Calistoga, at the head of the Napa Valley in what is now the Wine Country, had just over 1,100 residents. The biggest industries in prewar Marin were railroading and dairy ranching.

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