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In Spain, what would be the style of wanted poster (for pirates)?
Would it be like the Wild West type of a more modern poster.
I don't believe there were any wanted posters in Spain in the 1500's. If you have evidence, please document your preliminary research in your question.
The first record I can find of a wanted poster in Europe was 1881; although the comments suggest that wanted posters were common in the US at that time. True West Magazine suggests (non-conclusive) that they date from the last half of the 19th century.
Wikipedia on Calico Jack cites an illustration in a 1722 book. If a wanted poster existed, I suspect they would have used that in preference to a woodcut.
According to the history of posters, "The first posters were created in the mid 19th century in France as advertisements for new products." Which suggests that posters and wanted posters both emerged well after the 1500's
They looked like this:
In all seriousness, though, wanted notices were more a product of the 18th century (1700s) when printing became cheaper, although such notices also appeared in latter part of the 17th century. In the 1500s paper and printed matter was expensive and most people could not read.
There were definitely bounties offered, for example, it is rumored that Phillip put a bounty on Francis Drake's head, but it is hard to find documentation of such offers before 1650.
Create a Wanted Poster for a School Project - Story, Novel or Play
Making a wanted poster is a creative way that can help you analyze a character in a novel or story. For example, you can easily create wanted posters for characters in the story Curious George, the novel The Crucible or the play The Ring of General Macias. The wanted poster is a versatile project that can be used for many assignments at just about any grade level. A rubric is included with this article to help you see how to be successful when creating a wanted poster for a school project. [caption align=“aligncenter” width=“451”] The wanted poster can help with character analysis[/caption]
What would the style of wanted posters be in 1500's - History
History of Poster Art
Evolution & Chronology of Lithographic Poster Design.
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One of several posters of
Le Chat Noir Cabaret in Paris
by Theophile Steinlen (1896).
History of Poster Art (c.1860-1980)
Colour Poster for Perfecta Bicycles
(1902) By Alphonse Mucha.
HISTORY OF VISUAL ARTS
For important dates in the
development of fine art and
other artforms, see:
History of Art Timeline.
For details of art movements
styles and genres, see:
History of Art.
For more information,
see: Printmaking Glossary.
The evolution and development of poster art has always been closely linked to technical advances in printmaking, notably lithography. Thus although the lithographic process was invented by Alois Senefelder (1771-1834) as far back as 1798, it had little impact on posters until the advent of chromolithography later in the 19th century. Even then, it wasn't until Jules Cheret (1836-1932) invented his convenient "three stone lithographic process" in the 1860s - allowing lithographers to produce a wide spectrum of colours from just three stones - that low-cost colour posters at last became a reality.
Known as the "father of the fine art poster", Cheret not only developed a cheaper colour lithographic process, with richer more expressive colours, he also enhanced the aesthetic nature of the poster, endowed it with graceful designs (some influenced by Ukiyo-e woodblock prints from Japan, by artists like Hokusai and the younger Hiroshige) and transformed it into an independent work of art. Furthermore, he encouraged other painters to explore the genre: he later published his special book Maîtres de l'Affiche (Masters of the Poster), to promote the best designers. He also introduced the feminine form into his designs, for extra viewer-appeal. His female subjects became so popular that Parisians dubbed them Cherettes. In total, Cheret produced more than 1,000 posters, beginning with his 1867 advertisement for Sarah Bernardt's performance as Princess Desiree in the comedy La Biche au Bois. Honoured in 1928 with the opening of the Cheret Museum in Nice, Jules Cheret's posters, are some of the most highly sought-after items from the late 19th century.
MEANING OF ART
For details of differing types
of visual and fine arts, see:
Meaning/Definition of Art.
VISUAL ARTS CATEGORIES
Definitions, forms, styles, genres,
periods, see: Types of Art.
By 1880, Cheret's new poster art form was attracting a number of other top designers such as Theophile Steinlen (1859-1923) responsible for the immortal poster "Cabaret Du Chat Noir", the great Toulouse-Lautrec (1864-1901) creator of numerous theatrical masterpieces, Pierre Bonnard (1867-1947), Edouard Vuillard (1868-1940). Their chosen subject matter featured Parisian night life, notably the theatres, music halls and cabarets of the city. The growing popularity of poster art led to the hosting of a major exhibition in 1884. The poster craze peaked during the decade of the 1890s. Poster artists were transforming Parisian streets into colourful art galleries, attaining cult status in the process, and causing theatre stars to insist on choosing their own favorite artist to do the poster for their show. More poster exhibitions were held, while publishers produced extra copies of the best posters to satisfy collectors. See also: Post-Impressionist Painting (c.1880-1905).
Famous Posters by Toulouse-Lautrec
- Moulin Rouge - La Goulue (1891)
- Ambassadeurs - Aristide Bruant (1892)
- La Reine de Joie (1892)
- Avril (Jane Avril) (1893)
- May Belfort (1895)
- Jane Avril (1899)
Interest in the poster was further enhanced in the 1890s by the emergence of Art Nouveau, a decorative style of art marked by flowing, curvilinear shapes, and drawing inspiration from Byzantine icons, Pre-Raphaelite romanticism and the Celtic Art Revival movement. Largely reliant upon form, line and colour, Art Nouveau proved the ideal poster design, and dominated the Parisian poster scene up until the late 1900s. Along the way it attracted a host of artists, including: Alphonse Mucha (1860-1939), Georges de Feure, Eugene Grasset (1845-1917) and Albert Guillaume (1873-1942). One of the first Art Nouveau masterpieces was the 1894 Sarah Bernhardt poster by Alphonse Mucha, the acknowledged master of the style. In 1896, the largest and most significant poster show to date, was held in Reims, with a display of 1,700 posters from all over Europe.
Famous Posters by Alphonse Mucha
- Hippodrome, Leona Dare, 1883
- Arlette Dorgere, 1890
- Moulin Rouge, Paris, Cancan, 1890
- Yvette Guilbert, 1891
- L'Etendard Francais, Bicycles, 1891
- Casino de Paris, Camille Stefani, 1891
- Folies Bergeres, Fleur de Lotus, 1893
- Sarah Bernhardt as Gismonda, 1894
- Vin Mariani, 1894
- Aperitif Mugnier, Dijon, 1894
- Quinquina Dubonnet, 1895
- Bieres de la Meuse, 1897
- Job Cigarette papers, 1898
- Benedictine, 1898
- Moet & Chandon, 1899
Note: the Art Nouveau style had an important influence on the various secession movements in Germany and Austria, including the Munich Secession (1892), the Berlin Secession (1898) and the Vienna Secession (1897).
Several events led to a decline in the Parisian poster scene during the 1900s. In 1900, Cheret abandoned poster art to concentrate on painting. In 1901, Toulouse Lautrec died. In 1904, Alphonse Mucha left Paris for America and then Czechoslovakia. And from 1905 onwards, Art Nouveau gradually lost its creative edge. Then, into this vacuum stepped a young Italian artist called Leonetto Cappiello (1875-1942), who focused on simplicity and impact. He appreciated the overriding need to create instant visual impact, as exemplified by his 1906 poster designs for Maurin Quina absinthe, and in so doing established a reputation as the father of modern advertising. Meantime, French poster art was further enriched by the arrival in Paris of Sergei Diaghilev (1872-1929) and the Ballets Russes, as well as the colourism and imagery of the revolutionary painting movements known as Fauvism (1905-6), and Cubism (1908-12).
Poster Art in Europe (c.1880-1910)
The poster craze spread rapidly to most of the main cities of Europe. Exhibitions of poster designs were staged in Britain (1894) and Italy (1894), Germany (1896), Switzerland (1896) and Russia (1897), and national styles soon established themselves: Dutch and Swiss posters tended to be neat, precise but restrained German works were direct but lapsed into medieval gothic romanticism Italian works were typically bold and melodramatic while Russian posters were altogether more avant-garde.
Move Away From Art Nouveau
From 1905, there was a European-wide modernist trend to move away from the fussy decoration of Art Nouveau towards a simpler more function style. More and more poster artists switched from curvilinear shapes to rectilinear and geometric imagery, in order to sharpen the advertising message.
During the mid 1890s most British designers, including Aubrey Beardsley, Will Owne, Dudley Hardy, and Walter Crane, tended to be heavily influenced by French Art Nouveau. Two of the first to free themselves were the "Beggarstaff Brothers" James Pryde and William Nicholson, who focused on far more simple types of design. Other UK post artists, some of whom specialized in producing works for the London Underground rail system, included Austin Cooper, Fred Taylor, Tom Purvis, Pat Keely and the American-born McKnight Kauffer.
German poster design was strongly influenced by Ludwig Hohlwein. Good at eliminating all non-essential graphics, he was noted for his use of shadow versus light, as well as his portrayals of people and animals. Other German post artists included Paul Schuerich, H.R.Erdt and the great abstractionist Lucian Bernhard.
It was Bernhard who initiated the German Plakatstil, or Poster Style. This style was characterized by extreme simplicity, represented by clean lines, minimal naturalism, flat colors and precise structure, as exemplified by his Sachplakat Poster (1906) for Preister matches. This Sachplakat (in English, "object poster") was to become a whole new genre of poster advertising.
One of Austria's best known poster designers was the Vienna-born Joseph Binder, noted for his geometrical, montage-type colour patterns. Others include the Viennese abstract artist Sascha Maurer, whose famous ski-posters also included elements of realism, as well as the Alfred Roller and Koloman Moser.
Positioned in the centre of Europe and speaking three national languages, Switzerland absorbed a great deal from its neighbours France, Germany and Italy. Leading Swiss Art Nouveau designers included Theophile Steinlen (1859-1923) and Eugene Grasset (1845-1917), both of whom were active at first in France, as well as Mangold, Emil Cardinaux, Baumberger, Stoecklin and Morach. If Italian poster art grew out of opera, Swiss posters depended on the country's status as a skiing destination.
In Italy, posters were initially developed to promote the opera, under the German Art Nouveau artist, Adolfo Hohenstein (1854-1928). Although influenced by the French master Jules Cheret, Hohenstein became known for his luscious colour combinations and dramatic design - often executed in monumental-size works - features which would soon come to characterize the Italian national style. Examples of Hohenstein's posters include his designs for: Tosca by Puccini (1896), and the dramatic Madame Butterfly (1904).
Another leading Italian designer was Hohenstein's top pupil Leopoldo Metlicovitz (1868-1944). He was noted for his allegorical works, as exemplified by his award-winning design for the 1906 International Exposition. Metlicovitz's best pupil was Marcello Dudovich (1878-1962), who - partly under the influence of Franz Laskoff (1869-1918) - streamlined Art Nouveau (known in Italy as Stile Liberty) into a more modern style. Other noteworthy Italian poster artists included: Giovanni Mataloni, Marcello Dudovich, Aleardo Villa, Leopoldo Metlicovitz, Achille Mauzan, and Aleardo Terzi.
Lastly, one should not forget the peerless Leonetto Cappiello (1875-1942) (see above), who was active mainly in Paris and who eventually produced over 1,000 posters during a career spanning 40 years.
The leading American poster designers were William Bradley and Edward Penfield. Others included, C.E. Millard, F.G. Cooper, C.B. Falls, H.M. Meyers, Harrison Fisher and Adolph Treidler. Edward Penfield, the pioneer of poster art in America, was actually more famous for his illustration and advertising placards for Harper's New Monthly Magazine. Cutting his teeth on ink and watercolour wash illustrations, Penfield went on to produce a large number of high quality fine art poster designs, notable for their abstract style and boldly simplified shapes. Unlike the already established artist Edward Penfield, William H. Bradley - known as the "American Beardsley" - made his reputation from poster design. Famous for producing The Twins (1894), the first American Art Nouveau poster, Bradley's style blended features of the Arts and Crafts Movement, Japanese block printing and Art Nouveau. Another American who contributed significantly to poster art and illustration was Norman Rockwell. Poster art with a social message was later exploited by Ben Shahn and other members of the Social Realism movement (c.1930-45) in America during the Depression era.
Poster Art During the Inter-War Years: Art Deco
After World War I, Art Nouveau was seen as old-fashioned and irrelevant when compared to the new modernist God of Science and the dynamism of the Machine. This new technological reality was better represented by modern art movements such as Cubism, Futurism, Expressionism and others. The first flowering of this new poster style was the Soviet Constructivism movement, inspired by Kasimir Malevich's avant-garde Suprematism movement, and led by Vladimir Tatlin, Alexander Rodchenko, and El Lissitsky. Ironically, it had more influence on Western design, through its impact on the Bauhaus and the De Stijl movement, than on posters in the USSR, which would soon be forced to adapt to Socialist Realism.
In Italy, Marinetti's Futurism seemed to be the dominant style until in the early 1920s, in the hands of Futurists Nicolay Diulgheroff, Lucio Venna and Fortunato Depero, it became too aggressive and was superceded by the quieter and more nostalgic Novecento style. Artists associated with this style included Campigli, Marcello Nizzoli and Mario Sironi, as well as Boccasile, Dudovich, and Riccobaldi.
More important than Constructivism, Futurism or Novecento was a new international style known as Art Deco. Showcased at the "Decorative Arts" Exposition of 1925 in Paris, and exactly in tune with the technological criteria of power and speed, Art Deco was marked by sleek geometrical forms, and strong, even garish, colours. The movement drew inspiration from many sources including Cubism, Futurism, Plakatstil, and even Constructivism. Exponents of Art Deco poster design include the Frenchman Adolphe Mouron Cassandre, noted for his sleek ocean liner posters, the German Ludwig Hohlwein, and the Swiss designers Otto Morach and Herbert Matter.
Art Deco dovetailed perfectly with the Italian love of dynamism and drama. Cappiello and Dudovich were both leading exponents, as was Federico Seneca (1891-1976) and Severo Pozzati (1895-1983). Progress was further stimulated by Fiat and Campari, the country's largest advertisers. Among Fiat's team of poster artists were Riccobaldi, Codognato, Dudovich, Metlicovitz, Sironi, and the great Giorgio De Chirico, while Campari relied on Hohenstein, Mauzan, Sacchetti, Laskoff, Nizzoli, Sinopico, Depero and Munari. Other directions were pursued by the Bauhaus-artist Xanti Schawinsky, and Marcello Nizzoli.
NOTE: During the 1930s and early 40s, the Nazis made full use of poster art in their vicious anti-semitic campaigns, a tactic exemplified by the poster artist Hans Schweitzer (1901-80) (better known as Mjolnir). An infamous example of Schweitzer's Nazi art was the 1940 poster promoting the anti-Semitic film, "The Eternal Jew".
In the years following World War I, Switzerland developed a clear edge in graphic design, based on their mastery of technical and creative principles from Constructivism, the Dutch De Stijl movement led by Theo van Doesburg (1883-1931), and the Bauhaus Design School. An important figure inside the Swiss poster scene was Ernst Keller, who taught at the Zurich Design School where he nurtured the young group of designers who would later invent the world-famous International Typographic Style. Other leading teachers included the artists Jan Tschichold and Theo Ballmer. Other key factors which have contributed to Swiss excellence in this area, include a formidable printing industry and a willingness by the State and Cantonal authorities to invest in the necessary resources.
The Object Poster (Sachplakat)
First introduced by Lucian Bernhard (1906) the Object Poster (Sachplakat) style of minimalism was taken to a new level by Swiss designers. Examples include Otto Baumberger's 1923 textless poster for PKZ, and Peter Birkhauser's 1934 button poster also for PKZ. Meanwhile Swiss poster artists such as Herbert Matter and alter Herdeg demonstrated their advanced techniques in graphic design and photography with a series of Swiss travel posters.
Poster Art After World War II
Demise of the Object Poster
While the Sachplakat was still the No 1 style for Swiss product posters in the 1940s, thanks largely to the efforts of Basel designer-lithographers Stoecklin, Leupin, Birckhauser, and Brun, the 1950s witnessed the replacement of lithographic printing by cheaper offset printing. Other changes were also unavoidable. During the late 1940s and early 1950s, travel posters were increasingly replaced by photographs. Fortunately, Swiss graphic artists were making rapid strides in other areas. In particular, during the following decade, they launched a uniform, minimalist style known as The International Typographic Style because of its dependence on typographic elements, such as layout grids, sans serif typefaces, and black and white photography. Developed at the Basel Design School under Armin Hofmann and Emil Ruder, and at the Zurich Design School under Joseph Muller-Brockmann, all of whom had trained under Keller in Zurich school, the style was ideally suited to the postwar multi-lingual global marketplace, and by the 1970s, it had become the foremost graphic style in the world. However, for commercial reasons explained below, its application in the field of poster art was strictly limited.
Decline in Poster Advertising
After World War II, advertising-posters everywhere declined in importance as the market was effectively taken over by photography, radio and later television. In addition, labour-intensive lithography was also becoming prohibitively expensive, causing advertisers to switch to cheaper but less colourful methods like offset printing and screenprinting. As a result, by the 1960s - despite exceptional campaigns by post artists Bernard Villemot and Raymond Savignac - the poster was no more than a minor genre. Designers who might previously have been attracted to posters were now moving into illustration and other graphic designwork.
Poster Art in the 1960s and 1970s
In Italy, a series of spectacular images were produced for the national film industry, by Alfredo Capitani, Luigi Martinati, Anselmo Ballester and Ercole Brini. Another great Italian poster designer of the 1950s/1960s was Armando Testa.
In addition, there was a sudden surge in Psychedelic rock posters, originated by Wes Wilson. They appeared in the late 1960s, together with other popular music graphics like Milton Glaser's poster for Bob Dylan's 1967 'Greatest Hits' album. Widespread in San Francisco and New York, the music poster movement expanded into marketing and point-of-sale with free album-posters, as well as promotional concert posters. The craze for this sort of graphic art mirrored the demand for vintage posters in Paris during the late 19th century.
Note: an iconic poster dating from the 1968 student riots in Europe, and still popular today, was the silhouette style image of the Marxist revolutionary Che Guevara by the American artist Jim Fitzpatrick.
"Art Posters" - Reproductions of Famous Paintings
If original advertising posters have lost their appeal for commercial companies, the "art poster", replicating a famous work of art like The Mona Lisa, remains a popular item for consumers - especially during recessionary times. Today, it is possible to buy a reproduction of almost any major painting by any important painter from the Italian Renaissance to the Postmodernist era. Online poster publishers typically stock a wide selection of the most popular works.
Bookmark this page for our upcoming survey of the best and cheapest sources of online art posters.
Chávez Leads Fight for Farmworkers’ Rights
UFW co-founders Dolores Huerta and Cesar Chavez, 1968.
Arthur Schatz/The LIFE Picture Collection via Getty Images
César Chávez and Dolores Huerta co-founded the National Farm Workers Association, which later became United Farm Workers (UFW) in California to fight for improved social and economic conditions. Chavez, who was born into a Mexican-American migrant farmworker family, had experienced the grueling conditions of the farmworker first-hand.
In January 1968, Chávez lent his voice to a strike for grape workers, organized by the Agricultural Workers Organizing Committee (AWOC), a predominantly Filipino labor organization. With the help of Chávez’s advocacy and Huerta’s tough negotiating skills, as well as the persistent hard work ofਏilipino-American organizer, Larry Itliong, the union won several victories for workers when growers signed contracts with the union.
“We are men and women who have suffered and endured much and not only because of our abject poverty but because we have been kept poor,” Chávez wrote in his 1969 “Letter from Delano.” “The color of our skins, the languages of our cultural and native origins, the lack of formal education, the exclusion from the democratic process, the numbers of our slain in recent wars𠅊ll these burdens generation after generation have sought to demoralize us, we are not agricultural implements or rented slaves, we are men.”
What would the style of wanted posters be in 1500's - History
The Poster was one of the earliest forms of advertisement and began to develop as a medium for visual communication in the early 19th century. They influenced the development of typography because they were meant to be read from a distance and required larger type to be produced, usually from wood rather than metal. The poster quickly spread around the world and became a staple of the graphic design trade. Many artists as well, such as Henry Toulouse-Latrec and Henry van de Velde, created posters.
They were used to promote various political parties, recruit soldiers, advertise products and spread ideas to the general public. The artists of the international typographic style of design believed that it was the most effective tool for communication and their contributions to the field of design arose from the effort to perfect the poster. Even with the popularity of the internet posters are still being created every single day for all sorts of reasons.
The Armed Forces History collections have been collecting recruiting posters for more than 50 years. Recruiting as an activity of the military is important to the understanding of who serves in uniform, during both war time and peace time and the visual materials used to market military service. The collection contains examples of early Civil War broadsides, World War I posters, including the original artwork for Uncle Sam as drawn by Montgomery Flagg and World War II posters, which show the recruiting of men and women for all services, and auxiliary organizations. The collection contains primarily Civil War, Spanish American War, World War I, and World War II recruiting posters for the Army, Navy and some Marine. More modern day recruiting materials are also contained in the collections, and cover a broad range of Army recruiting slogans.
Posters during World War II were designed to instill in the people a positive outlook, a sense of patriotism and confidence. They linked the war in trenches with the war at home. From a practical point, they were used to encourage all Americans to help with the war effort. The posters called upon every man, woman, and child to endure the personal sacrifice and domestic adjustments to further the national agenda. They encouraged rationing, conservation and sacrifice. In addition, the posters were used for recruitment, productivity, and motivation as well as for financing the war effort. The stark, colorful graphic designs elicited strong emotions. The posters played to the fears, frustrations, and faith in freedoms that lingered in people's minds during the war.
Wanted Poster Template in MS Word 2016
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Here is a traditional Wanted Poster Template created using MS Word.
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Do you need to announce a Wanted Event? Here is a great looking Wanted Poster Template that can help you in creating a professional and eye catching Wanted Poster to display in public places. This template is created using MS Word 2003. Hence you will need it or some later version of MS Word in order to edit it. Good thing is that it is very easy to edit and tailor to your requirements.
Hitler had an affinity for Romanticism and 19th century painting and preferred peaceful country scenes. His private collection included works by Cranach, Tintoretto and Bordone. Like his role models Ludwig I. of Bavaria and Frederick the Great, Hitler wanted to manage his own art exhibition at retirement, to be shown in the city of Linz on the River Danube in the "Führer Museum."
How Hitler and the Nazis defamed art
Tudor Architecture in England 1500-1575
One of the most startling transformations in the history of English architecture took place in the Tudor period. It was not, however, a transformation in style. Buildings were still largely Gothic in form at least during the first half century of the Tudor period. Instead, the transformation was a social one building effort now went towards secular, rather than ecclesiastical buildings.
There are several reasons for this change. One is simple there were plenty of churches for the needs of the population of England. More profoundly, the church was no longer the force it had been in the medieval period. The growing unpopularity of the church, with its perceived worldliness and wealth, meant that those with money to spend now spent it on themselves.
The Dissolution of the Monasteries under Henry VIII meant that there were large areas of land freed up for exploitation by the newly wealthy gentry class. New farms were built upon former monastic lands, and labourers' cottages for tenants who worked the land.
Curiously, changes in architectural style resulted in buildings shrinking becoming more intimate. Rather than the move towards spaciousness so evident in the late Gothic period, Tudor architecture focussed on details. Windows and doors were smaller, but more ornately decorated, more complex. The smartly pointed arch of the Gothic period gave way to the flattened Tudor arch. The most striking window treatment to emerge in the Tudor period is the oriel, a projecting, multi-sided window cantilevered out from an upper floor, and supported on a bracket or corbel from beneath.
Chimneys and enclosed fireplaces became common for the first time. Indeed, the Tudor chimney is one of the most striking aspects of this period. One of the reasons for the increased use of chimneys was the widespread adoption of coal as fuel. Previously wood smoke was allowed to escape from the interior through a simple hole in the roof. Now, the increased smoke from coal made necessary evolved forms of fireplaces, flues, and chimneys to get the smoke away from the living space. Chimney stacks were often clustered in groups, and the individual chimney columns were curved, twisted, and decorated with chequerboard patterns of different-coloured bricks.
And that brings up a second noticeable characteristic of Tudor architecture the use of brick in building. Spreading from East Anglia, where it had been introduced from the Low Countries in the late medieval period, brick became one of the most common building materials. Some bricks were imported into England, brought back in ships that exported English wool to the continent. Others were made in brickyards established in East Anglia by Dutch immigrants.
It may seem strange to the modern reader, but brick was originally a luxury item. Only those at the top of the social and economic spectrum could afford to build in brick. The most remarkable Tudor brick building is Hampton Court Palace, but a multitude of smaller estates and country houses made use of this newly fashionable luxury material.
In several areas of England, notably Cheshire, Lancashire, and Warwickshire, wooden houses, generally in oak, are more numerous than brick. Wood was used to create a skeleton which was filled in with brick or plaster. Bricks were often laid in a herringbone pattern, made possible because they had no structural responsibilities the wooden posts took the strain and the bricks served as decorative infill. A hybrid form saw the lower story built in stone, with wood used for the upper stories.
Where bricks were too expensive plaster was the infill of choice, resulting in the typical "black-and-white" small Tudor house, whitewashed plaster set between blackened oak timbers. Often the upper stories of these houses projected above the lower floors, particularly in towns, where ground-floor space was at a premium and the house owner might be taxed according to street frontage.
Even in wooden houses, though, window and doors are similar to the stone designs, with small arches capped by simple squared-off mouldings.
The great houses of the Tudor period featured fanciful gatehouses. The idea was to create an impressive, awe-inspiring entrance. This was accomplished by entry through a broad, low arch flanked by tall octagonal towers decorated with ornate false battlements. Above the entry arch many houses prominently featured a family coat of arms.
The most obvious feature of interior decoration is the widespread use of oak panelling. This panelling often extends from floor to ceiling. The most common motif used for the panelling was the linen-fold, a raised carving imitating folds of cloth. The term "linen-fold" is a 19th century one at the time this pattern was termed "lignum undulatum", or "wavy woodwork".
In past eras, astrology was more deterministic. People hunted, planted and migrated with the stars. Living in rhythm with nature’s cycles helped civilizations survive .
For many centuries, astrology and astronomy were one and the same. Because human beings were at the mercy of nature, they viewed the heavens with fear, awe and even superstition. Weather was the work of nature’s gods. After all, a flood could wipe out the food supply just as easily as the right amount of rainfall could guarantee a bountiful harvest. By tracking the stars, they were able to plan and predict certain patterns.
Modern astrology, like humanity, has evolved. Over the centuries, we’ve developed expanded consciousness. Mathematical, scientific and technological advances have given us more control over our lives in the physical universe. As a result, astrology has become more of a tool for living. We no longer take a fear-based approach to it (well, we shouldn’t, anyway!). Astrology’s best use is as a method for planning, gaining more self-awareness and understanding relationships.
We love what astrologer Kevin Burk says in Astrology: Understanding the Birth Chart:
“Astrology is the study of cycles. By observing the cyclical movements of the planets, we are able to gain a greater understanding of the cycles and patterns in our own lives. Astrology can be a powerful tool for healing and transformation, and it can be a key that can unlock a greater spiritual connection to the universe. Although astrology is not fortune-telling, when skillfully applied, astrology can be an extremely effective predictive tool. On a personal level, astrology…can give us insight into our personal issues, our patterns, our fears, and our dreams…Astrology is a tool that can help us understand and unlock our highest potentials, and that can teach us how to live in harmony with the universe.”
Here’s a rough timeline of this ancient practice, which has existed for nearly as long as humanity.
The roots of astrology begin with earliest civilization. Maps of the stars existed long before maps of the earth. Archaeologists have found cave paintings, mammoth tusks, and bones marked with lunar phases. Man has long coped with uncertainty and the change brought on by nature’s cycles by tracking the stars—the seven visible planets were our first GPS.
The Sumerians in Mesopotamia note the movements of the planets and stars.
The Babylonians (also known as the Chaldeans) continue what the Sumerians started, inventing the first astrological system over thousands of years. They created the zodiac wheel that we use today (with planets and houses) around 700 B.C. The oldest known horoscope chart is believed to date to 409 B.C.
331 B.C.-5th Century A.D.
Alexander the Great conquers Babylon/Chaldea and the Greeks eventually start making advances in astrology, along with developments in medicine, geometry, mathematics, and philosophy. The modern names for planets and zodiac signs come from Greek literature. In 140 A.D., Ptolemy publishes Tetrabiblos, one of the most revered astrology works ever written. Tetrabiblos contains core techniques of astrology used to this day, including planets, zodiac signs, houses, and aspects (or angles).
5th Century A.D.
The Roman Empire falls. Western astrology disappears for 500 years and the Arabs continue studying and developing Greek astrology.
Astrology flourishes and is an intrinsic part of culture, practiced by doctors, astronomers, and mathematicians. Advances in mathematics help astrologers develop more accurate and sophisticated charts than ever. Many esteemed European universities at this time, including Cambridge (1225-50), had astrology chairs, and royals had court astrologers. Many popes were pro-astrology. The monk and mathematics professor Placidus (1603-68) created the house division system used by astrologers today. When Copernicus advanced the theory that the Earth travels around the Sun, he dedicated his main work to the astrologer Pope Paul III. Belief in astrology began to decline as the church gained power, and it was seen as heresy and superstition during the Inquisition. Galileo himself was found guilty of heresy and had to renounce his astrological beliefs to save his life!
17th-18th Century: “The Age of Reason”
The Protestant reform movement, started in the mid-1500s, abetted astrology’s decline. Later, rationalism become the popular consensus during the Age of Enlightenment (1650-1780) in Western European cafes and salons, emphasizing reason, analysis, and individualism—a reaction to excessive superstition, authority, and control from institutions such as the Catholic church. Skepticism and science were seen as a way to reform society, and to bring back temperance and balance. Astrology was viewed as mere entertainment and not a valid science, and most astrologers worked under pseudonyms.
Renewed interest in spirituality and mysticism in England invigorate astrology again in Europe. Psychologist Carl Jung (1875-1961) pioneers the use of astrology in analysis, and other developments in the field are made.
In 1920s, newspapers and magazines begin publishing the Sun-sign-based horoscopes that we still read today. Since they give only 12 predictions for the entire world’s population, they are seen more as entertainment. Later in the century, computers make it fast and easy to cast charts, replacing the need to do laborious charts by hand (though some stricter astrologers still prefer to do them that way).