Savannah Union Station - History

Savannah Union Station - History

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Isle Of Hope, Savannah, GA

The coastal riverside community of Isle of Hope enjoys a picturesque location amidst the beautiful marshes of Georgia&rsquos tidewater zone, its streets and historic homes arranged around a horseshoe-shaped bend in the Skidaway River.

Isle of Hope (in spite of its name, not actually an island, but a peninsula bounded but not quite cut off by the area&rsquos marshland waterways) is less than 30 minutes from Savannah (about 10 miles), and has a place in the history of Georgia almost as old as the city itself.

Several of Savannah&rsquos attractions are in the immediate vicinity of Isle of Hope, but the town is also an ideal spot for a scenic and relaxing riverside stroll or as a place from which to explore the marshes stretching from Savannah to the Atlantic Ocean.

! Please verify hours, admission prices and other details before planning your trip.

Savannah charms visitors with architecture, history and stories

Even if you’re a first-time visitor to Savannah, you might have a sense of deja vu here, thanks to all the writers and filmmakers who have featured this city in their books and movies. But in Savannah, the real thing is even more genteel, quirky and captivating than its fictional counterpoints.

The city was founded in 1733 by General James Oglethorpe, who laid out its streets on a grid pattern with wide streets and 24 public squares. His elegant design made Savannah one of the first planned cities in America. Twenty-two of those original squares remain today, havens of green filled with public art and surrounded by historic buildings. It’s said that the city was spared during the Civil War because Union Gen. William Sherman thought it so beautiful he couldn’t destroy it.

The best way to savor Savannah’s charms is on foot. A stroll along Bull Street will take you through the heart of the city’s historic district, which has a cornucopia of 18th- and 19th-century architectural styles. When you need a break, find a bench to sit and people-watch, following the example of Forrest Gump in the movie-of-the-same-name that was partially filmed here (his bench is on display at the Savannah History Museum). End your stroll at Forsyth Park, a 30-acre oasis with a picturesque fountain, towering live oaks and a fragrance garden filled with aromatic plants and flowers.

The Savannah College of Art and Design, one of the country’s top art schools, gets partial credit for Savannah’s beauty. Founded in 1978, it has helped preserve the city’s architectural heritage by restoring more than 60 buildings that now house its operations. You also can see the creativity of the school’s faculty, students and alumni in the Savannah College of Art and Design Museum of Art and in galleries around the city.

Some of the city’s most beautiful art can be enjoyed in Bonaventure Cemetery, which gained international fame for its role in the book and film “Midnight in the Garden of Good and Evil.” Lined with live oaks draped with Spanish moss and filled with Victorian statuary and monuments, the graveyard — one of the loveliest in the world — is a top Savannah tourist attraction.

While you can walk through Bonaventure on your own, a guided tour provides a fascinating window into local history and culture. Located three miles from downtown Savannah on the Wilmington River, the property was originally part of a plantation founded in 1762. Among the famous Savannah natives buried here are Grammy Award-winning musician Johnny Mercer, poet Conrad Aiken, and Little Gracie, a girl who died of pneumonia at the age of 6 in 1889. Little Gracie’s monument, a poignant likeness of the girl in marble, has touched the hearts of visitors for more than a century.

“You can’t say you’ve seen Savannah without visiting Bonaventure Cemetery,” said Dawn Martin, a guide with Bonaventure Cemetery Tours. “In addition to beautiful markers, it’s filled with stories of the people who’ve shaped the city.”

You can learn more about Savannah’s unique character at several downtown museums, including the Savannah History Museum, which is located in a former railroad station, and the Massie Heritage Center, which focuses on the city’s educational history and architecture. The Mercer Williams House is a must-do for anyone fascinated by “Midnight in the Garden of Good and Evil,” a book based on a murder that occurred there in 1981. The Telfair Academy of Arts and Sciences, part of which is housed in an 1819 Regency-style mansion, is the oldest public art museum in the South.

For shopping and restaurants, head to River Street, a historic area with cobblestone streets that overlooks the Savannah River. A few blocks away is City Market, a bustling arts and entertainment district. Don’t miss the life-size statue of Johnny Mercer, who strikes a jaunty pose amid the strolling pedestrians.

One of the best ways to experience the city is on a food tour with Savannah Taste Experience. Its First Squares tour includes stops for alligator sliders at B&D Burgers, British-style sausage rolls at Little Crown by Pie Society, and honey-flavored treats at the Savannah Bee Co.

“Savannah’s food scene has classic Southern dishes like grits and sweet potatoes interpreted in innovative ways,” said Deshawn Mason, a guide with the Savannah Taste Experience. “And because we’re a coastal city, we have access to the freshest and best seafood.”

Top restaurants in Savannah include The Grey, a hipster eatery housed in a former Greyhound Bus terminal the Olde Pink House, which is known for its classic Southern dishes and Husk, which serves seasonal, locally sourced dishes. For breakfast, try Back in the Day Bakery or Clary’s Cafe. And in the City Market, the Georgia Tasting Room offers samples of locally produced wines, spirits and craft beers.

Finally, end your time in Savannah with a ghost tour. The city is said to be one of the most haunted in America, and local companies offer a variety of ways to sample its supernatural side, from twilight walks to ghost tours conducted by hearse.

“Given our long and colorful history, it’s not surprising we have so many ghost stories in Savannah,” said Lady Ravenwood, a tour guide with 6th Sense World. “It’s such a wonderful city that people want to stick around even after they’re dead.”

Savannah’s Beach: Tybee Island

After touring Savannah, take a scenic, 20-minute drive to Tybee Island, a resort community with rolling surf and a laid-back vibe. In addition to hanging out on its 3-mile beach, recreation options include kayaking in salt marsh estuaries, dolphin cruises, ecology tours and deep-sea fishing.

Savannah Union Station - History

Precedential Status: Precedential


United States Court of Appeals Fifth Circuit.

James B. McDonough, Jr., Asst. Gen. Counsel, Seaboard AirLine R. Co., Norfolk, Va., G. W. Botts, Jacksonville, Fla., for appellant.

Charles Cook Howell, Wilmington, N.C., Henry L. Walker, Washington, D.C., for appellee.

Before HUTCHESON, Chief Judge, and WALLER and RUSSELL, Circuit Judges.

The appellant, referred to as the New Seaboard, is the purchaser of the properties and successor to the rights and operations of the Seaboard Air Line Railway Company, referred to as the Old Seaboard, by virtue of proceedings had in reorganization of the Old Seaboard in the United States District Courts for the Eastern District of Florida. The operating agreement under which the Old Seaboard had used the trackage and terminals of appellee, referred to as the 'station company' at Savannah, Georgia, was one of many of such agreements the New Seaboard acquired in accordance with the plan of reorganization and sale, as is in the decrees provided. By the decree the New Seaboard was allowed one year from July 31, 1946, or such additional time as the Courts might by order or decree permit, within which to reject any such operating agreements, and it was provided that no use of rights prior to the expiration of the time allowed should conclude the purchaser or, if rejection be chosen, be deemed as an assumption of such contracts or leases. The time allowed for rejection was extended by successive orders of the Court to January 31, 1949. The plan of reorganization and proceeding was approved by the Interstate Commerce Commission but that body in its order, as to the privilege of rejection, referred to a one year period without express reference to any extension by Court order.

On January 26, 1949, within the time allowed by the Court orders, the New Seaboard elected to reject the Savannah Union Station Company operating agreement and evidenced the rejection by an appropriate instrument filed in the Florida Court on January 25, 1949. The notice of rejection was served upon the appellee. The appellee replied that it did not concede or agree to the validity of the rejection of the operating agreement and insisted that it was binding upon the New Seaboard, and further, that any use by the New Seaboard 'of the facilities of Savannah Union Station Company will be taken, held and considered as under, pursuant to and in conformity with said agreement and not otherwise.' The New Seaboard continued to use the property, and while it paid some of the amounts bill for such use, did not pay all. The Station Company thereupon instituted in the United States District Court for the Southern District of Georgia, at Savannah, a suit for declaratory relief and recovery of the balance due, computed in accordance with the terms of the operating agreement, for the months of January, February and March, 1949. The New Seaboard filed in the United States District Court of Florida a complaint alleged to be ancillary to the original reorganization proceeding seeking declaratory relief and that the Station Company and its attorneys be required to dismiss the Savannah action. The rejection of the agreement as authorized by the Florida Court and its contentions: that the Savannah action was violative of the injunctive provisions of its final decree that the provision in the order of the Interstate Commerce Commission was not an intended amendment of the terms of the final decree nor a condition of approval and that as the Station Company could not recover rentals from it except as approved by the Interstate Commerce Commission, which had not been done, both the Florida Court and the Savannah Court were without jurisdiction to enforce any liability for rental against the New Seaboard were fully disclosed portions of the reorganization proceedings and the final decree. Among these exhibits was a copy of what we denominate 'the Savannah action.' A rule to show cause was issued and served, and the Station Company responded by motion to discharge the rule.

In its response the Station Company asserted: that it was not a claimant against the Old Seaboard, nor did it claim under it that the matter in controversy in the Savannah Court was a new claim against the New Seaboard based upon its post-receivership action in adopting the operating agreement and involved only a money claim in personam against the New Seaboard for its own acts in utilizing the tracks and station facilities of the Station Company and that the action was restricted to recovery of the amount due under a contract, express or implied. Other grounds were stated, but the points mainly relied upon now are, that the Savannah action is in personam, and that it does not in fact or law attack the validity of the decree of the Florida Court entered in the reorganization proceeding.

We concede, as contended by appellant, that some of the allegations of the complaint in the Savannah case can be construed as an attempt to assert as one ground for recovery (and at least for 26 days of January), that the one year provision for rejection, mentioned in the Interstate Commerce Commission order, controls and renders ineffective the right to reject allowed by the terms of the Florida Court's order. Also, to some extent, these allegations disregard the provisions of the Florida decree that the use of the facilities prior to the permitted rejection should not be deemed an adoption of the operating agreement. However, these contentions are made along with other asserted grounds for recovery which clearly do not involve any attack upon the validity and effect of the Florida decree. These are sought to be based upon transactions between the parties and the conduct of the New Seaboard in continuing operations over the trackage beyond the time of its announced rejection under authority of the Florida Court. Without determination of their merit, it is nevertheless clear that these contentions were not involved in the prior proceedings in reorganization of the Old Seaboard. The Savannah action sought recovery of rentals claimed to be due for a period of time subsequent to the announced rejection of the agreement. It is true that the rentals are computed upon the basis of the terms of the operating agreement. Regardless of whether the Station Company can successfully maintain its position in the Savannah Court, the attempt evidences a claim against the New Seaboard, in personam, arising from transactions which are clearly not within the terms of the Florida Court's decree. Our reference to the claims made in the Savannah action of course imply no intimation of their validity. They are stated only to obviate the necessity of a detailed recital of the pleadings which the Florida Court had for consideration.

The Savannah proceeding asserted grounds for relief not dependent upon any challenge of the validity of any of the provisions of the final decree in reorganization. The trial Court gave no reasons for his order. We assume he considered the situation as we have stated it. Thus, he declined to direct the dismissal of the Savannah proceeding for this reason.

As to other questions which challenge some provision of his Court's decree, he could properly assume that if still insisted upon, the United States Court at Savannah would give all proper force and effect to the provisions of the Florida decree, wherever applicable in the Savannah litigation.

The order appealed from does not evidence an abuse of discretion. The judgment of the trial court is

Getting Around The Historic District

Savannah is a highly walkable city, and is often best experienced on foot to allow a full appreciation of its squares and views and architecture.

The entire Historic District, within which most of the city&rsquos major sights are located, is only around a mile wide by a little more than a mile deep. As so many of Savannah&rsquos attractions are close together (often only a few blocks), it usually makes more sense to walk than to drive between them.

Drivers should also note that many of Savannah&rsquos streets are one-way, which can make navigation more difficult. Tour buses and carriages add to downtown traffic problems, particularly in peak season.

Many commercial tour operators offer guided tours of the city. Contact the Visitor Information Center, either in person at 301 Martin Luther King, Jr Boulevard, or call on 912-944-0455, for more information about tours available during your stay. Walking tours and ghost tours are amongst the most popular.

Savannah Union Station - History

Georgia Genealogy Trails

"Where your Journey Begins"

The Greek Revival home probably incorporates an earlier structure built in the 1790's and may have been built by Dr. W. D. Quinn. John Anderson built the home as it now stands. The columns were made in Savannah and the mirrors and cornices were made in England. Fine furniture and imported curtains came from New York and Chicago. The 24x35 foot banquet room and the old stone kitchen were located in a separate building connected to the main home by a breezeway.

[courtesy of Georgia Department of Economic Development]

Hermitage Plantation
3 miles east of Savannah, GA
Was the only one of the river estates to attain prominence through industrial rather than agricultural development. Though its fields were by no means in-active, the buzz and clang of machinery and workmen's tools superseded the gentler sounds of hoe and scythe. Today the site of the Hermitage is the Georgia center of the paper pulp industry, which in recent years has reached significant proportions throughout the pine-growing South.

Slave quarters of the Hermitage Plantation.
Picture taken bet. 1901-1910

Ossabaw Island Plantation
800 acres on the south end of Ossabaw Island

[Note: GEORGE J. KOLLOCK's plantation journals are located in the Manuscripts Department of the Library of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. The journals provide a record of the lives of the slaves on Kollock's plantations: their births and deaths, sick days, and daily tasks are noted.]

Pebble Hill Plantation
Located in Thomas County, Southwest Georgia. Thomas Jefferson Johnson first came to the area when he was 25 years old. He acquired the initial Pebble Hill acreage in 1825 and built the first house on the property in 1827. He continued to add to his land holdings and was recognized as a very successful planter in the area. During this time, Johnson also wrote the bill to create Thomas County. Johnson and his first wife had three children, but only one survived to adulthood. When Johnson died in 1847, his daughter, Julia Ann, inherited Pebble Hill. She was 21 years old at that time. She married John William Henry Mitchell in 1849 and together they continued to operate Pebble Hill as a successful working farm. In 1850, they replaced the original residence with one designed by English architect, John Wind. When Mitchell died in 1865, the strong-willed Julia Ann determined to continue the farming operations on Pebble Hill. She struggled in the throes of the post-war depression and died in 1881. Not surprisingly, by this time Pebble Hill was in a serious state of disrepair.

[picture courtesy of Library of Congress]

[picture courtesy of GA County snapshots]

[picture courtesy of Library of Congress]

Savannah Union Station Company Memorabilia Value Guide

The Savannah Union Station Company began operating in 1900 but we do not know exactly when it stopped service. Often when dates like this are missing it is because the railroad changed names or was bought out, which could mean that it never really stopped operating but the name change or date of the buy out may not be exactly known so we end up with a question mark about it.

Railroads in the United States began development as early as the 1820s along the East Coast of the US and expanded westward with the major milestone in the completion of the Transcontinental Railroad in 1869. Railroads were developing rapidly through the late 1800s with many new railroads being started in the 1880s and 90s. As time progressed railroads began consolidating and today there are only 7 Class I railroads where once there were over 100. Railroads have adapted over the years from what used to be a good mix of freight and passenger transportation to what today is almost exclusively freight.

Savannah Union Station Company only operated in 1 state which is indicative of smaller lines, or in some cases lines in larger states. Many one state railroads are short line railroads that didn't have large areas of coverage or large promotional budgets so items from them are likely to be somewhat rare and could be worth more if the railroad didn't exist for long or if it didn't produce many collectible items.

Savannah Union Station Company Operated Routes in the Following States: Georgia

Savannah Union Station - History

R1. Little Cotton Indian Creek

McDonough (City) Square - Union Major General Peter J. Osterhaus' entire 15th Corps, over 16,000 strong, camped in and around this city on November 16, 1864, doing considerable damage.

Locust Grove - Leaving McDonough on November 17, 1864, the Federal 15th Corps and cavalry passed through here. Two infantry divisions continued south, and two turned east, with the cavalry feigning toward Macon.

R4. Sylvan Grove Plantation

Sylvan Grove Plantation - Today a hospital is located on part of this former plantation which 17th Corps commander Union Major General Francis P. Blair, Jr. used as his overnight headquarters on November 17, 1864. Its owners fled and endured a harrowing experience.

Butts County Courthouse - On November 17, 1864 the county seat of Jackson was headquarters for the Federal “Right Wing” (15th & 17th Corps) led by Union Major General Oliver O. Howard. Numerous acts of destruction were countered by several selfless deeds.

Indian Springs - Two divisions of the Federal 15th Corps camped in this community on November 18, 1864 en route to their crossing of the Ocmulgee River. Decades earlier an artesian spring attracted Native Americans. Their chief, William NcIntosh, built a hotel near the spring in 1823.

Hillsboro - Birthplace of U.S. and later Confederate senator Benjamin H. Hill, it was headquarters for the Federal 15th Corps the night of November 19, 1864, including for “Right Wing” commander, General Howard. The entire Right Wing passed through Hillsboro between November 19th and 21st.

R8. Battle of Sunshine Church

Battle of Sunshine Church - On July 31, 1864 as Federal cavalry under Major General George Stoneman were returning north from a raid (during the Atlanta Campaign) they were defeated here by Confederate Brigadier General Alfred Iverson's cavalry. The Federal 15th Corps subsequently burned the original church the next November during their March to the Sea.

Old Clinton - Clinton became a manufacturing center and was once Georgia’s fourth largest town. After the railroad bypassed Clinton it evolved into a peaceful village with many antebellum homes. In July and November 1864 a total of about 22,000 Federal troops were in the area.

NEW - Macon Defensive Fortifications

Macon Defensive Fortifications - As Federal armies penetrated into Georgia, Macon hastily constructed an impressive ring of defensive fortifications. General Sherman largely by-passed the city in 1864, but General Wilson did not in 1865.

Macon City Hall - Built in 1837, City Hall was used as a Civil War hospital, then as Georgia's temporary capitol building during and after the March to the Sea. It was also a Confederate surrender site on April 20, 1865.

The Town of Griswoldville - Samuel Griswold made cotton gins, operated a saw mill and other facilities here before the war. During the war he manufactured Navy revolvers and other munitions for the Confederacy. The town was destroyed by Federals in November 1864 and was never rebuilt.

Gordon - Founded in 1843 with the first Central of Georgia train service, much of the original town was destroyed in July 1864 by Stoneman's raiders followed by portions of Union Major General Oliver O. Howard's 28,000-man “Right Wing” between November 22 and 25, 1864.

Union Church - Built between 1854 & 1856, this church was shared by three denominations. It was used as a granary by the Federal 15th Corps on November 24 & 25, 1864.

R14. The Defense of Ball’s Ferry

Ball’s Ferry - After two skirmishes here on November 24 & 25, 1864, the Federal “Right Wing” forced a small Confederate force to retreat. This enabled two pontoons bridges to be constructed allowing the entire 15th & 17th Corps to cross the Oconee River on the 26th.

NEW - Ball's Ferry/East Bank

R15. New Hope Methodist Church

New Hope Methodist Church - Founded in the late 1700s, this historic church was damaged but survived being occupied and surrounded by the camps of the Federal 17th Corps, accompanied by General Sherman, on November 28, 1864.

Tarver's Mill - General Sherman and the Federal 17th Corps stopped at this mill on November 29, 1864, which was made famous by a drawing that subsequently appeared in Harper's Weekly magazine.

R16. Bartow (Speir’s Turnout)

Bartow (Speir’s Turnout) - The town was renamed for Confederate Colonel Francis Bartow, killed at the First Battle of Manassas. Part of the 20th Corps destroyed the railroad here on November 28, 1864. The following day General Sherman rode just south of town with the 17th Corps on the (Old) Savannah Road.

Old Savannah Road - The Federal 17th Corps, accompanied by General Sherman, camped along this historic road on November 29, 1864. The next day they continued east through the “Pine Barrens” and “Wiregrass” region of central Georgia.

R18. Pine Barren Crossroads

Pine Barren and Wiregrass - the Federal 17th Corps turned north here to cross the Ogeechee River. Two 15th Corps divisions followed from the south, turning east on the Savannah Road. Some 20,000 men passed through this crossroads.

Millen Junction - An important railroad hub linking Savannah, Macon and Augusta, this town was entered by the more than 11,000 soldiers of the 17th Corps on December 2 & 3, 1864. The Federals burned the impressive depot, hotel and warehouses then turned south to continue their march.

R20. Little Ogeechee Church (Oliver)

Little Ogeechee Church (Oliver) - 4,000 Confederates led by Major General Lafayette McLaws entrenched here to block the Federal 17th Corps from crossing Little Ogeechee Creek. They retreated on December 4, 1864 when outflanked.

R21. Guyton Confederate General Hospital

Guyton General Hospital - This Confederate hospital was opened in 1862, expanding to 270 beds with a staff of 67 before closing upon the approach of Federal troops in December 1864.

Elevated Tent Camps - The Federal 17th Corps arrived in this low-lying area on December 9, 1864, requiring many small mounds to be built before making camp. About 1/2 mile to the east on the railroad was a Confederate heavy artillery battery. One of its shots narrowly missed General Sherman.

R23. The Savannah and Ogeechee Canal

Savannah & Ogeechee Canal - On December 8, 1864, Union Brigadier General John M. Corse’s division of the 15th Corps moved down the east side of the Ogeechee River to the canal, drove away a tiny Confederate force, rebuilt a burned bridge and camped before continuing toward Savannah.

Ways Station - Now known as the City of Richmond Hill, this area was originally named Ways Station #1-1/2 when established in 1856. An important transportation juncture to Fort McAllister and south Georgia, the railroad through this area was destroyed by Federal troops by mid-December 1864.

R26. Cherry Hill Plantation

Cherry Hill Plantation - This thriving rice plantation was substantially destroyed by Federal troops in mid-December 1864 on their way to capture Fort McAllister. The Richmond Hill Historical Society Museum is now located on the property in a structure originally built by automotive giant Henry Ford.

L1. Stone Mountain Cemetery

Stone Mountain Cemetery - Over 200 Confederate veterans are buried here. The nearby massive monolith “Stone Mountain” was admired by the 27,000+ Federal soldiers in the “Left Wing” of Major General William T. Sherman’s army as they marched east from Atlanta on November 15 & 16, 1864.

Conyers Station - The current depot succeeded one burned by Union Brigadier General Kenner Garrard’s cavalry on July 22, 1864. Then on November 17, 1864, the Federal 14th Corps was accompanied by Major General William T. Sherman as it marched through Conyers destroying rails.

Old Church (in Oxford) - Built in 1841 as a Methodist meeting house, Old Church was used as a war-time hospital. The church is adjacent to the slave quarters “Kitty’s Cottage,” with Old Emory College (Oxford College) located nearby. Federal troops were in Oxford multiple times during 1864.

Covington Square - Some 14,500 Federal soldiers of the 14th Corps, commanded by Brigadier General Jefferson C. Davis, passed through Covington on November 18, 1864. They entered with bands playing, doing comparatively little damage following two cavalry raids the previous July.

L5. Hightower Trail (Philadelphia Church)

Hightower Trail (Philadelphia Church) - Philadelphia Church was a reference point on Civil War military maps along this famous Native American trading route. Approximately 14,000 men of the Federal 20th Corps marched past this landmark along the Hightower Trail on November 17, 1864.

Centreville (Jersey) - Known as Centreville in 1864, Brigadier General Alpheus Williams’ 20th Corps camped in and near this community the night of November 17-18, 1864, foraging liberally. The following day the Federals continued marching generally east on Hightower Trail toward Social Circle.

Social Circle - The Federal 20th Corps marched through Social Circle along the Hightower Trail on November 18, 1864, destroying railroad tracks. The town’s depot and warehouses had been burned on July 23, 1864, during Union Brigadier General Kenner Garrard’s cavalry raid.

Shady Dale - This plantation community was heavily foraged on November 20, 1864 by the Federal 14th Corps, accompanied by General Sherman, while also liberating hundreds of jubilant slaves.

Rutledge Station - The Federal 20th Corps, accompanied by “Left Wing” commander Major General Henry W. Slocum, arrived here on November 18, 1864. They destroyed the railroad and warehouses before camping that night east of town.

Madison Station - The Federal 20th Corps arrived in Madison on November 19, 1864, destroying the railroad, depot and warehouses. Most homes were undamaged and today they represent much of Madison’s beauty and culture.

L11. The Oconee River Railroad Bridge

Blue Springs (Swords) - Union Brigadier General John W. Geary’s division of the 20th Corps marched east from Madison on November 19, 1864. It burned an important railroad bridge over the Oconee River and destroyed other properties before turning south the following day.

L13. Putnam County Court House

Putnam County Court House - This community hosted numerous Confederate facilities, and was the hometown

of future Uncle Remus author Joel Chandler Harris. Two divisions of the Federal 20th Corps destroyed its railroad facilities on November 20, 1864.

L14. Old Governor's Mansion

Old Governor’s Mansion - Completed in 1839, the mansion was occupied by eight governors, including Joseph E. Brown, until the state capital was moved to Atlanta in 1868. It served as headquarters for General Sherman on November 23 & 24, 1864, and is now an impressive museum.

L15. Georgia State Penitentiary

Penitentiary Square - Burned by prisoners after many had been paroled to serve in the Confederate militia, and just prior to the arrival of nearly 29,000 soldiers in the Federal army’s “Left Wing” on November 22 & 23, 1864. This 20 acre campus is now home to Georgia College & State University.

State House Square - Georgia’s capitol grounds from 1807 to 1868, and now home to Georgia Military College, were damaged from the explosion of the State Magazine in November 1864. The impressive gothic styled former Capitol building has been restored and now houses a museum.

NEW - Sandersville Old City Cemetery

L17. Washington County Courthouse

Washington County Courthouse - As the Federal Left Wing entered Sandersville on November 26, 1864, they were fired on from inside the courthouse by some of Confederate Major General Joseph Wheeler’s dismounted cavalrymen. The following day General Sherman ordered the courthouse burned. It was replaced after the war by the current building.

The Brown House - Purchased in 1851 by the William Gainer Brown family, this house was used by General Sherman as his headquarters on the night of November 26-27, 1864. The house has been restored and is now operated as a museum by the Washington County Historical Society.

Tennille Station - General Sherman and his staff arrived in Tennille on November 27, 1864 to join his army's “Right Wing” for the remainder of their March to the Sea. Sherman witnessed the destruction of the town's railroad and warehouses. The present depot was built shortly after the War.

L20. Crossing the Ogeechee River

Ogeechee Crossing - Two divisions of the Federal 20th Corps escorting the Left Wing’s 1,200 wagons crossed the Ogeechee River here on November 28 & 29, 1864. Confederate cavalry and marshy ground continuously slowed their progress.

L21. The Sacking of Louisville

Sacking of Louisville - When the majority of the “Left Wing” halted to rebuild bridges across the Ogeechee River just west of Louisville a number of soldiers improvised a crossing. They entered town with few officers, looting and burning much of the town until the main army arrived to stop them.

The Augusta Arsenal - Now the campus of Augusta State University, its administration buildings are the original United States Arsenal structures, founded on this site in 1826. Seized by Georgia militia in January 1861, it became a major Confederate manufacturing center until the war's end.

L23. Confederate States Powder Works

Confederate States Powder Works Chimney - This 153 foot tall chimney remains from the largest facility ever built by the Confederacy. Colonel George Washington Rains oversaw construction of multiple brick buildings, then production of some 3 million pounds of quality gun powder.

L24. Skirmish at Ivanhoe Plantation

Ivanhoe Plantation - Originating from a 1765 Crown Grant by King George III, a sharp skirmish occurred here on November 27, 1864 between the cavalrymen of Union Brigadier General H. Judson Kilpatrick and Confederate Major General Joseph Wheeler. Afterward the latter camped nearby.

The Roberts House - This antebellum cottage, now the Burke County Museum, “witnessed” two cavalry clashes through the streets of Waynesboro on November 27 and December 4, 1864, respectively. The second battle ended with the burning of bridges over Brier Creek toward Augusta.

L26. Battle of Buck Head Creek

Big Buckhead Church - Built it 1855, this historic church witnessed the largest all-cavalry battle during the March to the Sea, involving more than 6,000 troopers, on November 28, 1864.

Jacksonborough - The Screven County seat until 1847, the town was cursed and today only the 1815 Dell-Goodall House survives. Federal cavalry and most of the 14th Corps camped in this once prosperous community on December 5, 1864.

L28. The Incident at Ebenezer Creek

Ebenezer Creek - On December 9, 1864, after the Federal 14th Corps crossed on a pontoon bridge, its commander ordered the bridge removed before recently emancipated slaves could follow. Some troops tried to help, but a number of slaves drowned trying to swim to freedom.

L29. Savannah River Plantations

Savannah River Plantations - This rice-growing area along the Savannah River was occupied by Federal troops in December 1864. Two rifle & artillery duels with small Confederate gunboats ensued.

L30. Central of Georgia Railroad Complex

Fort Jackson - Constructed intermittently between 1808 & 1861, when seized by Georgia troops. Additional equipment was installed, surpervised by Confederate General Robert E. Lee. The fort was captured by Sherman's arny in December 1864.

Site numbers are as indicated in the

March to the Sea Heritage Trail brochure

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Interpretive marker at the

on State House Square (L16)

Interpretive marker in Bartow (R16)

Trailblazer signs and interpretive marker near Midville at

Pine Barren Crossroads (R18)

Trailblazer directional sign on Old Louisville Road

between Oliver and Guyton

Interpretive marker in front of

Installing trailblazer directional signs near the Griswoldville battlefield

Interpretive marker and trailblazer signs at Conyers Station (L2)

Old Church (L3) interpretive marker

Old Clinton (R9) interpretive marker

historical markers near Gra y

Interpretive marker "in the shade" at Shady Dale (L8)

Interpretive marker near railroad tracks at Madison Station (L10)

After Union Major General William T. Sherman captured Atlanta on September 2, 1864, he briefly pursued General John B. Hood’s Confederate army through northwest Georgia. Sherman then turned his army south toward Georgia’s largest city. Savannah. His now legendary “March to the Sea” ripped the heart out of the Confederacy, demoralized civilians, destroyed railroads, and denied Confederate authorities considerable food and other badly needed supplies.

Sherman’s army totaled 62,000 of his best soldiers, including 5,000 cavalry and 65 pieces of artillery. He estimated to reach Savannah would require six weeks, yet Sherman ordered only enough food for 20 days, to be carried by 2,500 wagons. Sherman’s plan was a dangerous gamble, because his army was cut off from any communication or chance for re-supply. So his troops foraged “liberally,” living mostly off the food they took from civilians. The worst foragers were labeled “bummers,” often stealing or destroying property indiscriminately.

Leaving Atlanta on November 15 and 16, 1864, the army split into two “wings” of between 28,000 and 29,000 each, with cavalry guarding their flanks. Marching along generally parallel routes, the two wings were often separated by between 20 and 40 miles. Separation avoided congestion, thus the army advanced quickly, and was allowed a larger area from which to forage. Separation also resulted in a broader swath of devastation across the center of Georgia, measuring up to 60 miles wide, and 300 miles long. Thousands of slaves followed, which the army discouraged, knowing they could neither feed them nor guarantee their safety.

Sherman’s two wings confused the Confederates. Major General Oliver O. Howard’s “Right Wing” advanced south to threaten Macon. Meanwhile, Major General Henry W. Slocum’s “Left Wing” feigned toward Augusta. Confederates split their paltry forces between the two cities, but Sherman ignored both. He concentrated much of his army around Milledgeville, Georgia’s capital city, then swept on toward Millen and Savannah, besieging the latter on December 10. After ten days the 10,000-man Confederate garrison, under Lieutenant General William J. Hardee, evacuated the vital seaport. Sherman wired President Abraham Lincoln afterwards saying, “I beg to present to you the City of Savannah” as a Christmas present.

Cavalry clashed frequently along the edges of Sherman’s march routes, and two sizable infantry battles occurred. On November 22, 1864, Georgia militia, untrained boys and old men, were slaughtered attacking Federal lines at Griswoldville near Macon. And on December 13, Sherman’s veterans overran Fort McAllister along the Ogeechee River, enabling the U.S. Navy to re-supply his army.

Sherman accomplished all his goals for his March to the Sea in only five weeks, inflicting one billion dollars worth of damages. “I can make Georgia howl,” Sherman had sworn, and he did.

Savannah Union Station - History

7) Isle of Hope Historic District

Established as a retreat in the 19th century for the elite of Savannah, Isle of Hope provided a refuge from the intense heat and outbreaks of malaria prevalent throughout the summer months. Originally owned by Henry Parker, the land was divided into lots in the 1850s and 1860s. These were sold to prominent Savannah families who built palatial homes along the water. A small African American settlement in the district dates from after the Civil War when freed slaves from Wormsloe Plantation settled in the town. In 1871 a railroad was built connecting Savannah with Isle of Hope and by the early 20th century many residents were living in the town year-round. The historic district encompasses a large area extending back from the Skidaway River. Landscaped with old oak trees covered in Spanish moss, the houses range in style from Greek Revival, Victorian, and Neoclassical to Craftsman Bungalows. Many of the residences also have both formal and informal gardens.

District Shopping

Calling all shopaholics! Plant Riverside has all your shopping needs with high-end shops, carefully curated retailers, and original galleries. Pick out a piece of award-winning jewelry from Reubel Fine Jewelry or browse through J. Parker for just the right item to add to your closet. Make sure to stop in The Savion Gallery to take home a unique piece of art. End your retail therapy day at Poseidon Spa for some pure relaxation. Want to take it a step further? Book a rooftop yoga class with New Yoga Now atop Electric Moon Skytop Lounge.

Watch the video: Λειανοκλάδι 1965 - Ο σιδηροδρομικός σταθμός