25 March 1944

25 March 1944

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25 March 1944

March 1944


War at Sea

German submarine U-976 sunk off St. Nazaire

Eastern Front

Soviet troops take Proskurov

'Stretcher-bearers': (25) To Cassino - March 1944

Still it rains and we are held up.
One day it clears sufficiently for the Company Commander to give us a pep talk in which he explains that our task, if everything goes according to expectation, should be very simple.
Our plans are based on the hope that Jerry, exhausted by heavy night bombing, will take off his boots after breakfast on the morning following our night attack. We are not informed what is likely to happen if Jerry does not remove his boots.
Our Field Ambulance medical officers, so we understand, are now withdrawn from our sections working with the infantry. This is wise, in view of the shortage of MOs. The regimental MO remains with the infantry.
After weeks of delay, the expected day arrived and we left by lorry to join the battalions. That evening we made for Cassino, left our lorries after dark and marched about two miles while our barrage was pounding overhead. Our eyes were momentarily blinded by the gun flashes. Consequently we kept walking into the back of the man in front of us at frequent, sudden halts. In the darkness came rain, but fortunately we were conducted to a farmhouse before becoming really wet, and our section of 18 men was allotted one room.
In our light equipment we had included only one blanket and a ground sheet, although we could use gas capes as additional bedding, so Lingard, I and Talbot, the last new to the section, pooled blankets and slept huddled up, passing a fairly comfortable night in spite of the cold. The windows of the farmhouse were now jagged, gaping holes.
Next morning dawned fine. We had our first meal with the Ls (Lancashire Fusiliers Infantry) since our arrival after lunch the day before. Then, warned that we were under enemy observation, receiving no further orders, we stayed put.

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Those known to have served with

South Staffordshire Regiment

during the Second World War 1939-1945.

  • Alcock Bertram Victor. Pte
  • Allin Cyril Gordon. Pte. (d.27th Jun 1943)
  • Amos Henry James. Pte.
  • Ash C.. Pte. (d.25 September 1944)
  • Boynton Richard Godfrey. Pte. (d.21st Sept 1944)
  • Brooks Joseph John. L/Cpl.
  • Busby Vincent Charles. Pte. (d.7th Aug 1944)
  • Bushnell Donald. Sgt.
  • Cain Robert Henry. Maj.
  • Catlin John Edward. Pte.
  • Cawsey Aubrey Conrad. Capt. (d.7th Aug 1944)
  • Coleman John. Pte.
  • Cooke Harry.
  • Copplestone Wilfred Charles.
  • Cotterill A.
  • Cowley EF.
  • Dagnan Bernard. Pte (d.26th August 1944)
  • Dapper KO.
  • Davies FG.
  • Davies L.
  • Day William Henry Leonard.
  • Doman Frederick Leslie. Pte.
  • Eardley HL.
  • Edwards Bill Vernon. Pte.
  • Emery John. Pte.
  • Emery John. Pte.
  • Garfield Frank.
  • Glover Richard.
  • Guildford Ernest. Pte.
  • Hall Thomas . Pte.
  • Hambly R .
  • Hancock HL.
  • Harper Leonard William. Sgt. (d.18th July 1943)
  • Harris SH.
  • Hewins NH.
  • Howarth L.
  • Hubbard MT.
  • Hussey Frederick Victor. Pte. (d.6th Aug 1944)
  • Jeffs George William. L/Cpl.
  • Johnson William. Pte.
  • Jones W.
  • Kehoe Frank. Pte. (d.24th July 1944)
  • Kendrick Frank Edwin. Pte.
  • Kindon George. Pte.
  • Kyte JM.
  • Lambert WJ.
  • Marsh Ronald. Lt.
  • Miles George Henry. Cpl.
  • Morgan Charles Wallace. Major
  • Mullender FR.
  • Naish Bernard. Pte.
  • Obrien T.
  • Paddock Edward Phillip. Pte. (d.6th Aug 1944)
  • Payne S.
  • Ratcliff Wilfred Ernest. L/Sgt.
  • Roebuck Ernest. Lt. (d.19th Sep 1944)
  • Rogers Alfred Ernest.
  • Rogers Clifford James. Pte. (d.21st September 1944)
  • Ross John Henry. Pte.
  • Russon Eric George. Pte.
  • Rutter Richard Gordon. L/Sgt.
  • Shaw Harold. Pte. (d.16th July 1944)
  • Sheppard James Bert. Pte. (d.11th June 1944)
  • Simmons Frederick Edmund. Cpl.
  • Smith Terence Roy. Sgt.
  • Smith Thomas Alfred. L/Cpl. (d.7th July 1944)
  • Stanford Jonathon. Pte.
  • Stanton William Charles. CSM. (d.6th Aug 1944)
  • Sumner Terence Edward .
  • Sutton Herbert Frank.
  • Tallent Edward Francis. Pte.
  • Thomas Henry Raymond. Pte.
  • Tolcher T.
  • Truin Albert Charles. Pte.
  • Turner Stanley Horace. CQMS.
  • Vernon Charles Thomas. Pte (d.6th June 1944)
  • Vincent Albert. Pte. (d.24th Sep 1943)
  • Wales Arthur Sydney. Pte (d.27th July 1944)
  • Walker Samuel George. Pte. (d.8th June 1940)
  • Warrington Lance Greville. Mjr. (d.20th Nov 1944)
  • Wilson Charles Clement. Pte.
  • Woollhouse Robert John. CSM. (d.9th July 1943)
  • Wright Walter. Pte.
  • Wright William Alfred. Cpl

The names on this list have been submitted by relatives, friends, neighbours and others who wish to remember them, if you have any names to add or any recollections or photos of those listed, please Add a Name to this List


3rd Armored Division - Order of Battle - 1944-1945

The 3rd Armored Division &ndash Spearhead &ndash was activated on April 15 1941 at Camp Beauregard, Louisiana. During the month of June 1941, it moved to Camp Polk Louisiana. On March 9 1942, it came under Army Ground Forces and was assigned to the II Armored Corps. The 3-AD was then transferred to Camp Young California and from August to October, took part in maneuvers at the Desert Training Center. It moved then to Camp Pickett, Virginia, on November 2 1942, moved again to the Indiantown Gap Military Reservation, Pennsylvania. The division staged at Camp Kilmer, New Jersey and departed the New York Port of Embarkation on September 5 1943 heading to Europa, arrived in England on September 18 a,d landed in France on June 23 1944.


Killed in Action : 2540
Wounded in Action : 7331
Missing in Action : 95
Captured : 139
Battle Casualties : 10105
Non-Battle Casualties : 6017
Total Casualties : 16122

Commanding Generals

Maj Gen Alvin C. Gillem : Apr 1942 &ndash Jan 1942
Maj Gen Walton H. Walker : Jan 1942 &ndash Aug 1942
Maj Gen Leroy H. Watson : Aug 1942 &ndash Aug 1944
Brig Gen Maurice Rose : Aug 1944 &ndash Sep 1944
Maj Gen Maurice Rose : Sep 1944 &ndash Mar 1945
Brig Gen Doyle O. Hickey : Mar 1945 &ndash Jun 1945
Brig Gen Truman E. Boudinot : Jun 1945 &ndash Jul 1945
Brig Gen Frank A. Allen Jr : Jul 1945 &ndash Jul 1945
Maj Gen Robert W. Grow : Jul 1945 to inactivation

Artillery Commanders

Col Frederic G. Brown &ndash 15 Sep 1943

Chief of Staff

Col John A. Smith &ndash 15 Sep 1943

Assistant Chief of Staff &ndash G-1

Lt Col Jack A. Boulger &ndash 15 Sep 1943
Maj George G. Otis &ndash 1 Apr 1945

Assistant Chief of Staff &ndash G-2

Lt Col Andrew Barr &ndash 15 Sep 1943

Assistant Chief of Staff &ndash G-3

Lt Col Howard M. Snyder &ndash 15 Sep 1943
Lt Col Wesley A. Sweat &ndash 28 Aug 1943
Maj James A Alexander &ndash 1 Apr 1945
Lt Col Wesley A Sweat &ndash 25 Apr 1945

Assistant Chief of Staff &ndash G-4

Lt Col Eugene C Orth &ndash 15 Sep 1943

Assistant Chief of Staff &ndash G-5

Lt Col William E Dahl &ndash 22 Feb 1944
Maj George F Cake &ndash 20 Apr 1945

Adjutant General

Lt Col Robert M Gant &ndash 15 Sep 1943


Brig Gen Doyle O Hickey &ndash 15 Sep 1943
Col Leander L Doan &ndash 31 Mar 1945


Brig Gen John J Bohn &ndash 15 Sep 1943
Col Truman Everett Boudinot &ndash 15 Jul 1944
Brig Gen Truman Everett Boudinot &ndash 4 Sep 1944


Col Graeme G Parks &ndash 15 Sep 1943
Col William W Cornog Jr &ndash 19 Jul 1944
Col Louis P Leone &ndash 15 Aug 1944
Col Carl J Rohsenberger &ndash 6 Sep 1944
Col Robert L Howze Jr &ndash 24 Sep 1944

Order of Battle

Headquarters Company
Service Company
Combat Command A
Combat Command B
Combat Command R
36th Armored Inf Regiment
32d Armored Regiment
33d Armored Regiment
23d Armored Eng Bn
83d Armored Rcn Bn
143d Armored Sig Co
3rd Armored Division Artillery
391st Armored Field Artillery Battalion
67th Armored Field Artillery Battalion
54th Armored Field Artillery Battalion
3rd Armored Division Trains
3rd Ordnance Maintenance Battalion
Supply Battalion
45th Armored Medical Battalion
Military Police Platoon

Attachments to the 3rd Armored Division
Antiaircraft Artillery

486th AAA AW Bn (SP) : 25 Jun 1944 &ndash 9 May 1945
413th AAA Gun Bn (Mbl) : 7 Jul 1944 &ndash 16 Jul 1944


A Co, 738-TB (Mine Explorer) : 6 Dec 1944 &ndash 15 Jan 1945
1st & 3d Plats, B Co, 738-TB (Mine Explorer) : 12 Jan 1945 &ndash 17 Jan 1945


113th Cav Gp : 8 Jul 1944 &ndash 10 Aug 1944
4th Cav Gp : 28 Feb 1945 &ndash 1 Mar 1945
4th Cav Gp : 3 Mar 1945 &ndash 8 Mar 1945


A & C Cos, 87th Cml Bn : 24 Dec 1944 &ndash 31 Dec 1944


294-ECB : 25 Oct 1944 &ndash 9 Nov 1944
1st Plat, B Co, 15-ECB (9-ID) : 27 Oct 1944 &ndash 11 Nov 1944
298-ECB : 9 Nov 1944 &ndash 10 Nov 1944
B Co, 15-ECB (9-ID) : 11 Nov 1944 &ndash 1 Dec 1944
298-ECB : 27 Dec 1944 &ndash 30 Dec 1944
B Co, 297-ECB : 27 Dec 1944 &ndash 30 Dec 1944

Field Artillery

967-FAB (155-MM How) : 29 Jun 1944 &ndash 30 Jun 1944
58-AFAB : 3 Jul 1944 &ndash 10 Aug 1944
963-FAB (155-MM How) : 7 Jul 1944 &ndash 9 Jul 1944
258-FAB (155-MM Gun) : 8 Jul 1944 &ndash 10 Aug 1944
87-AFAB : 9 Jul 1944 &ndash 28 Aug 1944
258-FAB (155-MM Gun) : 10 Aug 1944 &ndash 14 Aug 1944
991-FAB (155-MM Gun) : 12 Aug 1944 &ndash 20 Sep 1944
60-FAB (9-ID) (105-MM How) : 13 Aug 1944 &ndash 15 Aug 1944
58-AFAB : 18 Aug 1944 &ndash 1 Oct 1944
D Btry, 376-AAA-AW-B (Mbl) : 25 Oct 1944 &ndash 10 Nov 1944
84-FAB (9-ID) (105-MM How) : 25 Oct 1944 &ndash 11 Nov 1944
83-AFAB : 20 Dec 1944 &ndash 31 Dec 1944
991-FAB (-2 btrys) (155-MM Gun) : 21 Dec 1944 &ndash 31 Dec 1944
188-FAB (155-MM How) : 23 Dec 1944 &ndash 31 Dec 1944
A Btry, 440-AAA-AW-B (Mbl) : 23 Dec 1944 &ndash 31 Dec 1944
897-FAB (75-ID) (105-MM How) : 24 Dec 1944 &ndash 29 Dec 1944
730-FAB (155-MM How) (75th Div) : 24 Dec 1944 &ndash 29 Dec 1944
A Btry, 440-AAA-AW-B (Mbl) : 24 Dec 1944 &ndash 29 Dec 1944
75-ID Div Arty : 24 Dec 1944 &ndash 7 Jan 1945
991-FAB (155-MM Gun) : 2 Jan 1945 &ndash 11 Jan 1945
183-FAB (155-MM How) : 2 Jan 1945 &ndash 11 Jan 1945
83-AFAB : 2 Jan 1945 &ndash 9 May 1945
183-FAB (155-MM How) : 12 Jan 1945 &ndash 20 Jan 1945
A Btry, 991-FAB (155-MM Gun) : 17 Jan 1945 &ndash 19 Jan 1945
924-FAB (99-ID) (105-MM How) : 28 Feb 1945 &ndash 2 Mar 1945
991-FAB (155-MM Gun) : 25 Feb 1945 &ndash 9 Mar 1945
183-FAB (155-MM How) : 25 Feb 1945 &ndash 24 Apr 1945
991-FAB (155-MM Gun) : 29 Mar 1945 &ndash 1 Apr 1945
138-FAB (155-MM How) : 29 Mar 1945 &ndash 8 Apr 1945
991-FAB (155-Gun) : 6 Apr 1945 &ndash 13 May 1945
A Btry, 13-FAOB : 17 Apr 1945 &ndash 23 Apr 1945


1/60-IR (9-ID) : 9 Jul 1944 &ndash 11 Jul 1944
2/60-IR (9-ID) : 10 Jul 1944 &ndash 11 Jul 1944
3/60-IR (9-ID) : 13 Aug 1944 &ndash 15 Aug 1944
2/60-IR & 3/60-IR (9-ID) : 17 Aug 1944 &ndash 19 Aug 1944
1/26-IR (1-ID) : 6 Sep 1944 &ndash 23 Sep 1944
47-IR (9-ID) : 8 Sep 1944 &ndash 10 Sep 1944
47-RCT (9-ID) : 25 Oct 1944 &ndash 10 Nov 1945
1 Plat, B Co, 15-ECB (9-ID) : 25 Oct 1944 &ndash 10 Nov 1944
2/47-IR (9-ID) : 24 Nov 1944 &ndash 26 Nov 1944
1/60-IR (9-ID) : 11 Dec 1944 &ndash 12 Dec 1944
1/517-PIR (Non-Div) : 22 Dec 1944 &ndash 26 Dec 1944
1/509-PIR (Non-Div) : 23 Dec 1944 &ndash 29 Dec 1944
290-RCT (75-ID) : 23 Dec 1944 &ndash 31 Dec 1944
898-RCT (75-ID) : 23 Dec 1944 &ndash 31 Dec 1944
1 Plat, B Co, 275-ECB (75-ID) : 23 Dec 1944 &ndash 31 Dec 1944
289-RCT (75-ID) : 24 Dec 1944 &ndash 29 Dec 1944
331-IR (83-ID) : 29 Dec 1944 &ndash 31 Dec 1944
330-IR (83-ID) : 1 Jan 1945 &ndash 7 Jan 1945
2/330-IR & 3/330-IR (83-ID) : 7 Jan 1945 &ndash 19 Jan 1945
1/330-IR (83-ID) : 11 Jan 1945 &ndash 19 Jan 1945
335-IR (84-ID) : 18 Jan 1945 &ndash 21 Jan 1945
13-IR (8-ID) : 26 Feb 1945 &ndash 17 Mar 1945
395-IR (99-ID) : 28 Feb 1945 &ndash 2 Mar 1945
3/13-IR (8-ID) : 17 Mar 1945 &ndash 19 Mar 1945
414-IR (104-ID) : 23 Mar 1945 &ndash 12 Apr 1945
3/47-IR (9-ID) : 11 Apr 1945 &ndash 24 Apr 1945
1/18-IR (1-ID) : 11 Apr 1945 &ndash 25 Apr 1945
2/414-IR (104-ID) : 12 Apr 1945 &ndash 22 Apr 1945
60-IR (9-ID) : 22 Apr 1945 &ndash 24 Apr 1945


803-TDB (SP) : 25 Jun 1944 &ndash 2 Jul 1944
703-TDB (SP) : 25 Jun 1944 &ndash 17 Dec 1944
A Co, 746-TB : 25 Oct 1944 &ndash 10 Nov 1944
C Co, 899-TDB (SP) : 25 Oct 1944 &ndash 10 Nov 1944
643-TDB (SP) : 22 Dec 1944 &ndash 26 Dec 1944
703-TDB (SP) : 2 Jan 1945 &ndash 9 May 1945
2d Plat, B Co, 635-TDB (T) : 15 Jan 1945 &ndash 20 Jan 1945
C Co, 629-TB : 28 Feb 1945 &ndash 2 Mar 1945
C Co, 786-TB : 28 Feb 1945 &ndash 2 Mar 1945

3rd Armored Division Attachments to

CCB to 30-ID
33d Armd Regt : 8 Jul 1944 &ndash 16 Jul 1944
36th Armd Inf (-3d Bn) : 8 Jul 1944 &ndash 16 Jul 1944
Co D, 83d Armd Rcn Bn : 8 Jul 1944 &ndash 16 Jul 1944
Co B, 23d Armd Engr Bn : 8 Jul 1944 &ndash 16 Jul 1944

CCA to 9-ID
32d Armd Regt : 9 Jul 1944 &ndash 16 Jul 1944
3d Bn 36th Armd Inf : 9 Jul 1944 &ndash 16 Jul 1944
83d Armd Rcn Bn : 9 Jul 1944 &ndash 16 Jul 1944
Cos A & C, 23d Armd Engr Bn : 9 Jul 1944 &ndash 16 Jul 1944

CCB to 1-ID
33d Armd Regt : 26 Jul 1944 &ndash 30 Jul 1944
36th Armd Inf (-3d Bn) : 26 Jul 1944 &ndash 30 Jul 1944
391st Armd FA Bn : 26 Jul 1944 &ndash 30 Jul 1944
83d Armd Rcn Bn : 26 Jul 1944 &ndash 30 Jul 1944
Cos B & D 23d Armd Engr Bn : 26 Jul 1944 &ndash 30 Jul 1944

CCB to 4-ID
33d Armd Regt : 30 Jul 1944 &ndash 4 Aug 1944
36th Armd Inf (-3d Bn) : 30 Jul 1944 &ndash 4 Aug 1944
391st Armd FA Bn : 30 Jul 1944 &ndash 4 Aug 1944
83d Armd Rcn Bn : 30 Jul 1944 &ndash 4 Aug 1944
Cos B & D 23d Armd Engr Bn : 30 Jul 1944 &ndash 4 Aug 1944

CCA to 1-ID
32d Armd Regt : 30 Jul 1944 &ndash 12 Aug 1944
3d GBn 36th Armd Inf : 30 Jul 1944 &ndash 12 Aug 1944
54th Armd FA Bn : 30 Jul 1944 &ndash 12 Aug 1944
67th Armd FA Bn : 30 Jul 1944 &ndash 12 Aug 1944
Co A & C 23d Armd Engr Bn : 30 Jul 1944 &ndash 12 Aug 1944

CCB to 1-ID
33d Armd Regt : 4 Aug 1944 &ndash 7 Aug 1944
36th Armd Inf (-3d Bn) : 4 Aug 1944 &ndash 7 Aug 1944
391st Armd FA Bn : 4 Aug 1944 &ndash 7 Aug 1944
83d Armd Rcn Bn : 4 Aug 1944 &ndash 7 Aug 1944
B & D Cos 23d Armd Engr Bn : 4 Aug 1944 &ndash 7 Aug 1944

CCB to 30-ID
33d Armd Regt : 7 Aug 1944 &ndash 12 Aug 1944
36th Armd Inf : 7 Aug 1944 &ndash 12 Aug 1944
87th Armd FA Bn : 7 Aug 1944 &ndash 12 Aug 1944
391st Armd FA Bn : 7 Aug 1944 &ndash 12 Aug 1944
83d Armd Rcn Bn : 7 Aug 1944 &ndash 12 Aug 1944
B & D Cos 23d Armd Engr Bn : 7 Aug 1944 &ndash 12 Aug 1944
1 det Co E 23d Armd Engr Bn : 7 Aug 1944 &ndash 12 Aug 1944

Task Force King CCB to 9-ID
1st Bn 33d Armd Regt : 5 Sep 1944 &ndash 6 Sep 1944
Co F 36th Armd Inf : 5 Sep 1944 &ndash 6 Sep 1944
3d Plat Rcn Co 33d Armd Regt : 5 Sep 1944 &ndash 6 Sep 1944
2d Plat Co B 23d Armd Engr Bn : 5 Sep 1944 &ndash 6 Sep 1944
Co E 33d Armd Regt : 11 Oct 1944 &ndash 22 Oct 1944
Co H 32d Armd Regt : 13 Oct 1944 &ndash 17 Oct 1944
3d Bn 33d Armd Regt : 15 Oct 1944 &ndash 22 Oct 1944

CCA to V Corps
32d Armd Regt (-1st Plat) : 18 Dec 1944 &ndash 21 Dec 1944
3d Bn 36th Armd Inf : 18 Dec 1944 &ndash 21 Dec 1944
67th Armd FA Bn : 18 Dec 1944 &ndash 21 Dec 1944
Co A 23d Armd Engr Bn : 18 Dec 1944 &ndash 21 Dec 1944

CCB to 30-ID
33d Armd Regt (-3d Bn) &ndash 19 Dec 1944 &ndash 25 Dec 1944
2d Bn 36th Armd Inf : 19 Dec 1944 &ndash 25 Dec 1944
Co D 23d Armd Engr Bn : 19 Dec 1944 &ndash 25 Dec 1944

CCB to V Corps
33d Armd Regt (-3d Bn) : 19 Dec 1944 &ndash 20 Jan 1945
2d Bn 36th Armd Inf : 19 Dec 1944 &ndash 20 Jan 1945
Co D 23d Armd Engr Bn : 19 Dec 1944 &ndash 20 Jan 1945

Task Force Doan to 84-ID
Hq 32d Armd Regt : 23 Dec 1944 &ndash 22 Jan 1945
2d Bn 32d Armd Regt : 23 Dec 1944 &ndash 22 Jan 1945
3d Bn 36th Armd Inf (-1 co) : 23 Dec 1944 &ndash 22 Jan 1945

CCA to 75-ID
3d Bn 32d Armd Regt : 29 Dec 1944 &ndash 30 Dec 1944
Co I 36th Armd Inf : 29 Dec 1944 &ndash 30 Dec 1944
67th Armd FA Bn : 29 Dec 1944 &ndash 30 Dec 1944
54th Armd FA Bn : 29 Dec 1944 &ndash 30 Dec 1944
83d Armd Rcn Bn : 29 Dec 1944 &ndash 30 Dec 1944
Co A 23d aRmd Engr Bn : 29 Dec 1944 &ndash 30 Dec 1944

Task Force Richardson to 84-ID
3d Bn 32d Armd Regt : 2 Jan 1945 &ndash 23 Jan 1945
1 plat Co A 23d Armd Engr Bn : 2 Jan 1945 &ndash 23 Jan 1945

CCR to 1-ID
3d Bn 32d Armd Regt : 8 Mar 1945 &ndash 17 Mar 1945
2d Bn 33d Armd Regt : 1st Div : 8 Mar 1945 &ndash 17 Mar 1945
3d Bn 36th Armd Inf : 8 Mar 1945 &ndash 17 Mar 1945
Co C 23d Armd Engr Bn : 8 Mar 1945 &ndash 17 Mar 1945
Co E 23d Armd Engr Bn : 1106th ECGp : 17 Mar 1945 &ndash 25 Mar 1945
3d Bn 32d Armd Regt : 20 Mar 1945 &ndash 22 Mar 1945
2d Bn 33d Armd Regt : 20 Mar 1945 &ndash 22 Mar 1945
3d Bn 36th Armd Inf : 20 Mar 1945 &ndash 22 Mar 1945
Co C 23d Armd Engr Bn : 20 Mar 1945 &ndash 22 Mar 1945

CCA &ndash 9th Div &ndash 24 Apr 1945 &ndash 25 Apr 1945
CCR &ndash 9th Div &ndash 24 Apr 1945 &ndash 25 Apr 1945


Co A, 23d Armd Engr Bn &ndash 9-ID &ndash 1 Jul 1944 &ndash 31 Jul 1944
Co D, 23d Armd Engr Bn &ndash 9-ID &ndash 11 Jul 1944 &ndash 16 Jul 1944

Field Artillery

54th Armd FA Bn &ndash 9-ID &ndash 1 Jul 1944 &ndash 31 Jul 1944


1/36th Armd Inf &ndash 9-ID &ndash 13 Oct 1944 &ndash 17 Oct 1944
2/36th Armd Inf &ndash 1-ID &ndash 1 Dec 1944 &ndash 8 Dec 1944

Assignments & Attachments

20 Nov 1943 &ndash VII Corps &ndash 1A &ndash ETOUSA
8 Feb 1944 &ndash XIX Corps &ndash 1A
15 Jul 1944 &ndash VII Corps &ndash 1A
1 Aug 1944 &ndash VII Corps &ndash 1A &ndash 12-AD
19 Dec 1944 &ndash XVIII Corps &ndash 1A &ndash 12-AG
20 Dec 1944 &ndash XVIII Corps &ndash 1A &ndash 12-AG &ndash 21-UK-AG
23 Dec 1944 &ndash VII Corps &ndash 1A &ndash 12-AG &ndash 21-UK-AG
18 Jan 1945 &ndash VII Corps &ndash 1A &ndash 12-AG
1 May 1945 &ndash XIX Corps &ndash 9A &ndash 12-AG

3rd Infantry Division &ndash Command Posts

15 Sep 1943 &ndash Landed Liverpool &ndash Lancashire &ndash England
17 Sep 1943 &ndash Bruton (Redlynch House) &ndash Somerset &ndash England
25 Jun 1944 &ndash Les Oubeaux &ndash Calvados &ndash France
9 Jul 1944 &ndash La Fotelaie (½ mi W vic Ariel) &ndash Manche &ndash France
9 Jul 1944 &ndash St-Jean-de-Daye (¾ mi E) &ndash Manche &ndash France
17 Jul 1944 &ndash Le Mesnil-Veneron &ndash Manche &ndash France
29 Jul 1944 &ndash Carantilly (1 mi S) &ndash Manche &ndash France
31 Jul 1944 &ndash Hambye (1 ½ mi N) &ndash Manche &ndash France
4 Aug 1944 &ndash Cherencey le Heron &ndash Manche &ndash France
9 Aug 1944 &ndash Chatillon-sur-Colmont (1 ½ mi S) &ndash Mayenne &ndash France
13 Aug 1944 &ndash Pre-en-Pail &ndash Mayenne &ndash France
15 Aug 1944 &ndash Ranes (3 mi S) &ndash Orne &ndash France
17 Aug 1944 &ndash Ranes (3 mi N) &ndash Orne &ndash France
22 Aug 1944 &ndash Favieres (1 ½ mi E) &ndash Eure-et-Loire &ndash France
25 Aug 1944 &ndash Mennecy (1 ½ mi W) &ndash Seine-et-Oise &ndash France
26 Aug 1944 &ndash Quincy-sous-Senart &ndash Seine-et-Oise &ndash France
27 Aug 1944 &ndash Magny-le-Hongre (1 mi SW) &ndash Seine-et-Oise &ndash France
28 Aug 1944 &ndash Levignen (1 mi NE) &ndash Oise &ndash France
29 Aug 1944 &ndash Soissons (Sermoise) &ndash Aisne &ndash France
30 Aug 1944 &ndash Braye-en-Laonnois &ndash Aisne &ndash France
31 Aug 1944 &ndash Montcornet (½ mi S) &ndash Aisne &ndash France
1 Sep 1944 &ndash La Capelle &ndash Aisne &ndash France
2 Sep 1944 &ndash Mons &ndash Belgium
4 Sep 1944 &ndash Charleroi (Chatelineau) &ndash Belgium
5 Sep 1944 &ndash Namur &ndash Belgium
6 Sep 1944 &ndash Huy (2 mi W) &ndash Belgium
7 Sep 1944 &ndash Sur Cortil (near Tilff) &ndash Belgium
9 Sep 1944 &ndash Louviegné &ndash Belgium
10 Sep 1944 &ndash Verviers &ndash Belgium
11 Sep 1944 &ndash Eupen &ndash Belgium
13 Sep 1944 &ndash Raeren &ndash Belgium
15 Sep 1944 &ndash Dorff &ndash Rhineland &ndash Germany
21 Sep 1944 &ndash Stolberg &ndash Rhineland &ndash Germany
20 Dec 1944 &ndash Hotton &ndash Belgium
21 Dec 1944 &ndash Erezée (½ mi SW) &ndash Belgium
22 Dec 1944 &ndash Manhay &ndash Belgium
23 Dec 1944 &ndash Noiseux &ndash Belgium
24 Dec 1944 &ndash Barvaux &ndash Belgium
31 Dec 1944 &ndash Chateau de Bouillon (vic Havelange) &ndash Belgium
2 Jan 1945 &ndash Werbomont &ndash Belgium
3 Jan 1945 &ndash La Fourche &ndash Belgium
6 Jan 1945 &ndash Bra/Lienne &ndash Belgium
8 Jan 1945 &ndash Lierneux &ndash Belgium
14 Jan 1945 &ndash Hébronval &ndash Belgium
21 Jan 1945 &ndash Petite Somme &ndash Belgium
7 Feb 1945 &ndash Stolberg &ndash Rhineland &ndash Germany
25 Feb 1945 &ndash Mariaweiler &ndash Rhineland &ndash Germany
26 Feb 1945 &ndash Arnoldsweiler &ndash Rhineland &ndash Germany
26 Feb 1945 &ndash Morschenich &ndash Rhineland &ndash Germany
27 Feb 1945 &ndash Elsdorf (Sittarderhof) (2 ½ mi SE) &ndash Rhineland &ndash Germany
3 Mar 1945 &ndash Niederaussem &ndash Rhineland &ndash Germany
5 Mar 1945 &ndash Pulheim &ndash Rhineland &ndash Germany
7 Mar 1945 &ndash Cologne &ndash Rhineland &ndash Germany
17 Mar 1945 &ndash Hermulheim &ndash Rhineland &ndash Germany
22 Mar 1945 &ndash Honnef (Mauser Home) (1 ½ mi S) &ndash Rhineland &ndash Germany
25 Mar 1945 &ndash Eudenbach &ndash Rhineland &ndash Germany
25 Mar 1945 &ndash Griesenbach (Oberscheid) (½ mi S) &ndash Rhineland &ndash Germany
26 Mar 1945 &ndash Maulsbach &ndash Rhineland &ndash Germany
27 Mar 1945 &ndash Altenkirchen &ndash Rhineland &ndash Germany
27 Mar 1945 &ndash Atzelgift &ndash Rhineland &ndash Germany
28 Mar 1945 &ndash Schonbach &ndash Nassau &ndash Germany
29 Mar 1945 &ndash Ober-Marsberg &ndash Westphalia &ndash Germany
30 Mar 1945 &ndash Etteln (1 mi NE) &ndash Westphalia &ndash Germany
31 Mar 1945 &ndash Etteln &ndash Westphalia &ndash Germany
2 Apr 1945 &ndash Nordborchen &ndash Westphalia &ndash Germany
6 Apr 1945 &ndash Brakel &ndash Westphalia &ndash Germany
9 Apr 1945 &ndash Adelebsen &ndash Hannover &ndash Germany
10 Apr 1945 &ndash Werningerode &ndash Magdeburg &ndash Germany
12 Apr 1945 &ndash Sangerhausen &ndash Halle-Merseburg &ndash Germany
13 Apr 1945 &ndash Freist &ndash Halle-Merseburg &ndash Germany
14 Apr 1945 &ndash Lingenau &ndash Anhalt-Dessau &ndash Germany
25 Apr 1945 &ndash Sangerhausen &ndash Halle-Merseburg &ndash Germany

3rd Armored Division &ndash Narrative

The 3rd Armored Division arrived in Normandy, France, on Jun 23 1944 and entered combat against the Villiers &ndash Fossard salient north-east of Saint Lô on June 29-30 1944. CCB crossed into the Airel Bridgehead on July 7 and the division reached the Haut-Vents crossroads after heavy combat by July 11. CCB passed through the 1st Infantry Division to seize Marigny on July 26, and CCA forced a crossing of the Sienne at Gavray on July 30. It then secured a crossing of the Seé River at Brécey on July 31 and on August 1, CCB attacked toward Saint Pois. The division assembled August 12 and the next day swung around Domfront toward the Vire &ndash Argentan Road to close the Falaise Gap, capturing Ranes after heavy combat on August 15. It fought through Fromenthal August 16-17, and on August 25, CCB crossed the Seine River below Paris at Tilly.

The division crossed the Marne River in the Mieux area and continued to pursue against disorganized resistance, crossing the Aisne River east of Soissons on August 29 then entered Belgium. Advancing east from Namur astride the Meuse, the division seized Huy on September 6, mopped up Liège on September 8, took Verviers against rearguard resistance, and reached the West Wall at Schmidthof on September 12 1944. The division breached the West Wall fortifications between Roetgen and Rott with CCB on September 13 as CCA pushed through antitank obstacles to Nutheim. CCB crossed the Vicht River southwest of Stolberg on September 14 as CCA reached Eilendorf, a suburb of Aachen. On September 15 the division encountered the second belt of West Wall defenses where it suffered heavy tank losses in the Battle of Geisberg Hill which commenced that same day, as CCB took but was forced out of Mausbach. The next day CCA was halted in its advance on Stolberg while CCB finally took Geisberg Hill on the 17 before being forced off.

The 3-AD then fought the Battle for Weissenberg Hill and Muensterbusch Hill September 18-20. Stolberg finally fell on September 22, as the division postponed its West Wall offensive and used smoke screens to withdraw CCB task forces from Donnerberg. The division was next committed to clearing the Lousberg Heights and cutting the Aachen &ndash Laurensberg Highway October 18-28 1944. The division attacked the Stolberg corridor on November 16 and took heavy tank losses at Hastenrath and Scherpenseel which fell November 18. The division took Huecheln after battling through a minefield on November 24, then attacked to clear the west bank of the Roer River on December 10. It took Geich the next clay. As a result of the German Ardenne Counter Offensive, CCA went in defense of Eupen, CCB assisted the 30th Infantry Division and assembled then in the Hotton &ndash Grand Pré area on December 19. CCB attacked then Stoumont and La Gleize on December 20 while the remainder of the division attacked to secure the Manhay &ndash Houffalize Road.

The 3rd Armored contained a German attack at Hotton, but lost a key road junction southeast of Manhay on December 23. The following day its roadblock at Belle Haie was reduced and the division attacked to take Grandménil December 25-26 while CCA recovered Sadzot after its temporary loss on December 28. After the 83rd Infantry Division took over this zone at the end of the month, the 3-AD attacked toward Houffalize on January 3 1945. Fighting across the Groumont Creek, the Bois de Groumont, and into Provedroux by January 8. The 83-ID attacked through its lines the next day. The 3-AD then attacked into Bihain on the 12, reached the Ourthe River on the 19 and seized Gouvy and Beho on the 22. The 3rd Armored attacked out of the Elle River bridgehead February 26 and gained two bridgeheads at Giesch and Paffendorf the next day over the Erft River. After repulsing counterattacks, the division attacked out on March 3 and took Stommeln with air support. It reached the Rhine River at Roggendorf and Worringen March 4 and fought the Battle for Koln March 5-7 assisted by the 104th Infantry Division.

After maintaining defensive positions, it crossed the Rhine on March 23 and attacked again March 25. It reached the Lahn River at Marburg March 28 and then closed the Ruhr Pocket after the Battle of Paderborn March 31 &ndash April 1. The division reached the Weser River on April 7 and the Mulde River near Torten April 15. It fought then the Battle for Dessau April 21-23 and was relieved along the Mulde April 25. It withdrew to Sangerhausen for rehabilitation on April 26 and hostilities ended May 7 1945.

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These messages were added to this story by site members between June 2003 and January 2006. It is no longer possible to leave messages here. Find out more about the site contributors.

Message 1 - Russsian Atrocities in Berlin

Posted on: 26 February 2005 by Trooper Tom Canning - WW2 Site Helper

Dear Doverog -
Exactly the same thing was going on in Vienna where a regular Infantry Corps were first into Vienna and behaved correctly - within three days they were recalled, and a Corps of Mongols were given the order - "Do as you please " They did, much to the shame of the Russians but we were not supposed to critisise as after all - we were allies !

One horrific tale we were told of a company of Mongols entered a Maternity unit - raped everyone in sight and then bayonneted the expectant mothers. this was a huge joke as these men were even lower than animals.

Unfortunateluy our other Ally must share the blame for the Berlin atrocities as they held back Monty's army when he could have been in Berlin five weeks before the Russians got there !

Many survived in Vienna but they have absolutely no regard for anything Russian to this day as they raped and pillaged their way all through their sector of Austria. We saw trainloads of goods all heading east,stolen from everywhere !

When the British Army finally were allowed into the agreed sector and made their H.Q. in the Schoenbrunn
Palace. it took a whole battalion (750 ) of Pioneers to clean it up, as they had no concept of hygene..or anything else !

Civilisation is only a very thin veneer at times.

Message 2 - Russsian Atrocities in Berlin

Posted on: 05 March 2005 by doverrog

I wasn't aware of the events you describe in Vienna, but I'm afraid it doesn't suprise me.
It's perhaps one of the greatest shames the victors have to carry that we (and the USA,France and the other Allies), went along with this when our raison d'etre for the war was one of fighting for freedom and liberation of the oppressed.
It is also to our detriment that even now there is very little publicity given to the Russians behaviour.
TV and Radio seem keen to dwell on the Nazis' behaviour but give little time/programming (if any) to the events that took place within the Russian areas of control and to our acquescence to those events.
I would be interested to know if schools, colleges and universities even cover it within their history syllabuses.
Are those responsible for the turning of 'blind eyes' still exercising censorship of information about those horrors that they allowed to take place?
It should also be asked if Stalin saw this weakness as yet another signal for him to pursue his subjection of the peoples within his post-war empire, without fear of interference from the Western Powers?
I have to say that the quote that "The victors write the history" has never been more true!!

Message 3 - Russsian Atrocities in Berlin

Posted on: 05 March 2005 by Trooper Tom Canning - WW2 Site Helper

I appear to have a slightly different view of the so called History which is seldom taught these days and has been absorbed in the - mainly American - revision of History - inasmuch as they won the war despite our efforts to confuse them with facts on how to run a war !

It was not an accident that caused Eisenhower to divert Monty's three armies away frothe "liberation' of Berlin, but rather a decision made without the knowlede of the joint chiefs and certainly the British Chiefs of Staff - at least according to Alanbrooke, who knew something about winning wars. This allowed the Russians to take their time (5 weeks) to enter Berlin and middle Europe for the following 40 years !
Whereas our raison d'etre was to free people from oppression, our ally had a different agenda as some of their powerful financial types in New York wanted the Russians deep into Europe, and they succeeded !But we mustn't mention that as they will fall out with us, and sue our boots off !

Message 4 - Russsian Atrocities in Berlin

Posted on: 06 March 2005 by doverrog

I think both of us have the same view.
What's incredible is that it's almost "not correct" to mention these things.
As always money talks and as ever the power of those who had most to gain financially influenced the politicians and war leaders of the day.
Rather like the stupidity of Iraq today!
I couldn't agree more about American revisions to history.
Look at the way Holywood has always had the affrontery to alter fact and present it as history. Even now we have such recent popular films as the one about the U Boat the Americans captured and so got hold of the Enigma codes. Many children, and adults, will unfortuneately see this film as factual and thus yet another British acheivemant becomes American!
I wrote to my MP and to the Home Office only to be told that although some people had pointed the out the errors in this film and felt it an insult to the real people involved, it was only an entertainment and not intended as history!
They seem to overlook that power that the media has to change peoples knowledge - except of course when politicians want to sell us a message.

Message 5 - Russsian Atrocities in Berlin

Posted on: 06 March 2005 by doverrog

Hi again.
Could you direct me to your entry please troopertomcannon?

Thank you!

Contact us at [email protected]

By Michele Anderson

The Triangle Shirtwaist Company&rsquos fire resulted in the tragic loss of nearly 150 young women and girls on March 25, 1911, in New York City. The garment workers at the company had been attempting to unionize to gain better wages and improved working conditions. The factory’s management responded by locking the workers into the building. Fabric scraps, oil and hot machines crammed into rooms on the upper floors of the ten-story building quickly unleashed an inferno within the building. With the exits blocked, girls attempted to use the rusted fire escape or jump from windows into the fire department’s dry-rotted nets, only to plunge onto the pavement in front of bystanders below. The tragedy was exasperated by the failure of the U.S. government to protect its citizens who were working in deplorable conditions, but it was difficult for anyone who saw the corpses lined up on sidewalks waiting for identification to deny the need for labor reform and improved fire safety equipment. The deaths unified female labor reformers of the Progressive era.

Michele Anderson, a teacher at John Glenn High School near Detroit, was named 2014 National History Teacher of the Year by the Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History and HISTORY.

By Isabel Wilkerson

In today&rsquos world African Americans are viewed as urban people, but that&rsquos a very new phenomenon: The vast majority of time that African Americans have been on this continent, they&rsquove been primarily Southern and rural. That changed with the Great Migration, a mass relocation of 6 million African Americans from the Jim Crow South to the North and West, starting in 1915.

This leaderless revolution, a response to oppression in the South, was set in motion by the labor shortage in the North during World War I. And once the door opened, a flood of people came. Those who migrated became the advance guard of the Civil Rights movement they shaped our culture, from music to sports. On the other hand, one of the responses to their presence was fear and hostility. In these big cities that they had hoped would be refuges, they were still blocked from the American dream. The Great Migration was a watershed demographic change in our country&rsquos history&mdashand we&rsquore still living with its effects today. (As told to Lily Rothman)

Isabel Wilkerson is the Pulitzer-Prize-winning writer of The Warmth of Other Suns, which won the National Book Critics Circle Award, the Lynton History Prize from Harvard and Columbia universities and the Stephen Ambrose Oral History Prize, among other honors. The book is currently being developed into a TV adaption to be executive produced by Shonda Rhimes.

By Jennifer Ratner-Rosenhagen

In the aftermath of World War I, the Lebanese-born, Boston-based poet-philosopher Kahlil Gibran wrote what would become one of the world&rsquos most translated works of philosophy: The Prophet. This collection of inspirational sermons delivered by a fictional prophet&mdashon love, marriage, work, reason, self-knowledge and ethics&mdashchallenged tired orthodoxies and oppressive ideologies. Though Gibran&rsquos exaltation of human individuality, creativity and difference was not entirely original, the book&rsquos success lay in his ability to make his insights feel like revelations. Ever since its publication in 1923, The Prophet has been a salve for readers who tried&mdashin good American fashion&mdashto break from conformity. Gibran readers include Woodrow Wilson and American soldiers during World War II (thanks to its selection for the American Services Editions in 1943) Elvis Presley and Johnny Cash members of the 1960s counterculture and now Salma Hayek. The Prophet taught self-trust amid the buzzing, blooming confusion of modern America. Sometimes it takes a foreigner to speak the voice of Americans&rsquo inner conscience.

Jennifer Ratner-Rosenhagen is the Merle Curti Associate Professor of History and the founder of the Intellectual History Group at University of Wisconsin-Madison. Her book, American Nietzsche: A History of an Icon and His Ideas, won the John H. Dunning Prize, an award for an outstanding monograph in a subject in U.S. history, from the American Historical Association.

By James Loewen

When the KKK paraded down Pennsylvania Avenue in Washington, D.C., the headline in the New York Times declared &ldquoSight Astonishes Capital: Robed, but Unmasked Hosts in White Move Along Avenue.&rdquo The marchers, the article noted, received &ldquoa warm reception.&rdquo The parade took place in broad daylight, in the nation&rsquos capital, and most of the participants were from the north. This event symbolizes the Nadir of Race Relations, a terrible era from 1890 to about 1940, when race relations grew worse and worse. During this period white Americans became more racist than at any other point in our history, even during slavery. Also during the Nadir, the phenomenon of sundown towns swept the North. These are towns that were for decades&mdashand in some cases still are&mdashall-white on purpose.

Among the other terrible legacies of that period are its inaccurate white supremacist histories of everything from Christopher Columbus and U.S. Grant to Woodrow Wilson, and the astounding gap between black and white media family wealth&mdash problems that we are still trying to transcend.

James Loewen is professor emeritus at the University of Vermont and the best-selling author of Lies My Teacher Told Me. He has received the Spirit of America Award from the National Council for the Social Studies and was the first white recipient of the American Sociological Association’s Cox-Johnson-Frazier Award for scholarship in service to social justice.

By Jon Butler

In Chicago in 1932, an African American composer named Thomas A. Dorsey, who had been a nightclub jazz pianist, wrote a song inspired by his wife&rsquos death in childbirth. The song, “Take My Hand, Precious Lord,” unexpectedly became the foundation for the modern African American gospel music tradition. Its success stimulated an entirely new music industry&mdashthe gospel blues. It became a touchstone for the dramatic role that music played in sustaining and forwarding America’s Civil Rights movement Martin Luther King Jr. often asked supporters to sing it before they marched, including the night before his assassination. The gospel blues also brought singers such as Mahalia Jackson, Sister Rosetta Tharp, and the Golden Gate Quartet to prominence and was later foundational for Aretha Franklin and Whitney Houston, among many others. That tiny, inauspicious moment in 1932 created a subtle yet profound change in American life, ultimately producing musical anthems of powerful personal, moral, and political transformation.

Jon Butler is Howard R. Lamar Emeritus Professor of American Studies, History & Religious Studies at Yale University, and the current president of the Organization of American Historians.

By Linda Gordon

About two months after he took office, Franklin Roosevelt appointed a former social worker to head an emergency program of aid to the unemployed. The moment Harry Hopkins started work, on May 22, 1933 &mdashbefore he even had an office&mdashhe dragged a desk into the hall of the building where he was located and immediately began sending out money. Some critics disapproved of his haste and wanted longer consideration of this federal expenditure. Hopkins responded, famously, &ldquoPeople don&rsquot eat in the long run they eat every day.&rdquo In two hours he spent $5 million dollars, the equivalent of about $70 million today. In addition to putting money into the hands of consumers, it was also a tremendous confidence-raising gesture that said, &lsquoThis administration is not going to allow our economy to go completely under.&rsquo Emergency relief was the most popular of the New Deal programs and has been called a major step in saving capitalism. It inaugurated a pattern of government action in crises that would otherwise spin out of control. (As told to Lily Rothman)

Linda Gordon is a professor of history at New York University and a two-time winner of the Bancroft prize for the best book in U.S. history.

By Jefferson Cowie

The &ldquopolitical equality we once had won,&rdquo FDR boomed as he accepted the Democratic nomination for a second presidential term in 1936, had been rendered &ldquomeaningless in the face of economic inequality.&rdquo The government no longer belonged to the people but had been taken hostage by &ldquoprivileged princes of these new economic dynasties, thirsty for power.&rdquo Deep in the Great Depression, Roosevelt promised that his New Deal would recalibrate the balance of power between the people and the &ldquoeconomic royalists.&rdquo It was some of the most extraordinary&mdashand fleeting&mdashrhetoric in American presidential history. Yet as a result, working people flocked to the Democratic Party, fostering not only an electoral landslide but also a political coalition that governed the nation for decades to come.

Jefferson Cowie teaches at Cornell University. His book Stayin&rsquo Alive: The 1970’s and the Last Days of the Working Class received the Parkman Prize for the Best Book in American History. His forthcoming book is The Great Exception: The New Deal and the Limits of American Politics.

By Akhil Reed Amar

Hugo L. Black of Alabama, FDR&rsquos first appointment to the Supreme Court, defined the American judicial scene for three and a half decades. Black first defined and then implemented a reformist agenda that would revolutionize modern American constitutional law. For his first 15 years, Black set the table with new ideas&mdashoften presented in dissent, at first. In his last two decades on the Court, Black would watch his reformist agenda become the supreme law of the land, moving from dissenting opinions to majority opinions on issues of voting rights, speech rights, religious rights, criminal procedure rights and the Bill of Rights more generally.

Akhil Reed Amar is Sterling Professor of Law and Political Science at Yale University, and the author of several books about the Constitution and its history. His latest book, The Law of the Land, was released in April.

By William Chafe

The Cold War seems inevitable, but few things are. Rather, that road diverged in July of 1944, when Harry S. Truman took the place of incumbent vice-president Henry Wallace on the Democratic ticket.

After World War II, President Roosevelt had a secret plan for how he would work things out with Stalin, but he died before sharing it. Truman entered the White House with almost no experience in foreign policy. The State Department told him that action must be taken on the Russian threat. The result was the Truman Doctrine: good against evil, communism against democracy, the Cold War.

Meanwhile, Wallace &mdash named Secretary of Commerce by FDR after the election &mdash became the leading voice of progressive politics in the Cabinet. He thought there was a way of working out an agreement with the USSR. When he made a speech to that effect, Truman dismissed him from the Cabinet. What a different world there might have been if Wallace, not Truman, occupied the position of Vice-President when Franklin Roosevelt died.

William Chafe is professor emeritus of history at Duke University, author of The Unfinished Journey: America Since 1945 (8th edition), and a past president of the Organization of American Historians.

By Richard Stewart

The signing of the North Atlantic Treaty meant that, after intervening twice in the previous 32 years to restore peace in Europe, the U.S. was finally committed to an international alliance in peacetime, focused on preventing war in the first place. That act shaped our foreign policy, politics, military spending, military structure, doctrine, equipment and military ethos for the years to come. It had a remarkable and salutary effect on helping to bring a shattered Europe together as a group of free and democratic states. Today it is our continuing commitment to NATO that prevents any further spillover of conflict as the Russian bear sharpens his claws, again, this time on Ukraine. NATO was created because of the wars of the 20th century, but it has kept the peace in Europe for longer than any time in the previous several centuries.

Richard W. Stewart is acting director at the Center of Military History in Washington, D.C., and chief historian of the U.S. Army. He is also president of the U.S. Commission on Military History, the U.S. arm of the International Commission on Military History. (These remarks are his own opinion, not the views of the U.S. Army, Department of Defense or the United States Government.)

By Clayborne Carson

On April 23, 1951, sixteen-year-old Barbara Johns led a walkout by four hundred black students to protest inadequate facilities at segregated Robert R. Moton High School in Farmville, Virginia. Vowing to boycott classes until the local all-white School Board addressed their complaints, Johns and another student wrote to an NAACP attorney, who agreed to file a lawsuit seeking desegregation instead of just improved facilities. This suit was eventually consolidated with four similar cases including Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas. Johns never became famous, but her protest prompted the Supreme Court&rsquos historic 1954 decision outlawing public school segregation.

Clayborne Carson is Martin Luther King, Jr., Centennial Professor and founding director of the Martin Luther King, Jr., Research and Education Institute at Stanford University.

By Jacqueline Jones

In September of 1955, Mose Wright took the witness stand in a Mississippi courtroom. Rising from his chair, he pointed a finger at one of the two men who had murdered his niece&rsquos son, Emmett Till. &ldquoThere he is,&rdquo said Wright, in an extraordinary act of personal courage. Till&rsquos killers were not convicted in 1955, but Till&mdasha teenager who his killers thought had flirted with a white woman&mdashstill changed the country. In Chicago, Till&rsquos mother, Mamie Bradley Till, insisted on an open casket at her son&rsquos funeral: She said she &ldquowanted the world to see&rdquo her son&rsquos mutilated corpse, battered beyond recognition. Magazines and newspapers ran the photo, signaling the power of shocking images as a new weapon in the generations-long struggle for black rights.

Jacqueline Jones is chair of the History department at the University of Texas at Austin and a two-time finalist for the Pulitzer Prize in history.

By Annette Gordon-Reed

The birth control pill was one of the most significant achievements of the 20th century. Contraception wasn&rsquot new: From ancient times, women have used methods of varying degrees of reliability to prevent getting pregnant. But the Pill, which was much more effective, transformed society. Americans began to think differently about sex, contraception and about women&rsquos capacity to control their own bodies and participate as truly equal members of society. Sex uncoupled from procreation, the freedom to choose when and if to become a mother, the ability for a woman to plan her life without fear of an unwanted pregnancy getting in the way&mdashthese opened the door for the liberation of women.

Annette Gordon-Reed is Charles Warren Professor of American Legal History at Harvard Law School, a Professor of History at Harvard University, Carol K. Pforzheimer Professor at the Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study and a winner of the Pulitzer Prize in history.

By Taylor Branch

The civil rights breakthrough in the 1960s required galvanizing the whole country, not just through rational arguments but by really breaking down people&rsquos emotional resistance and making citizens across the country see they needed to do something. The children&rsquos march really was the single event most responsible for inducing faraway people in Montana and Maine to say, &ldquoI need to do something about this.&rdquo Demonstrations spread like wildfire all across the country. It led to the March on Washington and it really pushed President Kennedy to propose what became the Civil Rights Act basically a month after those demonstrations.

I myself distinctly and vividly remember seeing those pictures and how deeply it affected me. I was thinking, &lsquoGosh, when I get old and responsible maybe I&rsquod do something about civil rights,&rsquo&mdashand the next thing I know I see these little kids marching right through fire hoses. It&rsquos a big emotional turning point that&rsquos still not widely analyzed, in part because it&rsquos embarrassing to adults to say that it took these pictures to make us finally do something. (As told to Lily Rothman)

Taylor Branch is the Pulitzer Prize-winning author of the America in the King Years books.

By Mary Frances Berry

The international newspaper and TV coverage of Buddhist monk Thích Quảng Đức burning himself to death during a demonstration in Saigon changed the course of the Vietnam War and of American life. In the immediate aftermath, it caused horror and a reassessment of policy, which eventually led to more American troops on the ground and in the air but also to more media coverage in which Americans could actually see the war. It encouraged draft dodging and antiwar protests, some of which led to violence. Its effects have been residual as well. It sparked a so-far-permanent distrust of our government, which said we were winning the war when the media showed we were actually not. It caused polarization in our society between those who thought we should support the war and those who didn&rsquot. In addition, the War on Poverty was interrupted because funds went to supporting the war, and it has never been restarted.

Mary Frances Berry is Geraldine R. Segal Professor of American Social Thought and Professor of History at the University of Pennsylvania. She has also served as a member and as chair of the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights, and as the United States&rsquo Assistant Secretary for Education. She is a past president of the Organization of American Historians and a fellow of the Society of American Historians.

By Stephanie Coontz

By 1964, little headway had been made in the women’s movement since winning the vote in 1920. So women’s rights supporters were delighted that year when Representative Howard Smith of Virginia offered a one-word amendment to Civil Rights Act, adding sex to the list of forms of discrimination prohibited by the act. Smith, a segregationist, opposed the bill&mdashbut he argued that if it passed, white women should get the same protections being extended to black men and women.

Many legislators hoped, and others feared, that adding gender equality would kill the entire bill. Even after its passage, the director of the newly-formed Equal Employment Opportunity Commission refused to enforce the sex clause, calling it “a fluke…conceived out of wedlock.”

Women’s fury at that refusal jump-started a wave of legal and political activism that forever changed the roles of women (and men) at work and at home.

Stephanie Coontz teaches at The Evergreen State College in Olympia Washington and is Director of Research at the Council on Contemporary Families. Recent books include Marriage, a History: How Love Conquered Marriage and A Strange Stirring: The Feminine Mystique and American Women at the Dawn of the 1960s.

By H.W. Brands

Barry Goldwater&rsquos campaign was floundering a week before the 1964 election. The candidate inspired none but the truest of believers the Republican regulars were dejectedly heading for the exits. In a desperate effort to energize donors, the campaign put a political unknown on television&mdashand Ronald Reagan proceeded to electrify the country. His 30-minute address, labeled &ldquoA Time for Choosing,&rdquo transformed the washed-up actor into the darling of conservatives and launched a political career that would carry Reagan to White House, revive American conservatism and push Soviet communism to the brink of dissolution.

H.W. Brands holds the Jack S. Blanton Sr. Chair in History at the University of Texas at Austin, and is the author of two Pulitzer-finalist works of history. He is also currently writing, on Twitter, the history of the United States in haiku.

By Vicki Ruiz

In a dramatic ceremony at the Statue of Liberty, President Lyndon Baines Johnson signed the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965, catalyzing an increase in cultural diversity in the United States. In the wake of the civil rights movement, the old restrictive quotas from the 1920s, which favored northern Europeans over southern Europeans, struck many Americans as anachronistic. President John F. Kennedy called this quota system &ldquointolerable.&rdquo The 1965 act was meant to promote family unification, level the field for lawful entry and ease the way for foreign-born professionals. Fifty years later, its impact can be seen at all levels of society. Today over 40 million foreign-born individuals live in the United States, about three-quarters of whom have legal status. They and their American-born children comprise nearly 25% of the U.S. population. &ldquoThe lady with the light&rdquo&mdashto quote one Cambodian refugee&mdashcontinues to burn bright.

Vicki L. Ruiz is Distinguished Professor of History and Chicano/Latino Studies at the University of California, Irvine, and the author of Cannery Women, Cannery Lives and From Out of the Shadows: Mexican Women in Twentieth- Century America. A fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, she is currently president of the American Historical Association.

By Roxanne Dunbar-Ortiz

While organizing for self-determination within Native Americans communities and nations had proceeded throughout the 1960s, few in the general public were aware until the November 1969 seizure and 18-month occupation of Alcatraz Island in San Francisco Bay. The occupation grabbed world-wide media attention. An alliance known as Indians of All Tribes was initiated by Native American students and relocated Natives living in the Bay Area. They built a thriving village on the island, which drew Indigenous pilgrimages from all over the continent and radicalized thousands, especially the youth. Treaties, self-determination, and land restitution returned to the national agenda, as the occupiers demanded implementation of international law. Negotiations ended the occupation when the Nixon administration agreed to amnesty for those involved.

Roxanne Dunbar-Ortiz is author of An Indigenous Peoples’ History of the United States.

By Khalil Gibran Muhammad

For much of the 20th century, unions, private employers and government agencies affirmatively discriminated based on race&mdashuntil, through workplace protests, public demonstrations and political negotiation, African Americans compelled Congress and President Richard Nixon to adopt affirmative action policies. In the late 1960s, the &ldquoPhiladelphia Plan,&rdquo inspired by a set of local initiatives in that city, set federal hiring benchmarks for proportional representation of African Americans in many skilled and white-collar jobs generated by government contracts. Though the idea was challenged, in 1971 the Supreme Court declined to hear an appeal, thus allowing the policy to stand and encouraging the growth of affirmative action.

Every sphere of American life transformed as a result. From college classrooms to corporate boardrooms, African Americans entered the middle-class in record numbers. White women and immigrants of color from around the globe also moved from the margins to the center of U.S. corporate culture. And the immediate and lasting impact of affirmative action has fueled nearly 40 years of conservative opposition and cries of &ldquoreverse discrimination&rdquo which remain at the heart of American political culture today.

Khalil Gibran Muhammad is director of the Schomburg Center For Research in Black Culture at the New York Public Library. He previously taught history at Indiana University and was an associate editor at the Journal of American History.

By Lizabeth Cohen

In June of 1978 the voters of California overwhelmingly passed Proposition 13, limiting local property taxes and making it harder for communities to raise them in the future. This 20th-century tax revolt opened the floodgates to other anti-tax ballot measures at the state level and initiated a general shift in popular opinion. This anti-tax reorientation has decreased the amount and quality of public services led to increases in alternative, regressive sources of taxation such as the sales tax and encouraged new kinds of inequalities such as between old and new homeowners, between residents able to afford privatized services and those not, and between communities with other sources of revenue to support schools and services and those without. On a broader scale, Proposition 13 represented a new unwillingness to view government as a provider of positive benefits to all members of a community and an embrace of more consumerist and individualized ways of securing services.

Lizabeth Cohen is dean of the Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study and Howard Mumford Jones Professor of American Studies at Harvard University.

By Tony Horwitz

The takeover of the U.S. embassy in Tehran set us down the track we&rsquore still on in the Middle East. Iranian militants held Americans hostage for 444 days while decrying the U.S. and demanding the return of the Shah and his riches. The crisis cemented Iran, a former ally, as our greatest foe in the region. It bound us more closely to Saudi Arabia and other Sunni regimes. It led us to build up Saddam Hussein&rsquos power as a bulwark against Iran&mdashand we know how that turned out. Thirty-six years after the takeover, Americans still regard Iranians as treacherous and cast Shi&rsquoites in general as extremists. U.S. impotence during the hostage crisis&mdashincluding a disastrous rescue attempt&mdashalso helped sink Jimmy Carter in the 1980 election. There&rsquos an intriguing what-if: had events played out differently in Iran, we might not have had Ronald Reagan as president.

Tony Horwitz is a winner of the Pulitzer Prize and the William Henry Seward Award for Excellence in Civil War Biography. He is currently the vice president of the Society of American Historians.

By Elizabeth Fenn

June 5, 1981. That’s the date that the CDC’s Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR) published an article titled “Pneumocystis Pneumonia–Los Angeles.” This succinct, two-page essay turned out to be the first published account of the AIDS epidemic. It described Pneumocystis carinii, a rare protozoan infection that exploits weak immune systems, as it had developed in five gay men. The years that followed brought untold suffering. But AIDS also ushered in a revolution in attitudes that has allowed us to talk about sexuality more frankly than ever before. In the end, ironically, this helped open the door to gay marriage.

Elizabeth Fenn is department chair and associate professor of history at the University of Colorado Boulder. Her book Encounters at the Heart of the World was awarded the 2015 Pulitzer Prize in History.

By Akira Iriye

The Americans With Disabilities Act formally recognized the fact that people who are disabled, physically as well as mentally, are part of society. Toward the end of the 20th century, the United States came face to face with the fact these people cannot simply be ignored. This is a very personal observation, because we have a daughter who was born with some brain damage. Just as racial desegregation was important, it&rsquos important that people with handicaps be recognized as full-fledged members of society. It&rsquos a progression toward recognizing all people of all categories. The idea that some people are different, we are much more tolerant about that, and that&rsquos one of the most major achievements of the 20th century. (As told to Lily Rothman)

Akira Iriye, a historian with interest in global, transnational affairs, is Charles Warren Research Professor of American History at Harvard.

By Julian Zelizer

In the 1994 midterm elections, Republicans&mdashled by Newt Gingrich&mdashtook control of Congress for the first time since 1954. Gingrich and his allies ran a masterful campaign that revolved around &ldquoThe Contract with America,&rdquo ten promises that the GOP vowed to enact if they took power. Their victory opened up the Republican Party to more conservative elements, and shaped the generations of Republicans who have dominated Capitol Hill since that time, even during the period of Democratic control. But the outcome of that election was not just important in terms of who controlled the majority of Congress, but also because it launched an era when conservatism would make the legislative branch, rather than the White House, the base of their power. Through legislative control and partisan tactics that had once been considered impermissible, the post-1994 congressional Republicans made it much more difficult for liberal ideas to succeed in the United States.

Julian Zelizer, a professor of history and public affairs at Princeton University, is the author and editor of numerous books on American political history. His most recent book is The Fierce Urgency of Now: Lyndon Johnson, Congress, and the Battle for the Great Society.

Re: Leibstandarte at Viitivtsi station (March 1944)

Post by GregSingh » 15 Feb 2016, 00:58

Re: Leibstandarte at Viitivtsi station (March 1944)

Post by Harro » 15 Feb 2016, 01:13

Re: Leibstandarte at Viitivtsi station (March 1944)

Post by GregSingh » 15 Feb 2016, 05:46

Just found Schewtschenki, it was on the road to Zirkuny. Now without a name part of Kharkov somewhere here: 50.017777, 36.329811, near Studentska subway station. But this one in on NE not NW from Kharkov.

Map shows Derhachi, Zirkuny, Schewtschenki and Kharkov.

Re: Leibstandarte at Viitivtsi station (March 1944)

Post by Harro » 15 Feb 2016, 23:05

Re: Leibstandarte at Viitivtsi station (March 1944)

Post by Harro » 16 Feb 2016, 10:33

Re: Leibstandarte at Viitivtsi station (March 1944)

Post by GregSingh » 16 Feb 2016, 11:16

Pidgorodnij - according to Kharkov's German map, yes, on the same road, but between Schewtschenki and city center.
Velyka Danylivka was between Tsyrkuny and Schewtschenki.

So they advanced from Tsyrkuny, passing Velyka Danylivka, Schewtschenki, Pidgorodnij. Next they had Tjurina and basically they were in the town.

Re: Leibstandarte at Viitivtsi station (March 1944)

Post by Harro » 16 Feb 2016, 11:29

Re: Leibstandarte at Viitivtsi station (March 1944)

Post by GregSingh » 16 Feb 2016, 12:39

Re: Leibstandarte at Viitivtsi station (March 1944)

Post by Harro » 23 Feb 2016, 20:07

Re: Leibstandarte at Viitivtsi station (March 1944)

Post by Harro » 24 Feb 2016, 00:37

Re: Leibstandarte at Viitivtsi station (March 1944)

Post by Harro » 24 Feb 2016, 00:40

Re: Leibstandarte at Viitivtsi station (March 1944)

Post by GregSingh » 24 Feb 2016, 00:48

"northern" Teterevino was just a single farm (khutor), in a place where a dirt road from Jasnaja Poljana met the main road as can be seen on your map.
A part of forest/swamp nearby still keeps the name.

Belenikhino was a train station back in 1943. It expanded into a village - between a rail line and Ivanovka.
Ivanovka still exists today.

Shilomostnoje is far to the east from Ivanovka, see you German map. Label belongs to the village right to it, not left.
Winogradowka is north of Ivanovka. All those villages still exist today.

Re: Leibstandarte at Viitivtsi station (March 1944)

Post by Harro » 24 Feb 2016, 00:57

Re: Leibstandarte at Viitivtsi station (March 1944)

Post by GregSingh » 24 Feb 2016, 01:01

Re: Leibstandarte at Viitivtsi station (March 1944)

Post by Harro » 24 Feb 2016, 01:04

The artillery barrage suddenly ended after two hours and when the smoke cleared and the shouts for ‘Sanitäter!’ (medics) grew louder Knittel’s men counted two dead and twenty eight wounded. The battalion had not even started its advance and meanwhile the enemy opposition the Leibstandarte faced grew stiffer and stiffer: the 6th Guards Army had been reinforced with tanks from the 1st Tank Army and the 2nd and 5th Guards Tank Corps, plus two infantry divisions which were all placed between the Leibstandarte and Pokrovka. After an attack by approximately twenty T-34 tanks was fended off the armoured spearhead of the Leibstandarte started its move from Yakovlevo to the northeast at 13.00hrs and after a mounted attack by the tanks, the armoured halftracks of SS-Sturmbannführer Peiper and the Aufklärungsabteilung the enemy was thrown out of northern Luchki by 16.00hrs. In pursuit of the fleeing defenders the ‘gepanzerte Gruppe’ of the Leibstandarte continued its thrust and in the evening it attacked and captured the Teterevino Farm, a large ‘Khutir’ (farmstead) west of Yasnaya Polyana not to be confused with the village of Teterevino located twelve kilometres to the south. SS-Untersturmführer Katzenbeißer’s platoon from the 2. (VW) Kompanie cleared the surrounding woods while the ‘gepanzerte Gruppe’ paused to regroup. According to his recommendation for the German Cross in gold Knittel decided to move on Kalinin, a ‘Kolkhoz’ (collective farm) near the Belenikhino railway station:

“After the attack of an armoured group on Teterevino [Knittel] moved to the southeast on his own initiative to establish contact with our neighbours on our right (Panzergruppe of the SS-Div. ‘Das Reich’) at Kalinin. Although the armoured halftracks received heavy anti-tank fire, Knittel pursued the attack at the head of his battalion, overran two anti-tank positions, broke into the enemy lines and eliminated a dangerous threat to [our] flank.”


Hide and Seek! SGT Paul Mascall, T/SGT George Sintetos, and PFC Albert Flagler, 37th Division search for Japanese snipers on March 8, 1944 as the Japanese counterattack the U.S. Army XIV Corps Cape Torokina perimeter. (WW2 Signal Corps Photograph Collection.)

Got a Light? PFC Emil Raths employs his flamethrower to destroy a Japanese pillbox as two other Soldiers provide covering fire as the 37th Division holds the line against the Japanese assault on the Cape Torokina perimeter, March 1944. (WW2 Signal Corps Photograph Collection.)

The Situation. Map of the XIV Corps Cape Torokina Perimeter on March 8, 1944. (Map by U.S. Army.)

Map of the Solomon Islands. (Map by U.S. Army.)

Steel Hunter! Soldiers of the U.S. Army XIV Corps supported by an M4 Sherman tank counterattack the Japanese assault on the Cape Torokina perimeter, March 1944. (WW2 Signal Corps Photograph Collection.)

L iving History:

WASHINGTON, March 8, 2009 -- The Allied Southwest Pacific Area Command stopped the Japanese advance at Guadalcanal in 1942 and began driving them out of the Solomon Islands. In the following year, it ordered the U.S. Marine 3rd Division, supported by the U.S. Army 37th Infantry Division, to conduct an amphibious forcible entry operation at Cape Torokina on the Empress Augusta Bay, Bougainville, in the Solomons on November 1, 1943. Unlike at Guadalcanal and New Georgia, the limited tactical plan for Bougainville called for U.S. forces to secure and hold a small (six-square mile) lodgment to allow for the construction of three strategic airfields. From there, continuous bombarding of the major Japanese land, air, and sea fortress at Rabaul, New Britain, 250 miles away could be conducted. Bougainville was a fetid, jungle covered, mountainous island, 125 miles long by 48 miles wide. Its six enemy airfields were defended by an estimated 40,000 Japanese soldiers of the 17th Army.

The initial landing of the U.S. Marine 3rd Division met limited resistance, and by the end of the day a solid beachhead had been secured. Over the next several days the beachhead was expanded, and by November 8, 1943, elements of the U.S. Army 37th Infantry Division began landing and securing the western portion of the beachhead with the Marines to the east. By December 15, 1943, the beachhead was approximately seven miles wide on the bay, and the perimeter had been expanded to a depth of approximately five miles inland, running semicircle for approximately 13 miles. Command of the operation rested with Major General Oscar W Griswold, Commanding the Army XIV Corps. By mid January 1944 all elements of the Army’s Americal Division had been landed and had relieved all remaining U.S. Marine units on the perimeter. The defense of the Cape Torokina lodgment was now totally an Army operation with the 37th Infantry Division defending the western half of the perimeter and the Americal Division defending the eastern half.

From the initial U.S. landings on November 1, the Japanese were preparing to conduct a bitter, bloody, and costly, cross-island battle. However, by mid January, 1944, it became apparent to General Harukichi Hyakutake, commanding the Japanese 17th Army, that the Americans would not conduct offensive operations but would focus on defending their small lodgment with their fully operational airfields. Under pressure from the Japanese High Command, General Hyakutake prepared for offensive operations against the U.S. Army perimeter, code named “Operation TA.” The plan called for 15,000 Japanese, to attack the thin defensive perimeter held by Americans. Three separate attacks were planned, beginning on March 8, 1944, with the largest attack directed against the far right sector of the 37th Infantry Division perimeter, centering on a key terrain feature known as Hill 700. The second prong of the Japanese attack was to strike the center of the Americal Division sector, and the third prong was to attack the center of the 37th Division sector. General Hyakutake was so confident of victory that he planned to conduct a ceremony for the unconditional surrender of the Americans, to include the exact spot where General Griswold would stand to “surrender his sword.”

At 0630 on March 8, 1944, the Japanese initiated the attack with an artillery barrage on the 145th Regiment sector. Throughout the day artillery fire continued to rain down on the three U.S. airfields and in support of Japanese probes of the 37th Infantry Division positions. In the early morning hours of March 9, covered by heavy rain and darkness, the Japanese fanatically attacked the 37th Infantry Division lines, massing as much as one battalion against a platoon front. Soldiers from the 2nd Battalion, 145th Infantry refused to yield and lived or died in place. The close quarter combat was vicious and desperate and fought with mortars, Browning Automatic Rifles, rifles, hand grenades, and knives. The Japanese onslaught eliminated one U.S. strongpoint after another. The line buckled but never gave way. By morning, the Japanese controlled the key terrain on Hill 700. The 37th Infantry Division committed its reserve for a counterattack, and forward observers told their supporting artillery to fire as close to their positions as possible. By the evening of the 10th the main line of resistance had been reestablished except for a 30 to 40 yard gap. In the early morning hours of the 11th, units of the Japanese 6th Division defiantly re-attacked Hill 700 in frenzied waves. The 37th Infantry Division Soldiers held their ground and annihilated the Japanese onslaught. Over the next sixteen days the right and left prongs of the Japanese attack were decisively destroyed by the Americal Division and the remainder of the 37th Infantry Division. During this nineteen-day struggle the XIV Corps lost 263 soldiers killed in action while killing an estimated 6,354 Japanese. In the words of Major General Robert Beightler, commanding the 37th Infantry Division, the American soldiers at Bougainville had “out-scouted, out-maneuvered, out-fought, and above all out-lived the best the Japanese had been able to throw against them.”

(Report by By Colonel James G. Pierce, Army Heritage and Education Center.)

The Black Death

Source: https://www.livescience.com/2497-black-death-changed-world.html

The Black Death, also known as the Bubonic Plague, earned its name by spreading across Europe and leaving thousands of dead bodies in its wake. By the end, 75 million people are estimated to have died. Afterward, with a human shortage in Europe, serfs could now have their pick of who to work for, resulting in better conditions for them and their families. People were much more bitter towards the Catholic Church, and anti-Semitism grew with many claiming the Jews started it in the first place.


Jim and Rae Tod were the parents of four children, three of whom lived to be married adults. These four children were the grand children of William John and Margaret (Saunders) Tod and Horace G. and Mabel (Warren) Adams.

The oldest of their children was Rae Antoinette Tod, who was born March 27, 1914 on the Tod Ranch at Maple Hill, Kansas. She enjoyed an ideal childhood on the Tod Ranch, where she was the apple of her grandfather Tod’s eye. Letters of Harry Fine, a guest on the ranch, speak to how W. J. Tod carried her about on his horse and bought her a pony to ride when she was only two.
I have not been able to find any mention of Rae Tod attending primary school grades in Maple Hill. Although I have no evidence, I’ve always wondered if her paternal grandmother, Margaret (Saunders) Tod was not her early teacher. Margaret Tod was head mistress of one of the most important girl’s schools in Edinburgh, Scotland prior to her marrying W. J. Tod and coming to Maple Hill. I wish I knew.

I do know that Rae Tod was enrolled at Bethany Girl’s School, which was a part of The College of the Sisters of Bethany in Topeka, Kansas. This was an Episcopal institution of learning which existed from 1861 until 1928. Girls boarded at the school from sixth grade through high school and at one point, there was also a college which offered bachelors degrees in education.
After graduation, Rae Tod attended Monticello College, in Alton, Illinois. Monticello was a very exclusive college for young women, which had been founded and funded by Captain Benjamin Godfrey and opened in 1834. Godfrey is famous for Monticello’s mission statement: “Educate a man and you educate the individual. Educate a woman and you educate a family.” Monticello is still a small liberal arts school today. Rae A. Tod was married to Doral Howard Hawks on March 1, 1939 Topeka, Kansas. Doral H. Hawks was the son of Howard Z. and Cleva Mary (Benton) Hawks. I’ll let this article from 1956 entitled “Builders of Topeka” tell the remainder of his story in the photograph section below.

I visited a few times with Rae (Tod) Hawks about the history of the Tod family during the 1970s. She had a great grasp of the family history and to her Grandfather Tod and Adam’s importance to the development of the livestock industry in Kansas and America. I wish I had been able to visit in person and see some of the materials she had collected.

As noted in the article on Doral H. Hawks, he and Rae (Tod) Hawks were the parents of three children: Rae Antoinette Tod and Nan Benton Hawks. All three are living today, but none within the State of Kansas.

Below is a copy of the obituary of Rae Antoinette Hawks:
Memorial services will be at noon Saturday at Grace Episcopal Cathedral for Mrs. Rae Antoinette Hawks, 67, 2612 W. 8th, Topeka, who died Wednesday at a Topeka Hospital.

She was born March 27, 1914, at Maple Hill, the daughter of James and Rae (Adams) Tod. She was the granddaughter of W. J. Tod and H. G. Adams, pioneer ranchers and cattlemen in Wabaunsee County. She attended Bethany Girls School, Topeka, and was graduated from Monticello College at Alton, Il. She also attended Washburn College, Topeka.

Mrs. Hawks was a member of Grace Episcopal Cathedral.
She was married to Doral H. Hawks March 1, 1939 at Topeka. He survives. Other survivors include two daughters, Mrs. Rae A. Winter and Mrs. Nan B. Berkholtz, both of Topeka, a son Tod H. Hawks, Topeka two brothers, Jack Tod Phoenix, Arizona and James Tod, Greer, Arizona and four grandchildren.
Mrs. Hawks was cremated. Inurement will be with her parents and grandparents in the Old Stone Church Cemetery, Maple Hill, Kansas. Memorial contributions may be made to the Kansas Lung Association. Penwell Gable Funeral Home is in charge of arrangements.

The next oldest surviving child of James and Rae (Adams) Tod is
James William Tod, who was born November 25, 1925 at Stormont Vail Hospital, Topeka, Kansas. He moved to Phoenix, Arizona with his parents before 1940 and attended high school at North High School, Phoenix, AZ. He was known as Jim Tod, and was very active in music, theater and school government. He was a First Lieutenant in the ROTC Club at NPH.

He was married in 1952 and he and his wife Martha Ann Tod, were active in many business and educational activities. Mr. Tod was owner and operator of Tod Liquor Store at 3827 N. 7th, in Phoenix. Mrs. Tod was born November 20, 1927 in Nogales, Arizona. Mrs. Tod attended Nogales High School where she was a member of the National Honor Society. She graduated from the University of Arizona with a degree in Science Education. She completed post graduate studies at the Arizona State University and Northern Arizona State University.

Mrs. Tod was a well-known and talented educator and taught in Phoenix, Paradise Valley and Springerville, Arizona during her long career.

Jim and Martha Ann Tod were the parents of five sons: James William Tod, III in 1953, William John Tod in 1955, Robert T. Tod in 1957, John M. Tod in 1959, and Gerald J. Tod in 1960. At this writing, I believe all to be living in Arizona.

Jim and Martha Tod were also involved in the Arizona tourist industry. Together, they built Antler Ridge, a series of guest houses, which they operated together for 21 years.

Jim Tod is 91 and living in Phoenix, Arizona. Martha Ann Tod passed away on March 1, 2012. Services were held at the Valley View Bible Church in Paradise Valley, Arizona.

The third and last child of James W. and Mabel Rae (Adams) Tod was John Horace Tod, born June 27, 1927 at Stormont Vail Hospital, Topeka, Kansas. Mr. Tod was always known as “Jack” Tod and never used the name John Horace. He did use his middle initial “H” sometimes.

He attended schools in Kansas and Arizona, and graduated from North High School in Phoenix, Arizona. He was involved in many school activities, and the ROTC Club at North High School. He was graduated from the University of Arizona, with a degree in Electrical Engineering.

Jack Tod was married to Susan Caroline James in the conservatory of her parent’s home in Tuscon, Arizona. “Caroline” James was the daughter of Robert Guy and Elma Sue (Cole) James. Mr. James was a prominent stock broker and civic leader in Tuscon. Jack and Caroline Tod has both just graduated from the University of Arizona.

Mr. Tod was an electrical engineer conducting research in the Motorola Laboratories in Phoenix for many years. If children were born to their union, I have not been able to find any record.
In the latter half of his life, Mr. Tod became one of the leading authorities on the history and manufacture of electrical glass and ceramic insulators. Here is an article I found about his work:
“Jack passed away on September 8, 1990. He was employed with Motorola Research Labs in Phoenix, AZ after graduating with an electrical engineering degree. Jack was also a prominent coin dealer in the U. S. and apparently was very successful. In the 1960’s he retired from Motorola after selling his coin business. He was also very interested in the local Indian culture and often demonstrated basket weaving techniques.

Jack became interested in porcelain insulators some time around the mid 1960’s. He was very inquisitive and started researching insulator manufacturers. He made many trips East to old plant sites to dig around for insulator shards and do research in area libraries and museums. He visited and corresponded with managers at all the major insulator manufacturers at that time and they helped him tremendously with what they could find in old files.
Jack’s first book, Porcelain insulators Guide Book for Collectors was published in 1971. It laid out a system of identifying and cataloging Unipart pin-type insulators using U-numbers. The book contained scale drawings, which Jack made himself, of more than 900 insulator styles plus histories of all manufacturers and the markings they used on insulators. In 1976, he published the 2nd edition of the book and, in 1988, the 3rd edition with more updated material.

In 1977, the culmination of years of research and examining old insulator factory sites Jack published his second book, The History of the Electrical Porcelain Industry in the United States. Jack’s curiosity led him to acquire a huge amount of information that was quickly being lost to time. His own words describe why he wrote the book:
“This book was also born out of fear – a fear that the vast amount of data I have accumulated might be accidentally lost to future historians. I might die, or the house containing the files might burn down! It thus became of paramount importance to stop being curious long enough to draw a line on the research and publish the key information already at hand.”

In 1985 he also published a book about the more important insulator related patents: Insulator Patents 1880 – 1960. This is a publication of his entire personal file covering 695 insulator patents. Elton Gish has taken Jack’s patent research and expanded it to more than 2400 patents.

Jack started editing the Porcelain Insulator News column in November, 1971, which appeared regularly in the hobby magazine, Crown Jewels of the Wire. He continued as editor until his last column appeared in the June, 1984 issue.

Jack helped Marilyn Albers with her books on Woldwide Porcelain Insulators by making all the scale drawings and laying out the U-chart for foreign porcelain insulators. In her announcement of the new foreign glass chart titled Glass Insulators from Outside North America, Marilyn wrote, “Without Jack Tod’s beautiful drawings there would not have been a design chart at all, so I am most indebted to him for his help.”

When Jack and Marilyn unveiled their book Worldwide Porcelain Insulators – 1986 Supplement, Marilyn also wrote “Now you will be able to see a total of 230 scale drawings of foreign glass insulators, beautifully done by Jack, as well as representative traced markings.”

Jack also served the NIA as Chairman of the By-Laws Committee from 1976 to 1984.

He has been duly recognized for his contributions, having received the NIA Outstanding Service Award in 1979 and, together with wife Caroline, the NIA’s highest honor, Lifetime Membership, in 1984.”

John Horace “Jack” Tod passed away on September 8, 1990 and his wife, Susan Caroline (James) Tod passed away June 20, 1996 at Wickenburg, Arizona.

In the next post, I will write about Helen Olney Adams, the fourth child of Horace Greeley and Mabel Gertrude (Warren) Adams.

Photo One - Information about Doral H. Hawks
Photo Two - Photograph of Doral H. Hawks
Photo Three - Photograph of Jack H. and James W. Tod from the Phoenix North High School Yearbook - 1944
Photo Four - Photograph of Martha Ann Tod

Maple Hill, Kansas: Its History, People, Legends and Photographs

Maple Hill Train Wrecks – 1900 to 1902

Ted Hammarlund was going through some family photographs recently and came across two that depict train wrecks near Maple Hill. I easily found a newspaper article about the November 12, 1900 train wreck but after going through all of the local newspapers for 1902, week by week, I wasn’t able to find an article about a wreck occurring near Maple Hill.

I don’t consider the search a waste of time, because it allows me to obtain a “picture” of what was occurring in Maple Hill during 1902. It was very interesting and will no doubt be the subject of future articles on the Maple Hill page.

It was interesting to read about the vast number of train wrecks across America (and abroad) that were reported in the pages of the Alma Enterprise and the Alma Signal. During 1900 and 1902 there were hundreds of train derailments that killed hundreds of people and thousands of cattle, sheep, horses and hogs. It was obvious to me that traveling by train was not as safe as I had thought at that time. As one might expect, most of the accidents were caused by human error followed closely by mechanical and equipment failure. It was also easy to determine that riding in the engine and caboose were the two most dangerous places. Most of the deaths occurred in those two train locations.

The first photograph was taken following a wreck on November 2, 1900. Here is the article:

“Monday, November 2nd, at 8:15am while the local freight, eastbound, Train Number 32, pulled by engine 456, was switching, an eastbound extra pulled by engine 469, scheduled to run at 46 miles per hour, but running at the rate of ten miles per hour, ran into the caboose which with a flat ar and three boxcars was at a curve one-quarter mile west of Maple Hill. One of the crew of #32 had gone back the required distance and flagged the extra but the brakes of the latter would not work.

When within a short distance of #32, the engineer reversed his engine and then both he and the fireman jumped. Mrs. Lou Coleman of Maple Hill, and the conductor of #32 were the only occupants of the caboose and they escaped just in the nick of time.

When the crash came the coupling between the flat car and box cars was thrown out and the three boxcars shot down the track, while the caboose and flat car were completely demolished. The engine jumped the trace and was badly wrecked, one side of the tender remained on the ties, but after repeated efforts to set it back on the track, it had to be turned over into the ditch.

The work train from Topeka in charge of roadmaster Sullivan, arrived on the scene at noon and at 1:15pm the track was cleared and ready for traffic. At 9:00 pm the remains of the caboose and flat cars were burned by the railroad hands while the engine was hoisted onto flat cars by crane and hauled off the following day.

It is lucky indeed that no one was injured in the accident. The local freight #32 was in charge of engineer, Jack Slater, and conductor Frank Enerton, while the extra was in charge of engineer Buskirk and conductor Vanscoy.”

Ted said that on the back of the photograph was written: “West of Maple Hill toward the McClelland Farm. Joe Romick and Ed Chapman.”

The second photograph has the following written on the back:

“1902 – East of Maple Hill near Mill Creek Bridge.” From the photograph, it would appear that the wreck occurred during the summer because there are leaves on the trees. The wreck is near the bridge across Mill Creek, at or near the junction of the Maple Hill/Willard and Bouchey Roads. I wasn’t able to find any further information.

Thanks to Ted Hammarlund for providing the photos and captions.

Photo 1 - The 1900 Train Wreck

Photo 2 - The 1902 Train Wreck

Maple Hill, Kansas: Its History, People, Legends and Photographs

Remembering and Honoring Maple Hill’s Own Lt. Col. Mabel Hammarlund on Memorial Day 2021

This coming weekend will be the federal Memorial Day observance when all those who have served in the Armed Forces of the United States will be thanked and paid respect by millions of Americans. One of those who will be honored at the Old Stone Church was born at Maple Hill, Kansas, raised on a farm four miles west of town, educated at the Thayer School District #57 and Maple Hill High School, was a life-long nurse, and served in the United States Army most of her career. I am speaking of Lt. Col. (Retired) Mabel Hammarland.

Mabel was the daughter of Oscar Theodore and Lillie Belle (Miller) Hammarlund and was the sixth of eight children, born on November 2, 1910. Mabel’s siblings were Cecilia born 1901, Easter born 1902, Charles Arthur Nels born 1903, Ella Elna born in 1906, Milton Oscar born 1908, Robert Everett born 1913 and Henry Howard born 1919. Cecilia and Easter Hammarlund died as infants and are buried in the family plot at the Old Stone Church.
I will write a second article about the Hammarlund Family, but the intent of this post is to focus on Mabel and her distinguished career and life.

Mabel Hammarlund was born on November 2, 1910, on the Warren/Crouch Farm, three miles west of Maple Hill, Kansas. Her parents were Oscar Theodore and Lillie Belle (Miller) Hammarlund. At the time of her birth, the family lived in what was formerly the parsonage of the Eliot Congregational Church (Old Stone Church) which was located across the road north of the W. W. Cocks/Grant Romig stone house. The house burned in 1924, when the William Mitchell family lived there. Oscar farmed for the Warren and Crouch families and was also the road maintenance man for the Vera-Maple Hill Road. In 1921, Oscar and Lillie Hammarlund moved 1.5 miles west and rented the Albert and Ellen (Cheney) Thayer farm of 320-acres. The Hammarlund family would remain on that farm for more than four decades.

Mabel and her siblings were like other farm children, helping their parents with the chores and responsibilities that come with caring for a large farm. Her older sister Ella and Mabel helped their mother with household responsibilities, cooking, washing, ironing, cleaning, and other duties. Like her brothers and sisters, Mabel began school by walking down Vera road to the south and attending the Thayer School District #57, on the banks of Mill Creek. The school building still exists but has been extensively remodeled, enlarged, and is a part of the Imthurn Ranch. Oscar T. Hammarlund was a member of the District #57 school board from 1910 until 1925 and was chair of the board several of those years. Miss Annie Crouch, Superintendent of Wabaunsee County Schools often commended District #57 for maintaining their school building and providing a barn, two outhouses, and play equipment.
Mabel went to the town school, Maple Hill High School, where she graduated with honors in 1928. As with many rural students, Mabel boarded at the Clements Hotel on Maple Hill’s Main Street while she attended high school. According to a Maple Hill News Item in 1928, Mabel was working on Saturdays and evenings as a clerk in Frank Steven’s General Store.

I haven’t been able to learn what Mabel was doing between 1928 and 1930, but in September 1930, she enrolled in Christ’s Hospital School of Nursing in Topeka, Kansas where she took a three-year course and graduated, again with honors, as a Registered Nurse. According to her nephew, Dr. Marion Hammarlund (now 92 years old) she worked for several years in the Topeka Public Health Department after graduation. He said that the family always worried about her because she had to go out and visit families when there was illness and decide whether or not they should be quarantined. She later worked for the Genn Hospital in Wamego, Kansas. Dr. Hammarlund said that she would take him and his cousins to work with her as a special treat. He remembered that she would give them a bottle of pop in the car to keep them entertained. When they would cross a railroad track, Mabel would make them put their bottle of pop between their knees so they couldn’t chip their teeth. While Mabel worked at Genn, she paid for Dr. Hammarlund and his cousins to have their tonsils taken out. She believed that tonsils were the cause of much illness. Marion has many fond memories of his Aunt Mabel.

When WWII began, Mabel decided to enlist as a second lieutenant in the Army Nurse Corps. Anyone who had successfully completed a registered nursing course at an accredited institution was automatically enlisted as an officer. Mabel’s official record of service is over 20 pages long, but let it suffice to say that she was stationed in many locations during the war and after, serving as a nurse in various hospitals. In one article I read, it stated that when the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor in 1941, there were 5,300 nurses in the Corp and when the war concluded in 1945, there were 55,000. No nurse was ever drafted into service, but all volunteered. Later on, when Mabel was an administrator in the Army Nurse Corps, she was always interested in nurse recruitment, making sure that they were paid appropriately and that Congress passed acts ensuring that nurses could be promoted to ever higher ranks as was merited. There are several newspaper and magazine articles in that regard.

After the war ended, Mabel must have decided that she was going to make Army nursing a career, because she began to structure her tenure in such a way that she became a nursing administrator rather than a clinical nurse. Mabel was assigned to several posts over the next 10 years in which she handled administrative duties and advanced in rank from a second lieutenant to a lieutenant, then captain, major, and finally Lt. Coronel. She was made a Lt. Coronel in 1958 when she was serving as Army Nurse Corp Special Force Nurse at Ft. Hood in Texas. Her next promotion brought her to the apex of her career when she was appointed Army Nurse Corp, Fourth Army Head Nurse, with responsibility for most nursing in the southern half of the United States. Her final assignment took her to Europe where she was the Army Nurse Corp, European Theater Head Nurse, in charge of all army nurses in Europe. Congress had not yet made it possible for women to hold the rank of General in the Nursing Corp, so Mabel was among 8 women that held the rank of Lt. Colonel. Mabel retired on December 31, 1963 after serving 21 years.

On September 18, 1963, President John F. Kennedy ordered and Congress approved, the awarding of the Legion of Merit to Lt. Col. Mabel Hammarlund for the performance of outstanding services to the Government of the United States from August 1955 to December 1963, reflecting her service in World War II and Korea. The Legion of Merit was at that time the highest honor that could be bestowed upon a living female service member. There were nurses who were killed in action and received the Purple Heart and the Congressional Medal of Honor.

I know of no other service person from Maple Hill, Kansas that has received a Legion of Merit award.

After Mabel retired, she returned to Topeka, Kansas where she bought a home and moved her parents there to live with her. Mabel was not finished nursing, however. In 1964, she became a member of the Topeka Unified School District’s School Nursing Corp and served until retiring in 1974, rounding out a superb career of nearly 40 years in healthcare.

I would consider myself an acquaintance of Mabel’s, but those of us who knew her will remember her as a rather quiet, unassuming, often gregarious, attentive to family, gracious, lady. Her father, Oscar Hammarlund died in 1963 after he and wife Lillie had celebrated their 60th Wedding Anniversary in 1960. Lillie Hammarlund died in 1981 at the age of 101. Both are buried in the Maple Hill Cemetery at the Old Stone Church. Mabel Hammarlund died a year before her mother, on August 8, 1980. All are buried in the Hammarland Plot at the Old Stone Church. Mabel has a plain marble military tombstone as she would have wanted.

Although Mabel has been deceased for more than 40 years, it is important on this Memorial Day that we pause to remember her contribution to nursing, to the Army Nurse Corp and to the United States of America. Thank you Mabel and Rest In Peace!!

1. The Hammarlund Family, this photo was taken on the occasion of Oscar and Lillie's 50th Wedding Anniversary in 1950. Oscar and Lillie Belle (Miller) Hammarlund are seated in front. Standing behind them L-R are Ella and Mabel Hammarlund. Standing in the third-row L-R are Oscar Milton, Charles Arthur, Robert Everett, and Howard Henry Hammarlund.

2. The Albert Thayer stone house, built-in 1874 four miles west of Maple Hill. The Hammarlunds lived in this house and rented the farm from 1921 until they moved to Topeka in 1963.

3. Christ's School of Nursing, Topeka, Kansas. This is where Mabel Hammarlund took nurses training and lived from 1930-1933.

4. Genn Hospital, Wamego, Kansas. Mabel Hammarlund worked as a registered nurse at Genn Hospital during the late 1930s.

5. - 11. These are all photographs of Mabel Hammarlund taken during her Army Nurse Corp career.

12. This photograph is of the Topeka Unified School District School Nurses. Mabel Hammarlund is in the top row, far left.

13. Mabel Hammerland, taken after retirement from the Army Nurse Corp, in her Topeka home on Saline Street.

14. Mabel Hammarlund's military headstone in the Maple Hill Cemetery at the Old Stone Church.

Many thanks to Ted Hammarlund, nephew of Lt. Col. Mabel Hammarlund, for providing the photographs for this post.

Maple Hill, Kansas: Its History, People, Legends and Photographs

Nicholas Clark ‎You Know You're From Wabaunsee County When.

I always get very upset with myself when I don't attend Memorial Day Services at the Old Stone Church. What a wonderful collection of memories I have surrounding all the years I have been able to attend. I wrote a story about my experiences a few years ago and I'll share it with you now.

Decoration Day Fifty Years Ago
By: Nick Clark – May 24, 2003

As I awoke this morning to find bright sunlight streaming through my window, I couldn’t help thinking that had it been fifty years ago, my mother would have been tugging at my toe and urging me to, “Get up. We need to get the jars in the car, pick flowers and get going to the cemeteries.” The next day, Sunday, would be Decoration Day, and we weren’t the only ones hurrying around—nearly every household in Maple Hill and the surrounding countryside would be doing the same thing.

By the time breakfast was over, my grandmother, Mildred McCauley Corbin would be in our kitchen, as well as my Aunt Bonnie Mitchell and at different times, others of our family and neighbors. My paternal grandmother, “Central” Mable Clark, was always running the telephone switchboard located in her home so she would send jars the night before to take to the cemeteries where her relatives were buried.

It was an important day for the entire community. It was a day to remember and honor the lives of all ancestors, but especially those who had served in the Armed Forces. Decoration Day began on May 5, 1868 when the Grand Army of the Republic (an organization honoring those who served in the Union Army) held a ceremony at Arlington National Cemetery. Mrs. Ulysses S. Grant, wife of the President, gave a stirring address lauding the deeds of brave soldiers who had “served in blue” during the war between the states. After the speech making had been completed, orphans of soldiers and sailors paraded into the cemetery with baskets of flowers, strewing them on the more than 20,000 newly occupied graves. As years passed the ceremony was echoed through the entire country and became a part of the fabric of our nation’s ceremonial history.

As America engaged in other wars over time, the occasion took on significance and also changed names. After World War I, the observance became known as Memorial Day and in 1971, Congress at the urging of President Lyndon Johnson, made Memorial Day an official holiday to honor those who served in America’s Armed Forces. Although I had certainly heard or read the term Memorial Day, I don’t remember my family calling it anything other than Decoration Day until I was grown.

Activity in the household would increase on those Saturday mornings, as we loaded jars into the trunk of my grandmother Corbin’s car (as I recall a 1953 Ford). We would take big gallon jars of water along and in later years, rolls of foil to wrap around the jars. Then we would proceed to the home gardens of various family members and pick fresh flowers to put in the jars placed on graves. My great grandmother, Jeanetta Reinhardt Jones, always had beautiful big boughs of spirea. The little white crowns of flowers were striking in bouquets. We would then proceed to my Aunt Bonnie Mitchell’s home and pick up the bucket or two of multi-colored iris that she had picked earlier. My Grandmother Clark would have supplied Iris of various colors from the Central Office garden. She also had big tall spikes of larkspur in pink, purple and blue. Grandmother Corbin had a beautiful climbing red rose, a “Mary Perkins,” which bloomed early and was beautiful to include as a highlight in bouquets. All these ladies furnished varieties of colored peonies. When finished, the car would look like one following a hearse to a funeral. We would then set off to the cemeteries where various relatives were buried.

We often went to the Uniontown/Greene Cemetery southeast of Willard, Kansas first. In that cemetery are buried my paternal great great grandfather Francis Marion Jones, and my great grandmother Virgia Miller Jones, and my great uncle Louis Jones. They were the grandfather, mother and brother of Mable Clark. The cemetery was small and was usually well kept by the Greene and Viergiver Families, who lived nearby. But as they aged, the cemetery fell into an unkempt condition and it was always tricky getting into the graves without the fear of SNAKES! Great great grandfather had served in the Civil War, had a Civil War headstone and also a GAR marker. It was important that we “decorate” his grave. Always mixed in with the placing of flowers was the telling of family stories and talk of their military service. It was a great time to be 10-years-old and hear those accumulated memories—a real treasure.

Then we would usually go back to Maple Hill via gravel road, trying our best not to upset the buckets of flowers or slosh water into the trunk and back seat—where I was crowded between giant sprays of iris, peonies and larkspur. Our destination was the Old Stone Church Cemetery west of Maple Hill.

There we drove up and down the avenues of eastern red cedar trees, stopping at the graves of the Clark, Corbin, Mitchell, Lemon, Jones, and McCauley Families as well as at the graves of others who might not have family members living nearby. It was always a courtesy of many families to decorate the graves of dear friends or long-gone families. The James Elmer Romick American Legion Post members would be visiting the graves of veterans and placing little metal American Legion plaques on the graves of soldiers. In each plaque was placed a tiny America Flag.

In the evening, we would usually go to Bethlehem Cemetery, south of Paxico, where we would place flowers on the graves of Clark relatives. Sometimes, not always, we would go to the Vera Community and stop at the graves of Albert and Martha Graham Phillips, who were buried in the pasture across the road from the home of Merle and Nora Lietz. They were the parents of my cousin, Mable Phillips Herron (Mrs. Jack). They were struck by lightening and killed in their carriage in the 1870s. The horses were not injured and carried their bodies home. The telling of that morbid but fascinating story would then occupy the return trip to Maple Hill.

In my high school years (1958-1962,) the Maple Hill Community Congregational Church had a very active youth group composed of junior and senior high
young folks. Although I don’t recall the exact numbers, I would estimate that there were 20 to 30 in regular attendance. During my memory, the Pilgrim Fellowship Group was led and supervised by Jack and Bill Warren—sons of William Warren, a charter member of MHCCC. The Warren brothers lived on a farm three miles west of Maple Hill and would usually bring their farm truck into town and meet PFG members at the newly constructed Parish Hall. We would load folding chairs, a huge upright piano, hymnals, the big original bible, lectern stands and sometimes we would take the old original chairs from the church alter. Warner Adams and other men were always on hand to help. This moving was necessary because most of the original Stone Church furnishings had been destroyed in a tragic fire on May 12, 1952.

Although only seven at the time, I remember the Stone Church fire because it was one of those major community events that is vividly recalled to the minds of most of those who witnessed it. Ivan Yount and Walter “Punt” Romick were trimming cedar trees at the cemetery and had piled a stack of sheared limbs at the north side of the cemetery property, a good 300 yards from the building. Limbs had been burned before in the same way and the distance was presumed to be safe. Nothing burns with more vigor than red cedar and when the pile was lighted there were only light winds from the south. Suddenly gusts of wind began, the direction changed to the north and the sparks were carried to the wooden shingles of the church before anything could be done to prevent it.

I was just completing the second grade at Maple Hill Grade School and was spending a pleasant spring day at my Grandmother Corbin’s farm home located one and one-half miles southwest of Maple Hill. We were planting beans in the garden. All of a sudden, we heard the old wall telephone in the kitchen begin to continuously ring in short bursts. That was a sign to immediately “pick up” on the eight-party line, because there was something of dire importance that needed the attention of the entire community. Grandmother hurried to the house where the voice on the phone was that of my other grandmother, Mable Clark at the Central Office. She was notifying the community that help was needed at the church fire. Punt Romick and Ivan Yount had driven one-quarter mile to the Romick home, and had phoned in the alarm.

Grandfather Corbin had taken the car at the time, and we had no way to go to the fire, but we could clearly see the cemetery from the farm and could also see the column of black smoke rising high into the sky. My grandmother just sat down on the back steps and buried her head in her big apron and wept. Pretty soon, we heard someone calling to us from the road and it was Mrs. Ella Yount, Ivan’s mother, who had walked the quarter mile to my grandmothers. They both sat on the steps and wept in each others arms while I looked on—stunned. The decades-old shingles were consumed within minutes and it was only through heroic efforts that the original pump organ, pulpit and a few other treasures were saved.

The Old Stone Church Cemetery Board had raised enough money immediately following the fire to replace the roof, floor, windows and front doors. Topeka architect, Charles Marshall, cousin of Mrs. Warner Adams, donated his time to plan the restoration. Services were held in the building’s shell until 1962, when some of Maple Hill’s older citizens joined forces with the Pilgrim Youth Group to raise funds for the restoration of the Old Stone Church interior. Emily Adams made long lists of local and distant people whose relatives had attended the Old Stone Church. From January through May, I went to the Adam’s home and typed letters on an old portable Royal typewriter. Miss Adams furnished the stationary, envelopes and stamps. The response was overwhelmingly favorable. My only regret, is that the letters that accompanied donor checks were not saved as they were a tribute to the love of the Old Stone Church, held so dearly by early church and community pioneers.

Although the outer structure of the church had been replaced, the interior plaster had never been removed from the walls and that would require tedious labor. At the urging of Jack and Bill Warren, the PFG decided to spend weekends taking the old plaster off the walls. Scaffolding was placed inside and we all brought our claw hammers and worked long hours removing plaster which had been applied directly to the stone walls. We would go home in the evening with hair stiff from plaster dust. Our mothers brought lunch to the church and we had grand times playing games and exploring the cemetery. I am going to be sorry that I ever tried to list names, and my apologies to those I have omitted because of memory loss, but I recall the following helping with plaster removal: Mary Sue Kitt, Janice Yount, Patty Holmes, Norris and Horace Hoobler, Art and Kathryn Adams, Rod and Cathy Say, Eugene and Karen Travis, Tracy and Larry Ables, Larry and Lana Schulte, Mike Turnbull, Bill, Art and Ruth Ann Raine, Linda and Terry Ungeheuer, Allen and Loren Lett, Trudi and Marcia Mee, Claudia and Kenny Arnold, Larry and Cheryl Oliver, Eula and Beulah Adams, Dean and Jean Adams, and Ronnie and Herb Crawshaw.

Ronnell Bennett, a Black plasterer from Alma, Kansas was employed to put on three good coats of plaster. Mr. Bennett had learned his trade from pioneer German plasterers and had an excellent reputation. The workmanship was superb and his work remains in good condition today. I don’t remember the exact cost of the total restoration, but I do remember that Miss Adams and I were delighted when the bank account approached $4,000.00. Special thanks is owned to Ann Gorbet Adams and her father, John Gorbet, who provided expertise in choosing colors of stain for the floor and paint for the wall. In addition, the Hammarlund Family donated a beautiful cross for the front of the sanctuary that was made from the historic timbers of the St. Marys Congregational Church, St. Marys, Kansas.

After the plastering was completed, there was about $300 or $400 left in the account. Miss Adams read in the Topeka Capital-Journal that the Jewish Synagogue was being remodeled and that they had oak pews for sale. The individual that was in charge of the remodeling was Shoal Pozez, who was just starting a brand new company we know today as, PayLess Shoes. I drove Emily Adams to Topeka where we met Mr. Pozez at the Synagogue. Emily told him the story of our efforts to restore the Old Stone Church and he said, “We want to help. These are $100 pews but we’ll let you have them at the bargin price of $20 each.” I don’t recall exactly how many we purchased but it seems there were 15 or 20. Warner Adams and Jack and Bill Warren made the trip to Topeka with their trucks where we loaded the pews and took them to Maple Hill. These were massive pews in good condition, which would today cost $500 each or more—if they could even be made. And so it is—that the Old Stone Church has pews that were in a Jewish Synagogue for the first 100 years of their existence!

One of the last events in the restoration was the placing of the bell in the tower. The original church bell had been destroyed in the church fire. As I recall, Don and Hattie McClelland had the old bell from the Maple Hill Grade School at their home and donated it to be used at the Old Stone Church. The bell was extremely heavy and it required many men and special pulleys to wrench it into place. There were smiles and cheers all around when the clear peals of that bell were once again heard across the Mill Creek Valley. Everyone took turns pulling on the long sisal rope. The tower roof was then completed and the church was ready for Decoration Day Services.

The interior of the Old Stone Church was usually decorated with flowers by Emma Jeanne and Wanda Adams, sisters-in-law. Emma Jeanne and Warner Adams had beautiful flower gardens at their home in north Maple Hill. Emma Jeanne brought large wicker baskets of peonies, iris and spirea while Wanda (Mrs. Arthur Adams) would usually go to the pastures and pick all manner of wildflowers. Each of the big windows would have containers of flowers while there were one or two baskets at the front.

Lois Hammarlund was the church pianist at the time and it was the bain of her existence to have to play the old piano that had been badly water damaged during the fire. The keys didn’t all work, some stuck together, but somehow, with God’s inspiration and her natural musical talent, she was able to make beautiful music. The choir would either go to the Old Stone Church and rehearse on Saturday or early Sunday before services.

My Grandfather, Robert Corbin, and my uncles were members of the American Legion and were a part of the Presentation of Colors Ceremony when the American flag, the American Legion Flag, and the Christian Flag where carried into the church. At my earliest memories, there were probably 25 or 30 men who wore their military uniforms and participated. Just prior to services, the Legion members would march in front of the west side of the church and fire a salute to fallen soldiers. Taps would be played and tears would be shed as memories of loved ones were recalled. Then the men would bring the flags inside the church, and the church services would begin. The church was always packed so full that many times people would either stand near the windows on the outside or would just walk through the graveyard, visiting with friends and relatives who had come from a distance to decorate family graves.

Warner Adams, who took his mother’s position on the cemetery board at her death in 1946, served in that capacity for four decades. It was always Warner’s job to walk among the families and to take an offering to help pay for cemetery upkeep. In those days, the Cemetery Association didn’t have much money and the Memorial Day contributions were important in being able to keep the cemetery mowed and the church in good repair. Warner always carried his hat and people put their contributions into his hat.

And so it is—that 50 years have passed since the days of my youth. In that half century, “times” have become quicker and less melancholy while long-held traditions have changed. My dear mother, Lucille Clark, now 82, and many of her generation still do their best to carry on but the grandeur of Decoration Day Weekend fifty years ago are now just cherished memories.

1. The Old Stone Church, Maple Hill, Kansas
2. The Avenue of Flags honoring veterans.
3. The view from the front steps of the church looking west towards Buffalo Mound.


  1. Brogan


  2. Webbe

    Thank you for choosing information. Now they know me.

  3. Renneil

    Unambiguously, the quick answer :)

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