Review: Volume 43 - Military History

Review: Volume 43 - Military History

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For armchair admirals, history buffs, and naval enthusiasts everywhere, "A Naval Miscellany" is an indispensible and entertaining collection of fascinating and little-known facts, anecdotes, lists, curiosities and stories from our naval past. Forgotten heroes, amazing blunders, surprising trivia, and strange-but-true stories are all included. Who were the naval heroes of the ancient world, and the world's worst admirals? How much did a midshipman get paid in the eighteenth century? What are the origins of sea shanties? Where are the biggest naval bases in the world today? And how does a ship float? It's all here in this little book that will amaze and enlighten even the most avid student of naval history!

Alex de Quesada reveals the full history of the US Coast Guard throughout World War II in this Elite title. In particular, the book draws attention to the little-known story of how the US Coast Guard ran a number of the landing craft throughout D-Day in 1944 as well as providing crucial anti-U-boat patrols throughout the war years. A number of Coast Guard servicemen were lost in these two campaigns, and their undeniable contribution to the US war effort deserves greater recognition. The Coast Guard also provided aviators and gunners to the Merchant Marine and manned Port Security Services. These roles are all fully explained and illustrated with rare photographs and specially commissioned artwork.

During the 19th century Britain entered into three brutal wars with Afghanistan, each one saw the British trying and failing to gain control of a warlike and impenetrable territory. The first two wars (1839-42 and 1878-81) were wars of the Great Game; the British Empire's attempts to combat growing Russian influence near India's borders. The third, fought in 1919, was an Afghan-declared holy war against British India - in which over 100,000 Afghans answered the call, and raised a force that would prove too great for the British Imperial army. Each of the three wars were plagued by military disasters, lengthy sieges and costly engagements for the British, and history has proved the Afghans a formidable foe and their country unconquerable. This book reveals the history of these three Anglo-Afghan wars, the imperial power struggles that led to conflict and the torturous experiences of the men on the ground. The book concludes with a brief overview of the background to today's conflict in Afghanistan, and sketches the historical parallels.

From his seat in Xanadu, the great Mongol Emperor of China, Kubla Khan, had long plotted an invasion of Japan. However, it was only with the acquisition of Korea, that the Khan gained the maritime resources necessary for such a major amphibious operation. Written by eastern warfare expert Stephen Turnbull, this book tells the dramatic story of the two Mongol invasions of Japan that pitted the masters of the steppes against the noble Samurai. Using detailed maps, illustrations, and newly commissioned artwork, Turnbull charts the history of these great campaigns, which included numerous bloody raids on the Japanese islands, and ended with the famous kami kaze, the divine wind, that destroyed the Mongol fleet and would live in the Japanese consciousness and shape their military thinking for centuries to come.

Rangers in North America served in the 17th and 18th-century wars between colonists and Native American tribes. Regular soldiers were not accustomed to frontier warfare and so Ranger companies were developed. Rangers were full-time soldiers employed by colonial governments to patrol between fixed frontier fortifications in reconnaissance, providing early warning of raids. In offensive operations, they were scouts and guides, locating villages and other targets for task forces drawn from the militia or other colonial troops. [ citation needed ]

The father of American ranging is Colonel Benjamin Church (c. 1639–1718). [2] He was the captain of the first Ranger force in America (1676). [3] Church was commissioned by Plymouth Colony Governor Josiah Winslow to form the first ranger company for King Philip's War. He later employed the company to raid Acadia during King William's War and Queen Anne's War.

Benjamin Church designed his force primarily to emulate Native American patterns of war. Toward this end, he endeavored to learn from Native Americans how to fight like Native Americans. [2] Americans became rangers exclusively under the tutelage of the Indian allies. (Until the end of the colonial period, rangers depended on Indians as both allies and teachers.) [4] Church developed a special full-time unit mixing white colonists, selected for frontier skills, with allied Native Americans to carry out offensive strikes against hostile Native Americans in terrain where normal militia units were ineffective.

Under Church served the father and grandfather of two famous rangers of the eighteenth century: John Lovewell and John Gorham, respectively. [5] Rogers' Rangers was established in 1751 [6] by Major Robert Rogers, who organized nine Ranger companies in the American colonies. These early American light infantry units organized during the French and Indian War were called "Rangers" and are often considered to be the spiritual birthplace of the modern Army Rangers.

Provincial troops were raised by the colonial governors and legislatures for extended operations during the French and Indian Wars. The provincial troops differed from the militia, in that they were a full-time military organization conducting extended operations. They differed from the regular British Army, in that they were recruited only for one campaign season at the time. These forces were often recruited through a quota system applied to the militia. Officers were appointed by the provincial governments. During the eighteenth century militia service was increasingly seen as a prerogative of the social and economic well-established, while provincial troops came to be recruited from different and less deep-rooted members of the community. [7] [8] [9] [10] [11] [12] [13] [14] [15] [16]

The first provincial forces in British North America were organized in the 1670s, when several colonial governments raised ranger companies for one year's paid service to protect their borders (see above). [17] The major operations during King William's War were conducted by provincial troops from Massachusetts Bay. During Queen Anne's War provincial troops from Massachusetts Bay, Connecticut, and New Hampshire made up the bulk of the English forces. [18] During King George's War the land forces that took Louisbourg were entirely supplied by Massachusetts, Connecticut, New Hampshire, and Rhode Island. [19] During the French and Indian War the British government in London took an increasingly more leading part, relegating the provincial troops to a non-combat role, largely as pioneers and transportation troops, while the bulk of the fighting was done by the regular British Army. However the contributions of Connecticut, Massachusetts Bay, New Hampshire, and Rhode Island were essential. [20]

The beginning of the United States military lies in local governments which created militias that enrolled nearly all free white men. The militia was not employed as a fighting force in major operations outside the local jurisdiction. Instead, the colony asked for (and paid) volunteers serving in ranger and other provincial troops (see above), many of whom were also militia members. The local Indian threat ended by 1725 in most places, after which the militia system was little used except for local ceremonial roles. [21]

The militia system was revived at the end of the colonial era, as the American Revolution approached weapons were accumulated and intensive training began. The militia played a major fighting role in the Revolution, especially in expelling the British from Boston in 1776 and capturing the British invasion force at Saratoga in 1777. However most of the fighting was handled by the Continental Army, comprising regular soldiers. [21]

Military actions in the colonies were the result of conflicts with Native Americans in the period of the colonization by the settlers, such as the Pequot War of 1637, King Philip's War in 1675, the Susquehannock war in 1675–77, [22] and the Yamasee War in 1715. Father Rale's War (1722–1725) happened in Maine and Nova Scotia. There also occurred slave uprisings, such as the Stono Rebellion in 1739. Finally, there was Father Le Loutre's War, which also involved Acadians, in the lead-up to the French and Indian War. [ citation needed ]

Kieft's War was a conflict between Dutch settlers and Indians in the colony of New Netherland from 1643 to 1645. The fighting involved raids and counter-raids. It was bloody in proportion to the population more than 1,600 natives were killed at a time when the European population of New Amsterdam was only 250.

The British fought the Spanish in the War of Jenkins' Ear, 1739–1748. After 1742, the war merged into the larger War of the Austrian Succession involving most of the powers of Europe. Georgia beat back a Spanish invasion of Georgia in 1742, and some sporadic border fighting continued. The war merged into King George's War, which ended with the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle in 1748.

Beginning in 1689, the colonies also frequently became involved in a series of four major wars between England (later Britain) and France for control of North America, the most important of which were Queen Anne's War, in which the British won French Acadia (Nova Scotia), and the final French and Indian War (1754–1763), when France lost all of Canada. This final war gave thousands of colonists military experience, including George Washington, which they put to use during the American Revolution.

Britain and France fought a series of four French and Indian Wars, followed with another war in 1778 when France joined the Americans in the American Revolution. The French settlers in New France were outnumbered 15–1 by the 13 American colonies, [23] so the French relied heavily on Indian allies.

The wars were long and bloody, causing immense suffering for everyone involved. In the long run, the Indians were the biggest losers many were on the losing side, as Spain and France were defeated as thus could provide no further support to them. Frontier settlers were exposed to sudden Indian raids many were killed or captured, and even more were forced back from the frontier. One profitable form of wartime activity in which colonists engaged was privateering—legalized piracy against enemy merchant ships. Another was hunting enemy Indians for the purpose of scalping them and claiming the cash bounty offered by colonial governments. [24]

King William's War: 1689–1697 Edit

King William's War (1689–97) (also known as the "Nine Years' War") [25] was a phase of the larger Anglo-French conflict which occurred in India as well as North America. New France and the Wabanaki Confederacy joined forces to launch several raids against New England settlements south of present-day Maine, whose border New France defined as the Kennebec River in southern Maine. [26]

Sir William Phips moved with his New England militia in 1690 to take the French strongholds at Port Royal and at Quebec, the latter commanded by Comte de Frontenac, the governor of New France. Phips conquered the capital of Acadia and various other communities in the colony (e.g., Battle of Chedabucto). (Present-day Maine and New Brunswick remained contested territories between New England and New France.) Phips's written ultimatum demanding Fontenac's surrender at Quebec prompted Frontenac to say that his reply would come only "from the mouths of my cannon and muskets."

The New England militia had to reckon with Quebec's formidable natural defenses, its superior number of soldiers, and the coming of winter, and Phips finally sailed back to Boston with his hungry, smallpox-ridden, and demoralized force. His failure shows a growing recognition of the need to replicate European combat techniques and to move closer to the war policy in London in order to achieve military success. [27]

The Iroquois suffered heavily in King William's War and were brought into the French trading network, along with other western Indians. The colonists' treatment of Indian tribes after King Philip's War led directly the Wabanaki tribe's involvement in the war. It retained significant power relative to the colonists, unlike tribes in southern New England, and rejected attempts to exert authority over them. Treaties made during 1678–84 included concessions to Indian sovereignty, but such concessions were largely ignored in practice. [ citation needed ] Expanding settlements fueled tensions and led to Indian threats of a repeat of the violence of King Philip's War and offered an opportunity to the French, who formed several new alliances. The lack of stability and authority evidenced by the imprisonment of Governor Andros in 1689 combined with existing grievances and French encouragement led to Wabanaki attacks on settlements on the Northeast coast, a pattern that was repeated until the withdrawal of the French in 1763. [28]

Queen Anne's War Edit

Queen Anne's War (1702–1713) was the colonial side of the War of the Spanish Succession which was fought primarily in Europe on European issues, The conflict also involved a number of American Indian tribes and Spain, which was allied with France. [29]

Carolina governor James Moore led an unsuccessful attack in 1702 on St. Augustine, the capital of Spanish Florida, and led one of several raiding expeditions in 1704-6 that wiped out much of Florida's Indian population. Thomas Nairne, the Province of Carolina's Indian agent, planned an expedition of Carolinan militia and their Indian allies to destroy the French settlement at Mobile and the Spanish settlement at Pensacola. The expedition never materialized, but the Carolinans did supply their allies with firearms, which the Tallapoosas used in their siege of Pensacola. These warriors proved their effectiveness in combining native tactics and European arms, but the colonists failed to compensate them adequately and seriously underestimated their importance as the key to the balance of power in the southeastern interior. Consequently, the Tallapoosas and other tribes had shifted allegiance to the other side by 1716 and prepared to use what they had learned against South Carolina settlements. [30]

The French and Wabanaki Confederacy sought to thwart the expansion of New England into Acadia, whose border New France defined as the Kennebec River in southern Maine. [26] Toward this end, they executed raids against targets in Massachusetts (including present-day Maine), starting with Northeast Coast Campaign.

In 1704, French and Indian forces attacked a number of villages and Deerfield, Massachusetts was prepared for an attack. The attack came during the night of 28 February 1704 much of the village was burned, many were killed, and others were taken captive. Seventeen of the captives were killed along the way to Canada, as they were injured and could not keep up, and starvation took additional lives.

Major Benjamin Church retaliated by raiding Acadia (see Raid on Grand Pre) and captured prisoners for ransom, the most famous Acadian captive being Noel Doiron. Eventually, 53 New England captives returned home, including one of the targets of the invaders, the Reverend John Williams. His accounts of the experience made him famous throughout the colonies. [31] South Carolina was especially vulnerable, and Charleston repulsed an attempted raid by French and Spanish fleets in the summer of 1706.

French privateers inflicted serious losses on New England's fishing and shipping industries. The privateering was finally curbed in 1710 when Britain provided military support to its American colonists resulting in the British Conquest of Acadia (which became peninsular Nova Scotia), the main base used by the privateers. [32] The war ended with a British victory in 1713. By the Treaty of Utrecht, Britain gained Acadia, the island of Newfoundland, the Hudson Bay region, and the Caribbean island of St. Kitts. France was required to recognize British influence in the Great Lakes region.

Following Queen Anne's War, relations deteriorated between Carolina and the nearby Indian populations, resulting in the Yamasee War of 1715. Father Rale's War a few years later, shifted power in the northeast.

Father Rale's War Edit

War continued in Acadia, however. Father Rale's War (1722–1725), also known as Dummer's War, was a series of battles between New England and the Wabanaki Confederacy, who were allied with New France. After the New England Conquest of Acadia in 1710, mainland Nova Scotia was under the control of New England, but both present-day New Brunswick and virtually all of present-day Maine remained contested territory between New England and New France. New France established Catholic missions among the three largest native villages in order to secure their claim to the region: one on the Kennebec River (Norridgewock), one further north on the Penobscot River (Penobscot), and one on the St. John River (Medoctec). [33] [34]

The war began on two fronts when New England expanded through Maine and when New England established a settlement at Canso, Nova Scotia. Maine fell to the New Englanders with the defeat of Father Sébastien Rale at Norridgewock and the subsequent retreat of the Indians from the Kennebec and Penobscot rivers to St. Francis and Becancour, Quebec. [35]

King George's War Edit

King George's War (1744–48) was the North American phase of the War of the Austrian Succession. In 1745, naval and ground forces from Massachusetts captured the strategic French base on Cape Breton Island in the Siege of Louisbourg. During the war, the French made four attempts to regain Acadia by capturing the capital Annapolis Royal, the most famous attempt being the failed Duc d'Anville expedition. They regained fortress Louisbourg at the peace treaty.

The French led Indian allies in numerous raids, such as the one on Nov. 28, 1745 which destroyed the village of Saratoga, New York, killing and capturing more than one hundred of its inhabitants. The war merged into War of Jenkins' Ear against Spain and ended with the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle in 1748.

Father Le Loutre's War Edit

Within Acadia and Nova Scotia, Father Le Loutre's War (1749–1755) began when the British founded Halifax. During Father Le Loutre's War, New France established three forts along the border of present-day New Brunswick to protect it from a New England attack from Nova Scotia. The war continued until British victory at Fort Beausejour, which dislodged Father Le Loutre from the region, thereby ending his alliance with the Maliseet, Acadians, and Mi'kmaq. [36]

French and Indian War: 1754–1763 Edit

Provincial troops, as distinct from the militias, were raised by the thirteen colonial governments in response to annual quotas established by the British commanders-in-chief. These troops saw service in most campaigns and employment throughout North America during the Seven Years' War.

Pennsylvania Edit

The war began in 1754 as Virginia militia led by Colonel George Washington advanced into French-held territory near modern-day Pittsburgh. Washington was captured at Fort Necessity after ambushing a French company and released. He returned with the 2,100 British regulars and American colonials under British General Edward Braddock, which was decisively destroyed at the Battle of the Monongahela in July 1755. [37] [38]

Acadia / Nova Scotia Edit

Despite the British Conquest of Acadia in 1710, Acadia/ Nova Scotia remained dominated by Catholic Acadians and Mi'kmaq. The British did not make a concerted military effort to control the region until 1749 when they founded Halifax, which sparked Father Le Loutre's War. The French and Indian War spread to the region with a British victory in the Battle of Fort Beauséjour (1755). Immediately after this battle the New England and British forces engaged in numerous military campaigns aimed at securing their control of the region. [ citation needed ]

New York Edit

Upper New York Province: 8 September 1755 and Commander William Johnson leading in the 'Battle of Lake George' (formerly known as Lac du saint Sacrement) Battle of Lake George.

British defenders at Fort William Henry (at the southern end of Lake George) were surrounded by an overwhelming French force and their Indian allies from many tribes in August 1757. The British surrendered to the French after being offered terms that included protection from the Indians. Nonetheless, the Indian warriors' customs permitted the enslavement of some captured enemy soldiers and the scalping of others, and they ignored French efforts to prevent the massacre. They killed or captured hundreds of the surrendered force, including women and children. Some of those scalped had smallpox, and the scalps were brought to numerous Indian villages as trophies, where they caused an epidemic that killed thousands of Indians. [ citation needed ]

In early July 1758, British General James Abercromby with a force of over 15,000 attacked General Louis-Joseph de Montcalm and his garrison of 3,500 French and Canadian troops at Fort Carillon, which overlooked Lake Champlain. The British had 44 cannons, the heaviest weighing more than 5,000 pounds. The fort was later called Ticonderoga by the British, and it controlled access to French Canada. Abercromby's force included 5,825 red-coated British regulars, including the Royal Highlanders. He had 9,000 colonial soldiers from Massachusetts, Connecticut, New York, Rhode Island, New Hampshire, and New Jersey. Some 400 Mohawk warriors joined in. Abercromby's attack became disorganized and he suffered the worst British defeat of the war, with over 2,000 killed. He retreated and the campaign ended in failure. [ citation needed ]

Louisbourg Edit

Meanwhile, Lord Jeffery Amherst captured the great French stronghold of Louisbourg on Cape Breton Island (now part of Nova Scotia). Amherst's large British naval force of over 170 ships and 13,000 men came under furious attack by French defenders until British General James Wolfe found a safe landing spot out of sight of the French. The ultimately successful siege lasted seven weeks. With the fall of Louisbourg, the Acadians were soon expelled from Acadia to places such as France and Louisiana. [ citation needed ]

Canada Edit

In London, Prime Minister William Pitt named Amherst as his new commander-in-chief of North America for 1759. The Louisbourg victory opened the St. Lawrence River to the British, and Amherst devised a three-pronged attack against French Canada: a push up the St. Lawrence to attack Quebec, another northward invasion from Albany by way of lakes George and Champlain, and pressure against the French in the west at Fort Niagara. The 1759 battle for Quebec City was fought on the Plains of Abraham and decided the future of Canada, as British forces under General James Wolfe defeated the French army of General Louis-Joseph Montcalm. Both generals were killed.

Legacy Edit

Anderson (2006) suggests that the war played a pivotal precipitating role in the American Revolution. He believes that the United States managed to become a nation through the influence of this war, and suggests that it should perhaps be known as "the War That Made America."

The Fort William Henry massacre has shaped American cultural attitudes toward Indians. It was only one of many episodes of indiscriminate bloodshed and captive-taking and deranged relations between Indians and American colonists. Even in Pennsylvania, a colony that had never known an Indian war before 1755, resentment against Indians became something like a majority sentiment by 1764. Most Indian groups sided with the British in the Revolutionary War, and the animosity only grew. [39]

American novelist James Fenimore Cooper wrote The Last of the Mohicans in 1826, a widely read novel that was adapted for several Hollywood films. Cooper refers to the dangerous "savages" and shows their willingness to kill. The book creates a lasting impression of the untrustworthiness and dangerousness of Indians in general, according to Michael Hilger. One long-standing theme in American popular culture has portrayed the Indians as revenge-seeking savages looking to scalp their enemies. [40]

The victory of Wolfe over Montcalm was a decisive moment in shaping the self-image of English-Canadians, while Francophone Canada has refused to allow commemorations. [41]

In 1760, British commander Lord Amherst abruptly ended the distribution of gifts of ironware, weapons, and ammunition to the Indians, a French practice that the Indians had become dependent upon. Chief Pontiac (1720–1769) was a chief of the Ottawa tribe who assumed leadership in the Detroit area other chiefs in the loose confederation of tribes directed attacks on all British forts in the Great Lakes area in the spring of 1763. Eight outposts were overrun, and British supply lines were cut across Lake Erie Indian sieges failed at Fort Detroit and Fort Pitt. At this point, news arrived of the complete French capitulation and withdrawal from North America, and the Indian initiative quickly collapsed. Few American military units were involved, as British regulars handled the action. The British Crown issued a proclamation in October 1763 forbidding American settlers to enter Indian territory west of the Appalachian Mountains, hoping to minimize future conflict and laying plans for an Indian satellite state in the Great Lakes region. [42]

By ejecting the French from North America, the British victory made it impossible for the Iroquois and other native groups to play off rival European powers against one another. The Indians who had been allied with France realized their weak position when Amherst cancelled the gift-giving. They reacted quickly to Britain's abrupt changes in the terms of trade and suspension of diplomatic gift giving, launching an offensive aimed at driving British troops from their forts and sending raiding parties that caused panic as American refugees fled east. The Indian coalition forced the British authorities to rescind the offending policies and renew giving gifts. By 1764, the various tribes came to terms with Britain, and Indian leaders realized that their ability to organize and wage war was not as powerful as it had once been. Without a competing European power to arm and supply them, they simply could not keep fighting once they ran out of gunpowder and supplies. [43]

The Proclamation of 1763 angered American settlers eager to move west they largely ignored it, and saw the British government as an ally of the Indians and an obstacle to their goals. As Dixon (2007) argues, "Frustrated by their government's inability to contend with the Indians, back country settlers concluded that the best way to insure security was to rely on their own devices". Such actions eventually pushed them into direct conflict with the British government and ultimately proved one of the main forces leading to backcountry support for the American Revolution. [44]

140th Infantry Regiment

Mustered in: September 13, 1862
Mustered out: June 3, 1865

The following is taken from New York in the War of the Rebellion, 3rd ed. Frederick Phisterer. Albany: J. B. Lyon Company, 1912.
August 8, 1862, Capt. Hiram Smith received authority to recruit this regiment it was organized at Rochester with Patrick H. O'Rorke as Colonel, and there mustered in the service of the United States for three years September 13, 1862. June 26, 1863, the three years' men of the13th Infantry, and October 6, 1864, the members of the 44th Infantry, not mustered out with their regiments, were transferred to it. June 3, 1865, the men not to be mustered out with it were transferred to the 5th Veteran Infantry.
The companies were recruited principally: A at Brockport B, C, E, F and K at Rochester D at Rochester, Brighton, Gates, Penfield and West Webster G at Rochester and Churchville H at Rochester, Brockport and Fairport and I at Chili, Greece, Penfield, Rochester, Ogden, Henrietta and Parma.
The regiment left the State September 19, 1862 it served in the Provisional Brigade, Casey's Division, defenses of Washington, from September, 1862 in the 2d Brigade, 2d Division, 12th Corps, from October, 1862 in the 3d Brigade, 2d Division, 5th Corps, from November, 1862 in the 1st Brigade, 1st Division, 5th Corps, from March, 1864 in the 1st Brigade, 2d Division, 5th Corps, from June 6, 1864 and, under Col. W. S. Grantsyne, it was honorably discharged and mustered out June 3, 1865, near Alexandria, Va.
During its service the regiment lost by death, killed in action, 4 officers, 86 enlisted men of wounds received in action, 4 officers, 46 enlisted men of disease and other causes, 2 officers, 169 enlisted men total 10 officers, 301 enlisted men aggregate, 311 of whom 1 officer, 78 enlisted men, died in the hands of the enemy.

The following is taken from The Union army: a history of military affairs in the loyal states, 1861-65 -- records of the regiments in the Union army -- cyclopedia of battles -- memoirs of commanders and soldiers. Madison, WI: Federal Pub. Co., 1908. volume II.
One Hundred and Fortieth Infantry.&mdashCols., Patrick H. O'Rorke, George Ryan, Elwell S. Otis, William S. Grantsyne Lieut.-Cols., Louis Ernest, Isaiah F. Force, Elwell S. Otis, William S. Grant-syne, W. James Clark Majs., Milo L. Starks, Benjamin F. Harman, William J. Clark, Willard Abbott, Isaiah F. Force. The 140th, the "Rochester Racehorses," was recruited in Monroe county, organized at Rochester, and there mustered into the U. S. service on Sept. 13, 1862, for three years. In June, 1863, it received by transfer the three years men of the 13th N. Y., and in Oct., 1864, the veterans and recruits of the 44th. The regiment left the state on Sept. 19, 1862, proceeded to Washington and joined the Army of the Potomac in November, being assigned to the 3d (Warren's) brigade, 2nd (Sykes') division, 5th corps. With this command it was under fire for the first time at the battle of Fredericksburg, where it lost a few men wounded and missing. The 5th corps was only partially engaged at Chancellorsville, though the I40th lost 21 killed, wounded and missing in that disastrous battle. Describing this gallant, fighting regiment, Col. Fox says: "Col., O'Rorke was killed at Gettysburg while leading his men into action on Little Round Top, where their prompt action aided largely in seizing that important position, the regiment losing there 26 killed, 89 wounded and 18 missing. The 140th was then in Ayres' division&mdashthe division of regulars. In 1864 the regulars were brigaded in one command under Ayres, and the 140th was placed in the same brigade the division was commanded by Gen. Charles Griffin. But in June, 1864, the regiment was transferred to the 1st Brigade of Ayres' (2nd) division. This brigade was commanded in turn by Col. Gregory, Gen. Joseph Hayes, Col. Otis, and Gen. Winthrop. The latter officer fell mortally wounded at Five Forks. The regiment was in the hottest of the fighting at the Wilderness and suffered severely there, losing 23 killed, 118 wounded and 114 captured or missing total, 255. Three days later it was engaged in the first of the series of battles at Spbttsylvania, in which action Col. Ryan and Maj. Starks were killed. At Spottsylvania the casualties in the regiment were 12 killed and 48 wounded and at the Weldon railroad, 4 killed, 19 wounded and 51 captured or missing. The regiment was composed of exceptionally good material the men were a neat, clean lot, and in their handsome Zouave costume attracted favorable attention wherever they appeared." The 140th took part in nearly all the great engagements of the Army of the Potomac from Fredericks-burg to the close of the war. It was actively engaged at Chancellorsville, Gettysburg, Wilderness, Spottsylvania, Bethesda Church, siege of Petersburg, Weldon railroad, Poplar Spring Church, Hatcher's run, White Oak road and Five Forks, It was present at Fredericksburg, Bristoe Station, Rappahannock Station, in the Mine Run campaign, North Anna, Totopotomy, White Oak swamp and Appomattox. Other important losses incurred besides those above detailed were, 60 wounded and missing at Bethesda Church 22 killed, wounded and missing in the first assault on Petersburg 23 killed and wounded at Hatcher's run and 57 killed, wounded and missing during the final Appomattox campaign. Col. O'Rorke, when he was killed at Gettysburg, was mounted on a rock at Little Round Top, cheering on his men. He graduated at the head of his class at West Point in 1861 and was only 25 years of age when killed. The regiment was mustered out June 3, 1865, near Alexandria, Va., under Col. Grantsyne. Its total enrollment during service was 1,707, of whom 533 were killed and wounded 8 officers and 141 men were killed and died of wounds 2 officers and 168 men died of disease and other causes total deaths, 319, of whom 77 died in Confederate prisons.

140th Regiment NY Volunteer Infantry | Regimental Color | Civil War

In September 1862 the 140th Regiment NY Volunteer Infantry received this painted silk regimental color from a group of young ladies from Rochester.…

Colonial and Revolutionary War (Virginia)

Check the online catalog under the subject headings Virginia–History–Colonial period, ca. 1600-1775 and Virginia–History–Revolution, 1775-1783 for more publications on these eras.

Reprint of 1929 edition. Compiled from the land bounties filed in the Virginia Land Office for land grants issued in Kentucky and Ohio as reward for military service in the Revolutionary War. The claims of heirs as well as soldiers are listed therefore some family relationships can be traced. Index for vols. 1-2 in vol. 2, for vol. 3 in vol. 3.

Also available as v. 2 of Virginia colonial records. Regiment rosters, land bounty certificate lists, militia officers, and miscellaneous lists of militia men serving in the wars from 1651 to 1776. Comprehensive index.

Abstracts of Revolutionary War pension applications. Information includes name of soldier, summary of service, list of supportive documents registered with the applications, and number and date of certificate issued. Index in each volume.

Briefly identifies each soldier and gives the source of the service record. Key to sources: p. xiii.

Describes the services of each company in the war. List of officers, by county lists of pensioners. Index.

Reprint of the 3d ed. of 1894. Index of Virginia revolutionary soldiers given by W.T.R. Saffell in the third edition of his work published in Baltimore in 1894 index to officers in the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th, 6th, and 11th Virginia regiments as given in volume I. of Palmer’s Calendar of Virginia state papers …”: p. 39-43.

Abstracts of pension applications, including supportive depositions. Information about the family usually included. Index in each volume.

Includes “Roster of the Virginia Navy of the Revolution”: pp. 187-271.

A reprint with additions of the genealogical sections initiated in the second issue of the magazine, Sons of the revolution in the state of Virginia. Includes genealogies of colonial and revolutionary Virginians.

Extracted from documents accompanying Virginia General Assembly, House of Delegates, Journal, 1833-1834. Lists name of soldier, rank, line and time of service, number of acres granted, and date of warrant.

Part 1: list of members of the Virginia chapter of the DAR, with reference to each member’s patriot ancestor(s). Part 2: A list of ancestors officially recognized by the DAR as patriots. Each entry includes the patriot’s birth and death dates place, date, and rank of Revolutionary service and reference to DAR members.

UNCENSORED HISTORY: Dark Chapters Of History: Images Of War, History , WW2

The bombing of Dresden was a great tragedy none can deny. It is not so much this or the other means of making war that is immoral or inhumane. What is immoral is war itself. Once full-scale war has broken out it can never be humanized or civilized, and if one side attempted to do so it would be most likely to be defeated. That to me is the lesson of Dresden.

In Europe, the American Eighth Air Force conducted its raids in daylight. USAAF leaders firmly held to the claim of "precision" bombing of military targets for much of the war, and dismissed claims they were simply bombing cities. However the Eighth received the first H2X radar sets in December 1943. Within two weeks of the arrival of these first six sets, the Eighth command gave permission for them to area bomb a city using H2X and would continue to authorize, on average, about one such attack a week until the end of the war in Europe.

In reality, the day bombing was "precision bombing" only in the sense that most bombs fell somewhere near a specific designated target such as a railway yard. Conventionally, the air forces designated as "the target area" a circle having a radius of 1000 feet around the aiming point of attack. Survey studies show, In the fall of 1944, only seven per cent of all bombs dropped by the Eighth Air Force hit within 1,000 feet of their aim point.


Peter Hinchliffe OBE
Bomber Command

-Richard G Davis American Bombardment Policy against Germany, 1942-1945, Air Power Review, Volume 6 Number 3, pp. 49󈞪. (see p. 54 (PDF 63). 62250E094B.pdf
-United States Strategic Bombing Survey

During the Second World War, the Allied aerial forces performed air raids civilian populations in Europe and over Japan. These actions were not only defined crimes in retrospect, but were also viewed as such by the leaders of the Axis Powers during the war itself, despite the fact they themselves did likewise. On June 6, 1944, at a conference of top Nazi leaders in Klessheim, the German Minister of Foreign Affairs Joachim von Ribbentrop tried to introduce a resolution to define air raids on civilians as acts of terror, but his motion was rejected.

Source Trial of German Major War Criminals, vol. 10, pp. 382-383.

Nearing the end of the War, shelter accommodation was available for only about eight million German people. The remainder sheltered in basements, and casualties in these places of refuge were heavy.

The Bombing of Dresden was a military bombing by the United States Army Air Force (USAAF) & the British Royal Air Force (RAF) as part of the allied forces, between 13 February and 15 February 1945 in the Second World War. In four raids, 1,300 heavy bombers dropped more than 3,900 tons of high-explosive bombs and incendiary devices on the city, the Baroque capital of the German state of Saxony. The resulting firestorm destroyed 15 square miles (39 square kilometres) of the city centre.

Dresden after the American and British bombers had done their job

As the flames subsided, the residents of Dresden discovered that 24,866 out of the 28,410 houses in the inner city were destroyed - an area of total destruction extending over eleven square miles. As for the death toll, German authorities gave up trying to work out the precise total after some 35,000 bodies had been recognized, labeled, and buried while hundreds of cellars and air raid shelters remained unopened.

There was far too great a risk for the spread of disease to allow the proper identification of the dead. So, a massive funeral pyre was constructed in the Altmarkt where thousands more were burned.

Mass cremation of German civilians killed

'Bomber Command was the only weapon we possessed. Bomber Command was available and had to be used every day and every night, weather permitting. Had that force been available and Churchill had got up and said, in the House of Commons, "Well, we have this large bomber force available, but I'm afraid we mustn't use it because as it operates at night we can't be sure of hitting specific targets, and women and children may get killed", the British people would have been outraged and they would have said, "Not attack them because civilians might get killed? Have you gone mad? Hitler's been killing civilians all over Europe, including England." If Churchill had said that he wouldn't have survived as Prime Minister. Morality is a thing you can indulge in an environment of peace and security, but you can't make moral judgements in war, when it's a question of national survival.'

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Review: Volume 43 - Military History - History

  • Susan B. Anthony - On Women's Right to Vote (1873)
  • Tony Blair - To the Irish Parliament (1998)
  • Napoleon Bonaparte - Farewell to the Old Guard (1814)
  • George Bush - Announcing War Against Iraq (1991)
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  • Jimmy Carter - "A Crisis of Confidence" (1979)
  • Neville Chamberlain - On the Nazi Invasion of Poland (1939)
  • Winston Churchill - Blood, Toil, Tears and Sweat (1940)
  • Winston Churchill - Their Finest Hour (1940)
  • Winston Churchill - "Iron Curtain" (1946)
  • Bill Clinton - "I Have Sinned" (1998)
  • Bill Clinton - "I Am Profoundly Sorry" (1998)
  • Edouard Daladier - Nazis' Aim is Slavery (1940)
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  • Gerald R. Ford - "A War That is Finished" (1975)
  • St. Francis of Assisi - Sermon to the Birds (1220)
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  • William Lloyd Garrison - On the Death of John Brown (1859)
  • Lou Gehrig - Farewell to Yankee Fans (1939)
  • Richard Gephardt - "Life Imitates Farce" (1998)
  • Al Gore - Concedes the 2000 Election (2000)
  • Patrick Henry - Liberty or Death (1775)
  • Harold Ickes - What is an American? (1941)
  • Lyndon B. Johnson - We Shall Overcome (1965)
  • Lyndon B. Johnson - Decides Not to Seek Re-election (1968)
  • Chief Joseph of the Nez Perce - On Surrender to US Army (1877)
  • John F. Kennedy - Inaugural Address (1961)
  • John F. Kennedy - "We choose to go to the Moon" (1962)
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  • Robert F. Kennedy - On the Death of Martin Luther King (1968)
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  • Gerhard Schröder - "I Express My Shame" (2005)
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  • George Washington - Prevents the Revolt of his Officers (1783)
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Review: Volume 43 - Military History - History

Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences

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Department of History and Archaeology

The Department of History was one of six departments established in the Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences when the University came into being in 1978. Archaeology was introduced in 1998, consequently renaming it as the Department of History and Archaeology. The department offers Special and General Degree Programs in both disciplines.

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Welcome to the Department of History and Archaeology!

We offer Degree Programs in two sister disciplines, History and Archaeology, which feed each other giving students and staff a unique opportunity to interact and debate on related but distinct issues. These Degree Programs are offered both Sinhala and English mediums and designed to produce graduates with a broader and critical understating of the past.

Department provides maximum contributions to enhance external degree programs and post – graduate educations.

In-course internship training programs are integrated to Special Degree Programs in both disciples in order to enhance the employability of our graduates. Being a field-oriented discipline, Archaeology Special Degree Program has compulsory field training courses in addition to museum and laboratory training in the department. The Department houses an Archaeological Museum, Archaeological Filed Unit cum Conservation Lab and a Reference Library. Avalokana is the bi-annual journal of the Department where both staff and students can publish their research work.

We have an excellent academic environment within the department where our students grow as competent graduates who can take up challenges with confidence.

Imperial Period

In the imperial legion, beginning with Augustus, the organization is thought to have been:

  • 10 squads (contubernia - a tent group of generally 8 men) = a century, each commanded by a centurion = 80 men [note that the size of a century had diverged from its original, literal meaning of 100]
  • 6 centuries = a cohort = 480 men
  • 10 cohorts = a legion = 4800 men.

Roth says the Historia Augusta, an unreliable historical source from the late 4th century A.D., may be right in its figure of 5000 for imperial legion size, which works if you add the 200 cavalry figure to the product above of 4800 men.

There is some evidence that in the first century the size of the first cohort was doubled:

* M. Alexander Speidel ("Roman Army Pay Scales," by M. Alexander Speidel The Journal of Roman Studies Vol. 82, (1992), pp. 87-106.) says the term turma was only used for the auxiliaries:

Albert, J. W. , and P. A. Guadal . 1941. The journal of Lieutenant J. W. Albert, from Bent’s Fort to St. Louis in 1845. Panhandle-Plains Historical Society, Canyon, Texas. Map.

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Bartlett, J. R. 1854a. Personal narrative of explorations and incidents in Texas, New Mexico, California, Sonora and Chihuahua. Vol. I.

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Bauer, H. L. 1936. Moisture relations in the chaparral of the Santa Monica Mountains, California. Ecol. Monog.6: 404–454.

Bayer, A. W. 1938. An account of the plant ecology of the coast-belt and midlands of Zululand. Ann. Natal Mus.8: 371–455.

Bell, H. M. , and E. J. Dyksterhuis . 1943. Fighting the mesquite and cedar invasion on Texas ranges. Soil Cons.9: 111–114.

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Bentley, H. L. 1898. Grasses and forage plants of Central Texas. U. S. Dept. Agr., Div. Agros. Bull. 10.

Bews, J. W. 1912. The vegetation of Natal. Ann. Natal Mus.2: 253–331.

Bogusch, E. R. 1950. A bibliography on mesquite. Texas Jour. Sci.2: 528–538.

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Bowman, I. 1914. Forest Physiography—Physiography of the United States and principles of soils in relation to forestry.

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Foreman, Grant . 1939. Marcy and the goldseekers.

Foster, J. H. 1917. The spread of timbered areas in central Texas. Jour. For.15: 442–445.

-----, H. B. Krausz , and A. H. Leidigh . 1917. General survey of Texas woodlands, including a study of the commercial possibilities of mesquite. A. and M. Coll. Texas, Bull. 3.

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Galpin, E. E. 1926. Botanical survey of the Springbok Flats. Bot. Survey Mem. No. 12. Union So. Afr. Govt.

Gardner, J. L. 1951. Vegetation of the creosotebush area of the Rio Grande Valley in New Mexico. Ecol. Mon.21: 379–403.

Gleason, H. A. 1922. The vegetational history of the middle west. Ann. Assoc. Am. Geog.12: 39–85.

Glendening, G. E. , and H. A. Paulsen , Jr. 1950. Recovery and viability of mesquite seeds fed to sheep receiving 2, 4-D in drinking water. Bot. Gaz.111: 486–491.

————— 1952. Some quantitative data on the increase of mesquite and cactus on a desert grassland range in southern Arizona. Ecology33: 319–328.

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Gregg, Josiah . 1844. Commerce of the prairies: or, The journal of a Santa Fe trader.

Griffith, David . 1910. A protected stock range in Arizona. U. S. Dept. Agri., Plant Ind., Bull. 177. 28 pp.

Hanson, H. C. 1939. Fire in land use and management. Amer. Midl. Nat.21: 415–434.

Haskett, Bert . 1935. Early history of the cattle industry in Arizona. Ariz. Hist. Rev.6: 3–42.

Henkel, J. S. 1928. The relation of vegetation to water supply in South Rhodesia. So. Afr. Jour. Sci.25: 38–51.

Hill, R. R. 1928. The war against the desert. Jour. For.26: 91–93.

Hinton, Richard J. 1878. The handbook to Arizona.

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Humphrey, R. R. 1949. Fire as a means of controlling velvet mesquite, burroweed and cholla on southern Arizona ranges. Jour. Range Mgt.2: 173–182.

————— 1953. The desert grassland, past and present. Jour. Range Mgt.6: 159–164.

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Jaeger, F. 1911. Das Hoekland der Reisenkrater. Mitt. II. d. deutsch. Schultzgeb. Erganz 5.

Jardine, J. T. , and C. L. Forsling . 1922. Range and cattle management during drought. U. S. Dept. Agr., Bull. 1031.

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Johnson, R. H. 1931. The natural regions of Texas. Univ. Texas, Bull. 3113.

Kearney, T. H. and R. H. Peebles . 1951. Arizona flora.

Kendall, Geo. W. 1856. A narrative of the Texan Santa Fe expedition. Vol I. 7th Ed.

Kolbe, Peter . 1727. Beschrijving Van de Kaap de Goede Hoop.

Lutz, H. J. 1934. Ecological relations in the pitch pine barrens of southern New Jersey. Yale Univ., School For., Bull. 38. 80 pp. Illus.

Malin, J. C. 1953. Soil, animal and plant relations of the grassland, historically reconsidered. Sci. Mo.76: 207–220.

Marcy, R. B. 1866. Thirty years of life on the border.

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Norris, J. J. 1950 The effect of rodents, rabbits and cattle on two vegetation types in semidesert range land. New Mex. Agr. Exp. Sta., Bull. 353.

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————— 1930. Fire: its influence on biotic communities and physical factors in south and east Africa. So. Afr. Jour. Sci.27: 352–367.

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-----. 1916. Carrying capacity of grazing ranges in southern Arizona. United States Department of Agriculture Bull. 367.

Young, V. A., F. R. Anderwald and W. G. McCully . 1948. Brush problems on Texas ranges. Tex. Agr. Exp., Stat., Misc. Pub. 21.


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