16 January 1943

16 January 1943


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16 January 1943

January 1943

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>February

North Africa

British 8th Army captures Buerat.

New Guinea

Australian troops begin an offensive at Sanananda

Diplomacy

Iraq declares war on Germany, Italy and Japan



List of shipwrecks in January 1943

The list of shipwrecks in January 1943 includes ships sunk, foundered, grounded, or otherwise lost during January 1943.

List of shipwrecks: 2 January 1943
Ship Country Description
HMS Alarm Royal Navy World War II: The Algerine-class minesweeper was bombed in the port of Bône, Algeria by German aircraft, and was later declared a total loss. [10]
Ebon Maru Imperial Japanese Navy World War II: The guard ship was torpedoed and sunk in the Pacific Ocean by USS Argonaut ( United States Navy). [4]
Empire Metal United Kingdom World War II: The cargo ship was bombed and sunk at Bône, Algeria by Junkers Ju 87 aircraft of II Staffeln, Sturzkampfgeschwader 3, Luftwaffe and Focke-Wulf Fw 190 aircraft of III Staffeln, Schlachtgeschwader 10, Luftwaffe. [4] Raised in August 1949 but broke in two and subsequently scrapped. [3]
F 162 Kriegsmarine World War II: The MFP-A landing craft was sunk by a mine in the Kerch Strait with the loss of two crew. [11] [12] [13]
USS Grebe United States Navy The fleet tug, a former Lapwing-class minesweeper, was destroyed by a typhoon during 1–2 January 1943 at Vuata Vatoa, Fiji Islands after becoming grounded while attempting to salvage Thomas A. Edison ( United States) on 6 December 1942. [14]
St. Merriel United Kingdom World War II: The cargo ship was bombed and sunk in the port of Bône, Algeria by German aircraft. Five crewmen were killed or died of wounds. In 1950 she was raised, but sank off Cape Noli while in tow to the breakers. [4] [15]
Thomas A. Edison United States The Liberty ship was destroyed by a typhoon during 1–2 January 1943 at Vuata Vatoa, Fiji Islands after becoming grounded on 4 December 1942. [14] [16]
List of shipwrecks: 5 January 1943
Ship Country Description
Keifuku Maru Imperial Japanese Army World War II: The cargo ship was bombed and sunk at Rabaul, New Britain by Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress and Consolidated B-24 Liberator aircraft of the United States Fifth Air Force. Three crewmen were killed. [26] [27]
HMS LCP(M) 17 Royal Navy The landing craft personnel (medium) was lost off Isle of Wight. [28]

The Farragut-class destroyer was driven onto rocks at Constantine Harbor, Amchitka Island, Alaska and was wrecked with the loss of fourteen of her 186 crew. [87]

The T2 tanker broke in two at Portland, Oregon. Subsequently repaired and entered service in April 1943.

For the loss of the American tanker Brilliant on this day, see the entry for 18 November 1942.


16 January 1943 - History

Casualty Lists of the Royal Navy and Dominion Navies, World War 2
Researched & compiled by Don Kindell, all rights reserved

1st - 31st JANUARY 1943 - in date, ship/unit & name order

Edited by Gordon Smith, Naval-History.Net

Notes:

(1) Casualty information in order - Surname, First name, Initial(s), Rank and part of the Service other than RN (RNR, RNVR, RFR etc), Service Number (ratings only, also if Dominion or Indian Navies), (on the books of another ship/shore establishment, O/P &ndash on passage), Fate

(2) Click for abbreviations

(3) Link to Commonwealth War Graves Commission

(4) More information may be found in the Name Lists

Background Events - November 1942-January 1943
Landings in French North Africa ('Torch'), Final battles for Guadalcanal & Stalingrad, 'Cockleshell heroes', Battle of Barents Sea

(for ship information, go to Naval History Homepage and type name in Site Search

1 January 1943

3/2 Maritime Regt, RA

FEATHER, Jack, Gunner, RA, 4543690, killed

FIELD, Montague S, Lance Bombardier, RA, 4754447, killed

Achates, ship loss

BARRETT, Frederick R, Ty/Sub Lieutenant, RNVR, DOW

Ajax , bombing

BENTLEY, John, Stoker 2c, C/KX 151399, MPK

BURNS, James K, Stoker Petty Officer, C/KX 80887, MPK

DEPLEDGE, Dennis S, Act/Engine Room Artificer 4c, C/MX 76658, MPK

MCKENZIE, Benjamin, Stoker 2c, C/KX 153069, MPK

MCKINNEY, Colin M, Marine, CH/X 106659, DOW

TAYLER, William A, Ty/Stoker Petty Officer, C/KX 78904, MPK

YORK, Charles E, Lieutenant (E), MPK

Edinburgh Castle, road accident

MANSELL, Frederick R J, Warrant Aircraft Observer, killed

Eglinton, lost overboard

HOWELL, Albert C, Petty Officer, C/JX 145771, killed

Empire Panther, steamship

SANDERSON, Hubert, Act/Able Seaman (DEMS), D/JX 338003, (President III, O/P), MPK

Europa, illness

GOSS, Thomas R J, Stoker Petty Officer, D/K 28246, died

Freesia

STANNARD, Frank R, Able Seaman, C/JX 294452, died

Hecla

ELLIOTT, Robert, Leading Seaman, D/JX 136704, died

Lavender, illness

CADDICK, Ronald I, Able Seaman, D/JX 285984, died

Lucifer, drowning

THOMAS, Thomas J, Ordinary Seaman, D/JX 293349, died

Marshall Soult, drowning

KELLY, Horace L, Stoker, RNR (PS), LT/X 101875, died

MNBDO, as POW

PURVES, George, Ty/Act/Corporal, RM, EX/660, died

Nile

HARRIES, Thomas J, Act/Able Seaman, D/JX 306135, DOWS

P.311, submarine, ship loss

ADAMS, Andrew, Ty/Act/Petty Officer Telegraphist, D/JX 147935, MPK

ANDERSON, Robert, Ordinary Seaman, RNR, D/X 18907 A, (Chariot/human torpedo crewman, O/P), MPK

AUTY, Leonard, Able Seaman, P/JX 237486, MPK

BENNETT, Donald B, Ordinary Seaman, D/JX 305625, MPK

BLACKWELL, Harry H, Stoker 1c, P/KX 132332, MPK

BOND, Leslie J, Stoker 1c, D/KX 136201, MPK

BONNELL, Charles E, Ty/Lieutenant, RCNVR (Chariot/human torpedo crewman, O/P), MPK

BROCK, Charles E W, Able Seaman, D/JX 138882, MPK

BROWN, James M, Leading Telegraphist, P/JX 139969, MPK

BRUCE, Wilfred, Stoker 1c, C/KX 118719, MPK

BUCKLEY, Cecil, Lieutenant, RNVR, MPK

BULFORD, Thomas W, Stoker 1c, P/KX 88120, MPK

BURTON, William H, Able Seaman, P/SSX 22991, MPK

CARR, Cecil E, Ty/Petty Officer, C/JX 144742, MPK

CAYLEY, Richard D, Commander, MPK

CHEESEMAN, Bernard G, Ordinary Telegraphist, C/JX 236264, MPK

CLARK, James, Able Seaman, C/SSX 23951, MPK

CLARKE, Robert W, Able Seaman, P/JX 321879, MPK

COONEY, William, Able Seaman, D/SSX 28081, MPK

CROSS, Bernard, Able Seaman, C/JX 157739, MPK

DONOHUE, Patrick J, Ty/Act/Stoker Petty Officer, P/KX 84220, MPK

DOWN, Percival L J, Engine Room Artificer 3c, D/MX 53618, MPK

DYE, William E, Ty/Act/Petty Officer, C/JX 126605, MPK

EVANS, Cecil W, Able Seaman, P/JX 164117, MPK

FELTHAM, Desmond A J, Able Seaman, P/SSX 32278, MPK

FOULKES, Richard J, Able Seaman, D/JX 212864, MPK

FOUNDLING, Wilfred, Stoker 1c, C/KX 132645, MPK

FOXON, Henry R, Stoker 1c, P/KX 114941, MPK

FRENCH, Thomas W, Stoker 1c, C/KX 95964, MPK

GEE, John, Stoker 1c, D/SKX 1266, MPK

GORDON, John H, Lieutenant (E), MPK

GOSS, George G, Ty/Sub Lieutenant, RNVR, (Chariot/human torpedo crewman, O/P), MPK

GRIFFITHS, John N, Stoker 2c, D/KX 144769, MPK

HILLYARD, Harry, Engine Room Artificer 3c, P/MX 60318, MPK

HUNT, Edmund G, Engine Room Artificer 4c, C/MX 77300, MPK

IDDIOLS, Christopher, Ty/Petty Officer, RFR, C/J 100591, MPK

JOHNS, Robert W, Able Seaman, D/SSX 21077, MPK

KERR, Kenneth S, 2nd Lieutenant, Highland Light Infantry (Chariot/human torpedo crewman, O/P), MPK

KEY, Arthur, Able Seaman, P/JX 275312, MPK

KIMBERLEY, Cyril, Engine Room Artificer 3c, D/M 38795, MPK

KING, James C, Petty Officer Steward, P/LX 22336, MPK

LEE, Arthur S K, Act/Chief Petty Officer, P/J 113443, MPK

LORD, George, Able Seaman, D/JX 287256, MPK

LORD, Jim V, Act/Leading Telegraphist, D/JX 161659, MPK

LYTH, John L, Electrical Artificer 4c, P/MX 66284, MPK

MACRAE, Ian N, Ty/Lieutenant, RNR, MPK

MAPPLEBECK, Paul, Able Seaman, R/JX 180968, MPK

MARTIN, Reginald C W, Engine Room Artificer 4c, P/MX 55884, MPK

MCCLURE, John, Act/Stoker Petty Officer, P/KX 80404, MPK

MCLEAN, Walter, Ordinary Seaman, P/JX 362264, MPK

MCSHANE, Thomas N, Stoker 1c, P/KX 130669, MPK

MEYERHUBER, John, Act/Leading Telegraphist, P/JX 155251, MPK

MILLIGAN, John V, Act/Stoker Petty Officer, P/KX 86292, MPK

MOON, Thomas H, Yeoman of Signals, C/JX 133998, MPK

NESBITT, William F, Able Seaman, C/J 99511, MPK

NEWTON, Alfred S, Able Seaman, D/SSX 13847, MPK

PRIDHAM, Ronald W, Stoker 1c, D/KX 145916, (Chariot/human torpedo crewman, O/P), MPK

QUINN, Matthew, Stoker 1c, D/SKX 1238, MPK

REDMAN, John W, Ty/Leading Seaman, C/JX 132535, MPK

RIBBANDS, Richard, Ordinary Seaman, P/JX 338299, MPK

RICKWOOD, Bertie G S, Leading Seaman, P/SSX 25205, MPK

RUDGE, Clarence H, Able Seaman, P/JX 276519, MPK

SARGENT, Jack, Ty/Act/Lieutenant, RNVR, (Chariot/human torpedo crewman, O/P), MPK

SHORT, Henry C, Leading Stoker, P/KX 97695, MPK

SILVER, Richard H S, Lieutenant, MPK

SKIPPON, Geoffrey L, Ty/Leading Cook (S), D/MX 69037, MPK

SQUIRE, Arthur J, Chief Petty Officer Stoker, D/KX 75929, MPK

STRETTON-SMITH, Guy, Ty/Lieutenant, RNVR, (Chariot/human torpedo crewman, O/P), MPK

SUTHERLAND, William F, Able Seaman, C/SSX 23885, MPK

TREVETHIAN, Bernard, Leading Seaman, P/JX 149522, (Chariot/human torpedo crewman, O/P), MPK

VOKINS, Charles H, Act/Leading Stoker, P/KX 85119, MPK

Patrie

KELLY, Horace L, Stoker, RNR (PS), LT/X 10187 S, killed

Pembroke, illness

DAGWELL, John F, Chief Petty Officer Telegraphist, C/J 98398, died

RM Chatham Division, road accident

HAY, John, Marine, CH/X 103254, killed

RN Malay Section

AHMAD, Bin I, Able Seaman, MN 463 (Malay Section), killed

2 January 1943

Astraea, illness

RIDLEY, Richard B, Chief Engineman, RNPS, LT/KX 124781, DOWS

Cerberus (RAN), accident

STEWART, Lindsay J, Steward, B 3981 (RANR), killed

Empire March, steamship

CLARKE, Jesse, Gunner, RA, 3864586, (4/2 Maritime Regt, RA, O/P), killed

GOODYEAR, Henry D, Ty/Act/Leading Seaman (DEMS), P/J 47808, (President III, O/P), MPK

STEVENSON, Charles, Act/Able Seaman (DEMS), P/JX 275082, (President III, O/P), MPK

WHOAN, Sydney, Gunner, RA, 3864611, (4/2 Maritime Regt, RA, O/P), killed

Loyal, lost overboard

MAUGHAN, Martin, Able Seaman, C/JX 193749, MPK

Maidstone , road accident

ENGLAND, Henry, Able Seaman, P/JX 235922, killed

Monique Andree, drowning

POLLARD, Robert E, Ordinary Seaman, RNPS, LT/JX 345670, DOWS

Sambre, steamship, drowning

BRADDING, William H T, Act/Able Seaman (DEMS), P/JX 314652, (President III, O/P), DOWS

3 January 1943

British Vigilance, steamship

DAWSON, George, Act/Able Seaman (DEMS), C/JX 334601, (President III, O/P), MPK

MERCHANT, Harry C, Act/Able Seaman (DEMS), D/JX 345032, (President III, O/P), MPK

Drake, illness

MAY, Edwin, Leading Stoker, D/K 16760, died

RM 2nd Engineer Company, road accident

BATES, Frank E, Marine, CH/X 102809, DOWS

RM Portsmouth Division

MCCANDLESS, James H, Marine, RME 12597, died

South African Naval Force

PETERS, Norman, Leading Stoker, 66847 (SANF), died

Thunderbolt, in harbour during attack

SIMPSON, Walter R, Able Seaman, D/JX 204233, (Chariot/human torpedo crewman, O/P), killed

Trooper, in harbour during attack

COOK, Harold F, Lieutenant, RNVR, (Chariot/human torpedo crewman, O/P), MPK

4 January 1943

Bodø, ex-Gos 8, Norwegian patrol craft, ex-whaler, ship loss (click here for 32 Norwegian casualties)

BUTLER, Robert J, Ty/Sub Lieutenant, RNVR, MPK

WATSON, Reginald T, Telegraphist, D/JX 342589, MPK

Cerinthus, steamship

HERBAGE, Sidney G, Act/Able Seaman (DEMS), C/JX 337728, (President III, O/P), DOWS

Drake

NEATE, Cyril F C, Lieutenant Commander, died

5 January 1943

Achilles (RNZN) (right - NavyPhotos), bombing

COLEMAN, Richard S, Marine, CH/X 627, killed

FITZGERALD, Richard E, Marine, PO/X 3686, killed

GRICE, Bernard F, Able Seaman, 1801 (RNZN), MPK

HALCROW, Robert J, Ordinary Seaman, 4776 (RNZN), MPK

HONEYFIELD, Henry J, Boy 1c, 2755 (RNZN), MPK

MENEELY, James, Marine, PO/22451, killed

PINKNEY, Frank, Marine, CH/X 2717, killed

ROGERS, William J A, Leading Seaman, 1213 (RNZN), killed

SAUNDERS, Frank T, Colour Sergeant, RM, PLY/22053, killed

SHIELDS, Francis H, Corporal, RM, PO/X 653, killed

SMITH, Frank W, Marine, CH/X 3001, killed

TOWNLEY, Leonard W H, Marine, PO/X 4470, DOW

Drake, illness

BYGRAVE, Charles W, Act/Steward, D/LX 32106, died

Racehorse, lost overboard

FOTHERGILL, Stanley, Ordinary Seaman, P/JX 380704, MPK

Vansittart, lost overboard

JONES, Robert A, Steward, D/LX 26474, MPK

PATRICK, Maurice G, Ordinary Seaman, D/JX 341695, MPK

6 January 1943

Achilles (RNZN), bombing

LEVETT, George A, Ordnance Artificer 2c, 1996 (RNZN), DOW

Avalon

SHERGO, Samuel C, Able Seaman, D/JX 142746, served in Anchusa, probably iillness, DOWS, buried at St Johns

Bengali, ship loss

CROSIER, Dennis, Stoker, RNPS, LT/KX 119679, DOW

Europa, illness

MURRAY, Alexander, Stoker 1c, RNPS, LT/KX105700, died

FAA, 821 Sqn, Grebe, air operations

BAILEY, Raymond D, Ty/Sub Lieutenant (A), RNVR, killed

FAA, 821 Sqn, St Angelo, air operations

SERGEANT, Eric, Ty/Sub Lieutenant (A), RNVR, killed

Nile, illness

MASON, Jack C, Lieutenant, RNVR, died

7 January 1943

5/3 Maritime Regt, RA

PINNER, John C, Gunner, RA, 1776616, killed

Benalbanach, steamship

BORLAND, Albert, Gunner, RA, 2209459, (2/1 Maritime Regt, RA, O/P), killed

CARTER, Henry J, Ty/Act/Leading Seaman, RNVR, (DEMS), C/LD/X 4052, (President III, O/P), MPK

COLE, Hugh D, Convoy Signalman, C/JX 234034, (President III, O/P), MPK

COLLARD, Ronald E, Convoy Signalman, C/JX 234035, (President III, O/P), MPK

COX, John T, Convoy Signalman, C/JX 269612, (President III, O/P), MPK

CURTIS, Alfred P, Act/Able Seaman (DEMS), C/JX 235854, (President III, O/P), MPK

EVANS, John T, Act/Able Seaman (DEMS), D/JX 230384, (President III, O/P), MPK

HENDRY, James H W, Gunner, RA, 2824959, (1/1 Maritime Regt, RA, O/P), killed

HOBBIS, John C, Act/Able Seaman (DEMS), D/JX 306300, (President III, O/P), MPK

LAW, James F, Act/Able Seaman (DEMS), C/JX 335709, (President III, O/P), MPK

MATHARS, Henry W, Act/Able Seaman (DEMS), D/JX 345008, (President III, O/P), MPK

MCKENNA, Joseph P/, Gunner, RA, 3319565, (2/1 Maritime Regt, RA, O/P), killed

POLLARD, William, Act/Able Seaman (DEMS), C/JX 333167, (President III, O/P), MPK

RUDD, James E, Act/Able Seaman (DEMS), C/JX 338273, (President III, O/P), MPK

SIMPSON, William J, Gunner, RA, 4755161, (1/1 Maritime Regt, RA, O/P), killed

SMITH, George, Lance Bombardier, RA, 3456485, (1/1 Maritime Regt, RA, O/P), killed

Claverhouse, lost overboard

PERICO, Peter W, Ordinary Seaman, RNPS, LT/JX 373812, MPK

Horatio, ship loss

ANDREWS, Norman S, Lieutenant, RNVR, MPK

BLACKWELL, Henry R, Seaman, RNPS, LT/JX 263493, MPK

BRAINCH, Norman R, Stoker, RNPS, LT/KX 148468, MPK

CHALMERS, James W, Leading Seaman, RNR (PS), LT/X 21225 A, MPK

CLAPHAM, Arthur G B, Ordinary Signalman, RNVR, P/LD/X 4413, MPK

CRITTENDEN, John L, Engineman, RNPS, LT/KX 103710, MPK

CROSBY, John R, Lieutenant, RNVR, MPK

CUMMINS, Alfred T, Leading Stoker, RNR (PS), LT/X 4027 T, MPK

GORMLEY, Daniel, Telegraphist, P/JX 298238, MPK

HEARD, Peter, Leading Seaman, RNPS, LT/JX 225030, MPK

KELLETT, William, Engineman, RNPS, LT/JX 126766, MPK

LANGFORD, Richard, Seaman, RNPS, LT/JX 241079, MPK

LARDER, Christopher G, Seaman, RNPS, LT/JX 177544, MPK

LEMKEY, Charles A, Lieutenant, RNR, killed

MCCRAN, John R, Stoker 2c, C/KX 146286, MPK

MCDONALD, Thomas, Stoker, RNPS, LT/KX 106454, MPK

PEARSON, Frederick, Signalman, P/JX 247370, MPK

PENDLE, John N H, Seaman, RNPS, LT/JX 206587, MPK

PLATT, Norman T, Assistant Steward, LT/LX 31716, MPK

RICHARDS, Francis V, Seaman, RNPS, LT/JX 242672, MPK

ROPER, David R V, Lieutenant, RNVR, MPK

ROWE, Albert E, Leading Cook, RNPS, LT/MX 84869, MPK

SAVAGE, Ernest A D, Stoker, RNPS, LT/KX 124739, MPK

SELLARS, Harold W, Stoker 2c, RNPS+C7692, LT/KX 149059, MPK

WALSH, Patrick J, Leading Seaman, RNPS, LT/JX 246657, MPK

WEBB, Alfred H, Leading Steward, RNPS, LT/LX 27536, MPK

WELBURN, John H H, Chief Engineman, RNPS, LT/JX 124507, MPK

WHITCHER, Stanley R, Cook, RNPS, LT/MX 94363, MPK

WILDMAN, William, Ordinary Telegraphist, P/JX 199742, MPK

WILKINSON, Thomas, Leading Seaman, RNPS, LT/JX 195928, MPK

WYLIE, James E R, Leading Seaman, RNPS, LT/JX 209272, MPK

Jura, ship loss

ABBOTTS, Harold, Seaman, RNPS, LT/JX 237414, MPK

ANDERSON, Alfred E I V, Chief Engineman, RNPS, LT/KX 114600, MPK

CARTER, Ronald S, Ty/Sub Lieutenant, RNVR, killed

COOK, Francis W, Ordinary Seaman, RNPS, LT/JX 280991, MPK

CRAWSHAW, John, Ty/Sub Lieutenant, RNVR, MPK

DRYBURGH, George, Seaman, RNPS, LT/JX 277468, MPK

HARTWELL, Stanley J, Engineman, RNPS, LT/KX 128728, MPK

HAVERCROFT, Eric, Ty/Lieutenant, RNR, MPK

MARSHALL, William B, Stoker 2c, RNPS, LT/KX 137243, MPK

MERRIMAN, Sidney L, Cook, RNPS, LT/MX 100317, MPK

READING, George A C, Stoker, RNPS, LT/KX 148657, MPK

RENYARD, Albert E, Act/Petty Officer, P/JX 149708, MPK

SKELTON, David T, Ordinary Signalman, C/JX 250391, MPK

SMITH, Alexander, Engineman, RNPS, LT/SR 50006, MPK

VALERIANI, Lawrence, Seaman, RNPS, LT/JX 280897, MPK

WILSON, William H, 2nd Hand, RNR (PS), LT/X 19859 A, MPK

YOUNG, Albert E, Steward, P/LX 24735, MPK

ML.100, drowning

EVANS, Joshua T D, Petty Officer Motor Mechanic, C/MX 72650, DOWS

(Nichimei Maru), Japanese steamship, as POW

MCCREDIE, George H, Stoker 2c, S 5456 (RANR), (Perth), MPK

SMITH, Robert W, Steward, 21238 (RAN), MPK

Onslow, surface action

HOOPER, Leonard G, Ty/Act/Leading Seaman, D/J 110317, DOW

KENDALL, Wilfred A, Ty/Act/Petty Officer, D/J 114830, DOW

8 January 1943

Avalon (RCN)

POULIOT, Joseph D, Engine Room Artificer 4c, A 2901 (RCNR), killed

Dalhousie (RIN)

BABU, Puniakutti M, Cook (O), 75023 (RIN), died

FAA, 889 Sqn, Grebe, air crash

SMITH, Alan R, Sub Lieutenant, RNR, killed

Flora, illness

BRAYNE, Victor H, Stoker 2c, D/KX 150408, died

Holdfast

LINCOLN, Robert G, Py/Electrical Mechanic, C/MX 92565, DOWS

King George V, illness

GIBSON, Samuel M, Supply Assistant, P/MX 83528, died

Oltenia II, steamship

FINCHAM, Robert H, Act/Able Seaman, P/JX 209691, (President III, O/P), MPK

LASHAM, Albert E J, Act/Able Seaman (DEMS), P/JX 289405, (President III, O/P), MPK

SELLORS, John, Act/Able Seaman (DEMS), P/JX 250042, (President III, O/P), MPK

Vanessa, lost overboard

BRUCE, Allan F, Seaman, RNR, P/X 19766 A, killed

9 January 1943

3/2 Maritime Regt, RA

CARLISLE, Richard, Lance Bombardier, RA, 4467298, killed

Alcantara

HITCHEN, John A, Able Seaman, D/J 47032, killed

Bustler

FAIRLESS, John R, Seaman, T.124 X, drowning, MPK

NOLAN, Thomas, Donkeyman, T.124 X, MPK

Dunaberg (RAN)

DILLON, John J, Ordinary Seaman, B 3561 (RANR), killed

Empire Lytton, steamship

DICKENS, William, Act/Able Seaman (DEMS), P/JX 336984, (President III, O/P), MPK

OUTRED, Charles E, Act/Able Seaman (DEMS), C/JX 250069, (President III, O/P), MPK

PARSONS, Willis H, Marine (DEMS), CH/24425, (President III, O/P), MPK

Ladybird , illness

JOYCE, Frederick W, Able Seaman, D/JX 138835, died

Tracker , illness

THOMAS, William H, Assistant Steward, NAP R 206740, died

10 January 1943

4 Maritime Regt, RA

BELDAM, William J W, Lance Sergeant, RA, 1064834, killed

Aggressive, illness

HOOPER, Brereton R, Commander, died

British Dominion, steamship

JORDAN, Archibald, Act/Able Seaman (DEMS), P/JX 337689, (President III, O/P), MPK

FAA, 823 Sqn, Daedalus, air crash

MCEVOY, Patrick J, Ty/Act/Leading Airman, FAA/FX 86555, DOW

Pembroke I, illness

FLETCHER, Clement A, Chief Petty Officer, C/J 3205, died

President V

SKINNER, Herbert L, Py/Writer, D/MX 106852, DOW

Rumba

SILVERSON, Albert, Seaman, RNPS, LT/JX 200711, DOWS

Salsette, illness

TODD, Frederick T, Ty/Act/Lieutenant, RNVR, died

San Cipriano, steamship

KITTLE, Thomas W J, Act/Able Seaman (DEMS), D/JX 249493, (President III, O/P), killed

MALCOLM, Robert, Ty/Leading Seaman, D/JX 186043, killed

Sir Geraint, drowning

YOUNG, Charles, Ty/Skipper, RNR, killed

11 January 1943

British Dominion, steamship, lost

BALLARD, Alexander, Gunner, RA, 5679155, 6/3 Maritime Regt, RA, killed

HARRISON, Harold L, Gunner, RA, 4622833, 5/3 Maritime Regt, RA, killed

JORDAN, Archibald, Act/Able Seaman (DEMS), P/JX 337689 (President III, O/P), MPK

STORK, Stanley M, Gunner, RA, 4757830, 6/3 Maritime Regt, RA, killed

Caribia, steamship

NORMAN, Henry W G, Act/Able Seaman (DEMS), P/JX 339789, (President III, O/P), killed

Daedalus, illness

FERGUSON, John G, Air Fitter, FAA/FX 88375, died

FAA, 821 Sqn, St Angelo, air operations

DAWSON, Thomas J, Ty/Act/Leading Airman, FAA/JX 243176, MPK

LAMB, Ian, Ty/Sub Lieutenant (A), RNVR, killed

MAUND, Michael R, Lieutenant, killed

Inglefield, lost overboard

BATES, John, Able Seaman, D/JX 306112, MPK

Pembroke, illness

HILL, Maurice, Engine Room Artificer 1c, C/272144, died

Penguin (RAN), illness

SHEARER, Harry J, Able Seaman, S 3634 (RANR), died

RM 2nd Anti-Tank Battery

TIDY, George T, Marine, CH/X 106805, DOWS

Sultan, as POW

GRANDIDGE, George K W, Coder, D/JX 218091, died

12 January 1943

Breda, road accident

HENDERSON, Charles G, Steward, NAP 939076, killed

Drake

TAYLOR, John A, Steward, D/LX 22339, died

Faulknor, lost overboard

GOODGER, Douglas J, Petty Officer, P/SSX 20796, MPK

Kilele

NORTH, Norman E J, Air Mechanic (O) 2c, FAA /FX 81835, DOWS

Kingston Jacinth, ship loss

BATCHELOR, John J, Seaman, RNPS, LT/JX 253440, killed

BOWRING, Walter F, Ordinary Seaman, RNPS, LT/JX 383523, MPK

CLAYDON, Alfred W, Leading Cook, RNPS, LT/MX 87143, MPK

COWELL, Jack, Ordinary Telegraphist, P/JX 341072, killed

CRABTREE, Gordon, Seaman, RNPS, LT/JX 225731, MPK

DODD, Thomas J, Leading Seaman, RNR (PS), LT/X 21273 A, MPK

DUFFELL, Ronald B, Ordinary Telegraphist, C/JX 211170, killed

ELMS, Leslie A C, Ordinary Seaman, RNPS, LT/JX 330704, killed

EMSLEY, Walter, Leading Seaman, RNPS, LT/SR 55724, MPK

FISK, Jack W, Leading Steward, RNPS, LT/LX 27780, MPK

FREETHY, Thomas J, Engineman, RNPS, LT/KX 110385, MPK

GARNER, Cecil G, Ordinary Seaman, RNPS, LT/JX 380152, killed

JORDAN, Henry, Seaman, RNPS, LT/JX 254442, killed

MOYSE, Ronald P, Engineman, RNR (PS), LT/X 10029 S, MPK

MULREIN, Owen, Stoker, RNPS, LT/KX 121458, killed

PEARSON, Matthew H, Seaman, RNPS, LT/JX 227333, killed

SIMMONS, Dennis J, Ordinary Signalman, C/JX 344260, killed

WHITLEY, Alfred J, Seaman, RNPS, LT/JX 210401, killed

WILEMAN, Samuel A, 2nd Hand, RNPS, LT/JX 203761, MPK

WITHERS, Walter J, Stoker, RNPS, LT/KX 145383, MPK

RM 101th Brigade, road accident

HINDE, Philip A, Marine, CH/X 106542, DOWS

RM Plymouth Division, illness

COX, Stanley B, Marine, PLY/X 2819, died

WILLCOX, William L, Marine, PLY/13022, died

RM Portsmouth Division, road accident

RIGSBY, George H, Marine, PO/X 104987, killed

13 January 1943

Cobalt (RCN)

GRAHAM, James A, Able Seaman, A 4193 (RCNR), killed

Excellent, drowning

NASH, Ernest H, Act/Able Seaman, C/JX 182222, died

FAA, 767 Sqn, Condor, air crash

KEIR, George P, Ty/Sub Lieutenant (A), RNVR, MPK

FAA, 826 Sqn, Daedalus, air crash

CUNNINGHAM, John L S, Lieutenant, RCNVR, MPK

FAA, 892 Sqn, Battler , air crash

STEPHENSON, Ivel F B, Ty/Sub Lieutenant (A), RNVR, killed

Illustrious , drowning

WATERS, William E, Lieutenant Commander, died

Leeuwin (RAN), illness

MUTTON, William H, Lieutenant, RANVR, died

Manchester Port, steamship

ROSTRON, Bernard, Convoy Leading Signalman, C/JX 171087, (President III, O/P), DOWS

Victory III, illness

MCLEAN, Hector, Telegraphist, P/WRX 740, died

14 January 1943

Daedalus, illness

MAHER, Howard, Air Fitter (A), FAA/FX 86781, died

FAA, 795 Sqn, Kilele, air crash

THOMPSON, Arthur G, Ty/Sub Lieutenant (A), RNZNVR, killed

Gambia , illness

RILEY, Harry, Commander, died

President, illness

ROBERTS-WRAY, Whomas H, Captain, RNVR, died

Quebec, accident

SINCLAIR, Joseph W, Lieutenant, RNR, killed

RN Hospital Plymouth, illness

HURFORD, Arthur, Captain, RM, died

Stadacona (RCN)

PATERSON, Charles W, Sub Lieutenant, RCNVR, died

15 January 1943

Harboe Jensen, steamship

NUDD, George E, Act/Able Seaman (DEMS), C/JX 334105, (President III, O/P), MPK

PREECE, Douglas J, Act/Able Seaman (DEMS), P/JX 227270, (President III, O/P), MPK

Ocean Courage, steamship

HANDLEY, Arthur, Gunner, RA, 7045828, (4/2 Maritime Regt, RA, O/P), killed

JEFFERSON, Thomas C, Act/Able Seaman (DEMS), P/JX 335821, (President III, O/P), MPK

MARTIN, Harry, Lance Bombardier, RA, 6982222, (4/2 Maritime Regt, RA, O/P), killed

MORGAN, Lewis J, Act/Able Seaman (DEMS), P/JX 289580, (President III, O/P), MPK

MORRISON, James E, Act/Able Seaman (DEMS), D/JX 291712, (President III, O/P), MPK

SMALE, George H, Act/Able Seaman (DEMS), P/JX 290720, (President III, O/P), MPK

Philoctetes, illness

BALFOUR, William J, Ty/Lieutenant, RNR, died

Roxborough, storm weather

BRITTAN, Francis A, Able Seaman, C/SSX 32754, lost overboard, MPK

OSBORNE, Gordon, Ty/Lieutenant, RNVR, DOW after bridge crushed by wave

PRICE, Alfred C, Lieutenant Commander, killed when bridge crushed by wave

Royal Indian Navy

ALLAKKAT, Sukumaran, Telegraphist, 7891 (RIN), died

16 January 1943

Alca, illness

WRIGHT, John T F, Wireman, P/JX 220861, died

Collingwood, illness

GILLOTT, Arthur, Ordinary Seaman, JX 389244, died

Evolution, explosion

DARRAGH, Herbert, Able Seaman, D/SSX 30785, killed

Glendower

HERRICK, George F, Ordinary Seaman, JX 395151, died

Marshall Soult, illness

CLIFT, John C, Petty Officer, P/J 45270, died

Pembroke, accident

HATHAWAY, Stanley G, Convoy Ordinary Signalman, C/JX 343190, killed

17 January 1943

Drake I, drowning

HARTLEY, Herbert, Able Seaman, D/JX 288493, died

Hannibal

JOSEPH, Morris, Marine, PO/X 112840, killed

Lonsdale (RAN), accident

PIERCE, Norman A, Stoker, PM 1887 (RANR), killed

Northney

GRIFFITHS, Thomas, Able Seaman, D/JX 256976, killed

KING, Leonard C, Able Seaman, D/JX 255655, killed

Shrapnel

MASON, Harold J O, Ordinary Seaman, C/JX 353714, died

Sikh, as POW

DAVIS, Cyril E, Signalman, C/JX 225344, died

St Angelo, illness

BECKETT, James D, Able Seaman, P/J 102774, (Thunderbolt), died

18 January 1943

Drake, illness

SWEET, William, Stoker 1c, D/KX 111237, died

FAA, 781 Training Sqn, Heron, flying a Fairey Fulmar II from St Merryn, crashed into high ground in low visibility near Okehampton, Devon and burnt out

TRAFFORD, Richard Randolph W, Ty/Lieutenant (A), RNVR, killed

TYRELL, John W, Act/Air Artificer 4c, FAA/FX 77457, killed

Ironclad

GREEN, Jack A, Ordinary Telegraphist, C/JX 298924, killed

Lucifer, accident

MELHUISH, Marion G, Leading WRNS, WA/WRNS 11848, killed

RAF, 614 Sqn, road accident

CLEAK, Francis C G, Ty/Sub Lieutenant (A), RNVR, killed

19 January 1943

Alecto, illness

HARKNETT, Albert V, Stoker 1c, C/SS 119223, died

Moreton (RAN), accident

WREN, David J, Able Seaman, B 2819 (RANR), killed

RAF, 185 Sqn, air crash

PRATT, Ernest F, Ty/Sub Lieutenant (A), RNZNVR, killed

Rodney

REYNOLDS, John A, Stoker 2c, D/KX 123837, killed

Titania, as POW, executed

EVANS, Robert P, Able Seaman, D/JX 283626, killed

20 January 1943

Chelsea, lost overboard

MORGAN, Robert R, Ordinary Seaman, D/JX 305742, MPK

Cypress, mining

COOK, Thomas A, Seaman, RNPS, LT/JX 222777, MPK

HOLLAND, John R, Ordinary Seaman, RNPS, LT/JX 381006, MPK

SMALE, Arthur C, Steward, RNPS, LT/KX 30264, MPK

THOMSON, Thomas, Ordinary Seaman, RNPS, LT/JX 281115, MPK

FAA, 889 Sqn, Sparrowhawk, air crash

BARBER, Douglas L F, Ty/Act/Sub Lieutenant (A), RNVR, killed

Fandango, illness

HARVEY, Thomas, Seaman, RNPS, LT/JX 262537, DOWS

President, bombing

CHALMER, Alexander R, Commander, Rtd, killed

(Somdong Maru), Japanese steamship, as POW

VIVIAN, Henry R D, Able Seaman, 22163 (RAN), (Perth), MPK

21 January 1943

Afrikander, drowning

CONNOR, Arthur, Telegraphist, D/WRX/1095, died

FAA, 821 Sqn, Grebe, air operations

CRITOPH, Gordan W, Ty/Sub Lieutenant (A), RNVR, killed

STAPLETON, Miles H, Ty/Lieutenant (A), RNVR, killed

Hooghly II (RIN)

AFAZ-UD-DIN, Rajad A, Ordinary Seaman, 73885 (RIN), died

Moreta, accident

LEACH, Alfred G, Electrical Artificer 1c, C/MX 465599, killed

Stronghold, as POW

CRAWFORD, George W, Stoker 1c, C/KX 107328, died

Vita, illness

EMISON, Edmund, Leading Sick Berth Attendant, D/SBR/X 7137, died

Wildfire, illness

DARBY, George K, Chief Yeoman of Signals, C/192960, died

22 January 1943

Albatross , drowning

LOCK, Leslie, Air Mechanic 2c, FAA/FX 94073, killed

FAA, 821 Sqn, St Angelo, air operations

GRAHAM, Malise A, Ty/Sub Lieutenant (A), RNVR, killed

Patricia Cam (RAN), ship loss

JOHNSTON, Andrew A, Ordinary Seaman, B 3815 (RANR), MPK

MOFFITT, William R, Chief Engine Room Artificer, 24501 (RAN), MPK

NOBES, Edward D, Able Seaman, PA 2319 (RANR), MPK

PENGLASE, Neil G, Ordinary Seaman, PA 2516 (RANR), MPK

Royal Navy

ANDREWS, George R, Chief Petty Officer Stoker, C/K 60880, died

Sandhurst, illness

KNOWLES, Gordon C E, Sick Berth Attendant, C/MX 84732, died

St Sunniva, steamship

ANDERSON, Douglas, Act/Able Seaman (DEMS), P/JX 312619, (President III, O/P), MPK

BARLOW, Albert W, Act/Able Seaman (DEMS), P/JX 335076, (President III, O/P), MPK

CALLAGHAN, Bernard, Gunner, RA, 1821370, (7/4 Maritime Regt, RA, O/P), killed

CHRISTER, Robert E W, Sick Berth Attendant (DEMS), C/MX 109355, (President III, O/P), MPK

COOK, William, Gunner, RA, 1826034, (7/4 Maritime Regt, RA, O/P), killed

DAVIES, Claude M, Ty/Py/Surgeon Lieutenant, RNVR, (Spartiate, O/P), killed

DOVE, Alan G J, Convoy Signalman, C/JX 309935, (President III, O/P), MPK

HAWKRIDGE, William L, Sick Berth Attendant, C/MX 109227, (President III, O/P), MPK

HOGAN, John J, Act/Able Seaman (DEMS), D/JX 345350, (President III, O/P), MPK

HOWE, John H, Gunner, RA, 1754676, (7/4 Maritime Regt, RA, O/P), killed

LINDSAY, David P, Act/Able Seaman (DEMS), C/JX 249698, (President III, O/P), MPK

MCINERNEY, Joseph J, Gunner, RA, 1821351, (7/4 Maritime Regt, RA, O/P), killed

MORLEY, Richard W, Ty/Act/Leading Seaman (DEM), C/JX 201866, (President III, O/P), MPK

PEAD, Henry D, Lance Bombardier, RA, 6968723, (7/4 Maritime Regt, RA, O/P), killed

RALPH, Gerald G, Bombardier, RA, 4755362, (7/4 Maritime Regt, RA, O/P), killed

WAKELING, John E, Act/Able Seaman (DEMS), C/JX 339510, (President III, O/P), MPK

WHITE, Robert, Convoy Signalman, C/JX 269287, (President III, O/P), MPK

23 January 1943

Hannibal

ROBINS, George E, Able Seaman, P/JX 221838, killed

Lackenby, steamship

GASS, Leslie, Act/Able Seaman (DEMS), C/JX 337528, (President III, O/P), MPK

GILL, Albert E, Gunner, RA, 5190923, (5/3 Maritime Regt, RA, O/P), killed

KEY, Harry, Ty/Act/Leading Seaman, C/JX 190598, (President III, O/P), MPK

LUPTON, James T, Act/Able Seaman (DEMS), P/JX 291864, (President III, O/P), MPK

MELVILLE, David, Gunner, RA, 901207, (5/3 Maritime Regt, RA, O/P), killed

RUSSELL, Ernest L L, Gunner, RA, 5673605, (5/3 Maritime Regt, RA, O/P), killed

THOMPSON, Jack, Act/Able Seaman (DEMS), P/JX 334325, (President III, O/P), MPK

Laforey, illness

BRIGGS, Charles D H, Commander (E), died

Mosquito

STANGROOME, Percy A S, Stoker 2c, C/KX 118809, DOWS

Patricia Cam (RAN), ship loss

CAMERON, Percival J, Chief Petty Officer Stoker, S 6670 (RANR), DOW

Phoenix, illness

FLAVEL, Robert, Lieutenant (A), RNVR, died

Platypus (RAN), accident

MARJASON, Edna, Writer, WR 1241 (WRAN), killed

Resource , illness

SHENTON, Cort N, Ty/Warrant Electrician, died

24 January 1943

6/3 Maritime Regt, RA

SMITH, James A, Gunner, RA, 11408006, killed

Chatham (RCN)

GOREING, Frank, Ordinary Seaman, 4524 (RCN), killed

Dalhousie (RIN)

ALI, Muhammad K, Petty Officer, 2393 (RIN), died

HUSAIN, Khan, Able Seaman, 5601 (RIN), died

Madoera, steamship

BOARDMAN, Harold, Act/Able Seaman (DEMS), P/JX 235880, (President III, O/P), MPK

Mulgrave (RCN)

HORSFALL, Clifford, Stoker 2c, V 40851 (RCNVR), died

Northney, illness

ROBSON, Dudley, Act/Lieutenant Commander, RANVR, died

Osborne, illness

DEACON, Harry, Able Seaman, P/J 35415, died

Paragon

WHITE, Arthur H, Able Seaman, P/JX 307706, died

Sparrowhawk, lost overboard

ATTWOOD, William, Air Mechanic 1c, FAA/FX 8570, killed

Tamar, as POW

STOKES, David, Able Seaman, P/J 34983, died

Trelawney, illness

STEWART, Roderick, Petty Officer Canteen Assistant, C/NX 2106, died

Ville de Tamatave, steamship

BALDWIN, Eric, Convoy Signalman, C/JX 172441, (President III, O/P), MPK

BROWNRIGG, Henry J S, Admiral, Rtd, (Eaglet, O/P), MPK

BUDD, Adrian S, Convoy Signalman, C/JX 271619, (President III, O/P), MPK

CHILD, Walter G, Act/Petty Officer Telegraphist, C/WRX 345, (President III, O/P), MPK

COLLINS, Peter, Convoy Leading Signalman, C/JX 172451, (President III, O/P), MPK

HARRIS, Arthur J, Act/Able Seaman (DEMS), C/JX 338096, (President III, O/P), MPK

MATTHEWS, William E, Act/Able Seaman (DEMS), P/JX 338116, (President III, O/P), MPK

MOORE, Edward R, Convoy Ordinary Signalman, C/JX 342976, (President III, O/P), MPK

NORTHAM, Leonard C, Act/Able Seaman (DEMS), D/JX 208472, (President III, O/P), MPK

RANDLES, Thomas, Act/Able Seaman (DEMS), D/JX 239973, (President III, O/P), MPK

SILVESTER, Charles R, Act/Convoy Yeoman of Signals, C/JX 172055, (President III, O/P), MPK

THORNTON, John F, Gunner, RA, 14276466, (6/3 Maritime Regt, RA, O/P), killed

WOODWARD, Joseph, Lance Bombardier, RA, 3717340, (6/3 Maritime Regt, RA, O/P), killed

Woolwich, accident

EAVES, Eugene V, Joiner 3c, P/MX 59879, killed

25 January 1943

Corncrake, ship loss

BAIN, James C, Assistant Cook (S), C/MX 101285, MPK

BARBET, Harold C, Ordinary Seaman, C/JX 372934, MPK

CLAPP, Francis H, Able Seaman, C/JX 173810, MPK

COBB, Albert W, Ty/Sub Lieutenant, RNVR, MPK

COLLINS, Arthur J, Stoker 1c, C/KX 104499, MPK

COOKE, Peter P, Ordinary Seaman, C/JX 375049, MPK

DAVIES, Robert O, Chief Petty Officer Stoker, C/K 62527, MPK

DILLEY, Lewis H J, Ordinary Telegraphist, C/JX 342413, MPK

DRAY, Charles G, Stoker Petty Officer, C/KX 75634, MPK

FRENCH, Horace F, Ordinary Seaman, C/JX 355276, MPK

HAMBLY, Cyril F, Ty/Lieutenant, RNVR, MPK

IMHOFE, Alfred W, Assistant Steward, C/LX 32241, killed

JACOMB, John P, Stoker 1c, C/KX 97887, MPK

LAVERY, Vincent H, Stoker 2c, P/KX 155403, MPK

LEDGER, George A, Ordinary Seaman, C/JX 366025, MPK

MCMINN, Maxwell, Mechanician 1c, C/K 67133, MPK

PERRY, Thomas E, Ty/Petty Officer, RFR, C/J 105371, MPK

PURSER, Walter J, Able Seaman, C/JX 190616, MPK

QUATREMAIN, Alan P, Ordinary Signalman, C/JX 357345, MPK

RENFREW, Lewis R, Ty/Act/Lieutenant Commander, RNR, MPK

ROSOMAN, Alfred M, Act/Able Seaman, C/JX 199992, killed

WALMSLEY, Charles, Able Seaman, C/JX 299240, killed

WILLS, Harry, Ty/Act/Leading Seaman, C/JX 148579, MPK

Drake IV, as POW

WILKINSON, John, Engine Room Artificer 2c, D/MX 48436, died

FAA, 700 Sqn, Cormorant, air crash

CHESTER, Bernard, Petty Officer Airman, FAA/FX 82258, killed

Kipanga

COODE, Trevenen P, Act/Commander, killed

Lord Lloyd, lost overboard

WOODMAN, John S, Seaman, RNR (PS), LT/X 9840 B, DOWS

President III, drowning

HAMMOND, Maurice J, Act/Able Seaman (DEMS), P/JX 291518, killed

RM 1st Light AA Regt

STOCK, Owen G, Ty/Act/Corporal, RM, PO/X 110510, killed

26 January 1943

Assegai, illness

BOYLER, John H, Ordnance Artificer 5c, C/MX 96735, died

Benbow, road accident

FRY, John W, Leading Stoker, C/K 14575, killed

Defiance, illness

WILKINS, Victor A J, Leading Seaman, D/JX 30171, died

Drake, illness

COGHLAN, James L, Able Seaman, D/SSX 27603, died

Leeds, drowning

DIXON, William A, Able Seaman, P/JX 297176, died

Osprey, illness

FLETT, George W, Able Seaman, C/JX 158466, died

President II, illness

ARMISTEAD, Reginald, Signalman, C/JX 227563, died

Ranchi, accident

BAILEY, Ronald J C, Able Seaman, P/JX 236689, killed

Sorel (RCN)

HEFFERMAN, William J, Able Seaman, V 18222 (RCNVR), killed

27 January 1943

Assegai

GITTINS, Victor L, Ordinary Seaman, 69325 (SANF), died

Condor, illness

THARME, Frederick R, Air Fitter (E), FAA/FX 77319, died

FAA, 785/786 Sqn, Jackdaw, air crash

KORDIK, Deryk J, Ty/Sub Lieutenant (A), RNVR, killed

RM Portsmouth Division, illness

BOOKER, Frederick, Marine, PO/14015, died

28 January 1943

Cabot, accident

KELLETT, David R, Stoker 2c, C/KX 155595, killed

LCT.2437, lost overboard

COX, Norman T M, Act/Leading Stoker, P/KX 97015, MPK

Lucifer, accident

HUZZEY, Joan M, WRNS, WA/WRNS 35058, killed

Mansfield, lost overboard

WATSON, Dennis V, Able Seaman, C/JX 318115, MPK

Prince Robert (RCN)

WALSH, Patrick J, Leading Cook (S), V 12471 (RCNVR), died

29 January 1943

Avon Vale, torpedoed

ADSHEAD, Cyril C, Engine Room Artificer 4c, D/MX 53915, MPK

ALLISON, Arthur, Able Seaman, D/JX 345958, MPK

BOX, George C, Able Seaman, D/JX 125754, MPK

CLARK, William H, Able Seaman, D/JX 306965, MPK

CLARKE, George, Able Seaman, D/JX 290266, MPK

DUNNING, Dennis, Able Seaman, D/JX 290918, MPK

FRAZER, Reginald A, Leading Seaman, C/JX 127803, killed

GERRARD, James, Ty/Act/Leading Seaman, RNR, D/X 19110 A, MPK

GOODALL, Desmond R, Coder, D/JX 230027, MPK

GUMMERSALL, Harry, Able Seaman, D/JX 290857, MPK

HARRISON, Albert, Stoker 1c, D/KX 95801, MPK

JAMES, Peter B, Lieutenant, RNVR, killed

JENKINS, Charles A E, Ty/Leading Supply Assistant, D/MX 83012, killed

LANGLEY, John E, Telegraphist, D/JX 224755, MPK

LATCHFORD, William, Able Seaman, D/JX 303166, MPK

MAHOOD, Samuel, Able Seaman, D/SSX 25513, MPK

MARGETSTON, William L, Able Seaman, D/JX 288991, MPK

MCKENZIE, Alfred, Leading Steward, D/LX 26907, MPK

O'CALLAGHAN, James, Ordinary Seaman, D/JX 336755, killed

O'HAGAN, Bernard, Able Seaman, D/JX 302582, killed

ORR, Nicholas D, Cook, D/MX 72487, MPK

PIKE, Reginald G, Stoker 1c, D/KX 99148, MPK

RENOUF, Raymond C, Ty/Leading Steward, RNSR, D/SR 61344, killed

ROBERTS, Arnold G, Able Seaman, D/JX 250926, MPK

SPENCE, John, Able Seaman, D/JX 303162, MPK

SPRUCE, Ronald G, Able Seaman, D/JX 143716, MPK

TONES, Walter, Able Seaman, D/JX 283878, MPK

VALLANCE, Rene, Cook (O), P/MX 82909, MPK

WHITE, Robert W, Able Seaman, D/JX 303014, killed

WHITWORTH, Linderick H, Able Seaman, D/JX 256236, MPK

WORLEY, John, Stoker 1c, D/KX 136840, MPK

Cormorant

HAMILTON, Samuel F, Act/Leading Air Mechanic (E), FAA/FX 76837, killed

HITCHCOCK, Arthur A G, Air Mechanic 1c (A), FAA/FX 80911, killed

FAA, 749 Sqn, Goshawk, air crash

RICHARDSON, Claude G H, Ty/Lieutenant (A), RNVR, killed

Gosling I, illness

JOHNSTON, Margaret O, Cook, N/WRNS 36864, died

Kiwi (RNZN), surface action

BUCHANAN, Campbell H, Leading Signalman, O/7366 (RNZN), killed

MASON, William L, Ordinary Seaman, 5087 (RNZN), killed

ML.122, explosion

TURNER, John W, Leading Seaman, C/JX 190958, killed

Pozarica, torpedoed

BUTLER, Herbert V, Able Seaman, P/JX 219876, MPK

CARD, Brinley, Able Seaman, P/JX 325100, MPK

CRONE, Patrick, Ordinary Seaman, P/JX 261168, MPK

EVANS, Owain G, Able Seaman, RDF, P/JX 321997, killed

GLADWIN, Roy W, Able Seaman, RDF, P/JX 235813, killed

GOLDSWORTHY, Harold L, Able Seaman, P/JX 294834, killed

HITT, Henry C, Able Seaman, P/JX 217286, MPK

JAMES, David I, Assistant Steward, T.124 X, MPK

MECKIFF, Alfred W, Assistant Steward, T.124 X, MPK

MIREHOUSE, Thomas W, Able Seaman, P/JX 220192, MPK

MOORE, James H, Cook, T.124 X, MPK

NICHOLSON, Richard, Able Seaman, P/JX 235341, MPK

SANDERS, Henry McL, Petty Officer, P/JX 127374, MPK

SHAW, William, Able Seaman, P/JX 263455, MPK

UPSON, Eric D, Assistant Steward, T.124 X, MPK

Spartiate, illness

CAIRNDUFF, David, Chief Petty Officer Stoker, P/K 53075, died

Vest, steamship, road accident

TUDGE, James, Act/Able Seaman, D/JX 248805, killed

Victory, road accident

WHEELER, Roy E D, Ty/Surgeon Lieutenant, RNVR, killed

30 January 1943

Barnehurst, drowning

GENT, Joseph, Ordinary Seaman, R/JX 372582, killed

HOPWOOD, Richard T, Able Seaman, R/JX 328242, killed

Brighton II, illness

HATHAWAY, Malcolm R, Ordinary Telegraphist, C/JX 358850, died

FAA, 770 Sqn, Jackdaw, air crash

CHUTER, Frederick C, Act/Leading Photographer, P/MX 79995, MPK

WILSON, John L, Ty/Lieutenant (A), RNVR, killed

ML.122

RICHARDSON, Frank, Able Seaman, D/JX 345147, killed

Pozarica, torpedoed

BLANDFORD, Francis T, Able Seaman, RFR, P/J 59365, DOW

FLETCHER, Josiah T, Able Seaman, P/JX 273281, DOW

KNIGHT, Albert, Able Seaman, P/JX 297181, DOW

ROBERTSON, James H, Able Seaman, P/JX 228423, DOW

Samphire, ship loss

ABBOTT, George C, Ty/Sub Lieutenant, RNVR, MPK

ALEXANDER, Thomas J, Stoker 1c, C/KX 121425, MPK

ANDREWS, Raymond D, Steward, C/LX 27996, MPK

AYRES, Gerald C, Able Seaman, C/JX 347637, MPK

BAKER, Jack C, Ordinary Coder, C/JX 270305, MPK

BELFIELD, Denis R, Ordinary Seaman, C/JX 347821, MPK

BELL, Frederick T, Able Seaman, C/JX 316744, MPK

CANFIELD, Edward J, Leading Telegraphist, C/J 74086, MPK

CARP, Louis D, Able Seaman, C/JX 182579, MPK

CLAYTON, Charles B, Able Seaman, C/JX 317923, MPK

DILLON, William, Stoker 1c, C/KX 134381, MPK

EXTON, Clifford J, Stoker 1c, C/KX 110601, MPK

FERRY, John, Able Seaman, C/JX 154548, MPK

FISHER, Mark W, Act/Stoker 1c, C/KX 120569, MPK

FOX, William G H, Chief Mechanician, D/K 61141, MPK

HEATHER, Harold A H, Telegraphist, C/JX 154870, MPK

JONES, John W, Able Seaman, C/JX 130272, MPK

KELLY, Robert N M, Ordinary Signalman, C/JX 270841, MPK

LAWMAN, Sidney, Ty/Leading Steward, C/LX 26624, MPK

LAWSON, Robert, Ordinary Seaman, C/JX 331272, MPK

LEEKS, Arthur, Able Seaman, C/JX 230919, MPK

LEVERSEDGE, Walter H, Ty/Supply Petty Officer, RNVR, C/CD/X 99, MPK

LUKER, Alexander J H, Stoker Petty Officer, C/K 63116, MPK

MARTIN, David, Stoker 1c, P/KX 121932, MPK

MCLEOD, Hugh, Able Seaman, C/JX 169312, MPK

MISSEN, Jack H, Able Seaman, C/JX 315217, MPK

MURFITT, Ronald B, Stoker 1c, C/KX 137773, MPK

MURRAY, Richard J, Ty/Lieutenant, RNVR, MPK

NELSON, James B, Able Seaman, C/JX 191290, MPK

OSBORNE, James, Stoker 1c, C/KX 122207, MPK

POPE, Herbert, Stoker Petty Officer, C/K 65117, MPK

RENNY, Frederick T, Lieutenant Commander, RNR, MPK

ROBERTS, Ivor W R, Assistant Cook (O), C/MX 100843, MPK

SANGSTER, Robert, Stoker Petty Officer, C/KX 82466, MPK

SEWELL, Arthur W M, Ty/Act/Leading Seaman, C/JX 142877, MPK

SHAW, William, Act/Engine Room Artificer 4c, D/MX 75945, MPK

SHIRLEY, Peter E, Able Seaman, C/JX 197501, MPK

SMITH, Arthur, Stoker 1c, C/KX 105954, MPK

TAYLOR, Arthur T, Signalman, RNVR, C/LD/X 4585, MPK

WADDELL, William K, Coder, C/JX 208149, MPK

WALKER, George A, Able Seaman, C/JX 246978, MPK

WATSON, Leonard B, Ty/Petty Officer, C/SSX 15440, MPK

WHITE, Charles, Able Seaman, C/J 97915, MPK

WILBY, Larry, Able Seaman, C/JX 267097, MPK

WOOD, Douglas H, Leading Stoker, C/KX 93991, MPK

Southcoates, road accident

COAKES, John T, Seaman, RNPS, LT/JX 200624, killed

Stadacona (RCN)

BRADLEY, Gordon S J, Stoker 1c, V 14603 (RCNVR), died

Vest, steamship, road accident

LEWIS, John, Act/Able Seaman (DEMS), C/JX 253720, killed

31 January 1943

Forte, illness

COTTON, Frank, Able Seaman, D/JX 222811, died

Pozarica, torpedoed

BALL, Henry, Able Seaman, P/JX 239491, DOW

RM Lympstone, illness

CAMPBELL, Joseph E, Marine, PO/X 1157, died

SGB.6 (Grey Shark), drowning

SETFORD, George H, Telegraphist, C/JX 341855, died

Uganda , illness

WALLER, John W, Able Seaman, P/JX 238303, died


Casablanca Conference

From 1942 to 1944 one subject dominated Allied strategic debate—the creation of a Second Front in Europe. This thorny issue caused friction between America, Great Britain, and the Soviet Union. It topped the agenda of the January 1943 summit meeting between FDR and Winston Churchill at Casablanca, Morocco, held shortly after the Allied invasion of North Africa.

Though Soviet leader Stalin didn’t attend this meeting, his feelings were clear. For 18 months, the Soviets had single-handedly resisted a massive German invasion. Stalin demanded that his allies strike quickly at the heart of Hitler’s empire in northwest Europe, establishing a “second from” to draw off some German forces from the USSR.

FDR’s military advisers favored the earliest possible assault on northwest Europe. But Churchill argued that a large buildup of forces was necessary to ensure a successful invasion. Because this was unlikely in 1943, he pushed for a more limited, “peripheral” strategy of attack along the edges of the Axis empire, starting with an assault on Sicily. Meanwhile, a buildup of forces in Britain for an invasion of northwest Europe would begin. Roosevelt, eager to keep the American public focused on the fighting in Europe, agreed.

To ease Stalin’s disappointment, FDR offered a signal of Anglo-American resolve: he announced the Allies would only accept an “unconditional surrender” from the Axis Powers.

Below is a series of objects, photographs, and documents from the FDR Library’s collection related to the Casablanca Conference.

This flag of the President of the United States was handmade on board the U.S.S. Memphis by five sailors at FDR’s request and flown from that ship while at anchor in Bathurst, Gambia, West Africa, in January 1943. The Memphis had been ordered to anchor off Bathurst in order to provide safe quarters for FDR and his party en route to and from the Casablanca Conference. This was the first time the President’s flag had ever been flown from an American warship in an African Port. Upon seeing the flag for the first time, President Roosevelt stated that “No ship has ever made a President’s flag is such record time, and it is a darn good flag.”

These pages from the guestbook at the Casablanca Conference include the signatures of Sultan Mohammed V of Morocco, Churchill, Roosevelt, advisor to the President Harry Hopkins, Minister to French North Africa Robert D. Murphy, General George S. Patton, naval aide to the President Admiral John L. McCrea, Elliott Roosevelt, and co-President of the Free French Forces General Henri Giraud. From the Roosevelt Family, Business & Personal Papers.

FDR used this U.S. Army mess kit and canteen at a field luncheon during his visit to Rabat, Morocco, to review American troops on January 21, 1943.

Franklin Roosevelt and Winston Churchill with their Chiefs of Staff, January 22, 1943. NPx 66-104(20)

On the evening of January 22, the Sultan of Morocco hosted Roosevelt and Churchill to dinner. During the dinner he presented these gifts to the President. The dagger is fitted with a gold hilt and sheath and is encased in a teakwood box inlaid with mother-of-pearl. The gold tiara encrusted with semi-precious stones from the Atlas Mountains and a pair of gold bracelets from the Sultan’s collection of family jewels were presented as gifts for First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt.


The Uprising

Following the January battles, the Jewish fighters knew the Nazis might attack at any time. To meet the threat, they stayed on constant alert and organized 22 fighting units. They had learned in January to surprise the Nazis whenever possible, so ambush spots were located from which Nazi units could be attacked. A system of bunkers and hideouts for fighters was established.

The Warsaw Ghetto Uprising began on April 19, 1943. The local commander of the SS had become aware of the Jewish fighters organizing in the ghetto, but he was afraid to inform his superiors. He was removed from his job and replaced with an SS officer who had fought on the Eastern Front, Jurgen Stroop.

Stroop sent a force of about 2,000 battle-hardened SS soldiers into the ghetto. The Nazis were well-armed, and even employed tanks at times. They faced off against approximately 700 young Jewish fighters, who had no military experience and were armed with pistols or homemade gasoline bombs.

The fighting continued for 27 days. The action was brutal. The ZOB fighters would engage in ambushes, often using the cramped streets of the ghetto to their advantage. SS troops would be lured into alleys and attacked with Molotov cocktails, as the Jewish fighters disappeared into secret passages dug into cellars.

The Nazis employed a tactic of vicious annihilation, destroying the ghetto building by building using artillery and flamethrowers. Most of the Jewish fighters were eventually killed.

A key leader of the ZOB, Mordecai Anielewicz, was trapped, along with other fighters, in a command bunker at 18 Mila Street. On May 8, 1943, along with 80 other fighters, he killed himself rather than be taken alive by the Nazis.

A few fighters managed to escape the ghetto. A woman who fought in the uprising, Zivia Lubetkin, along with other fighters, traveled through the city's sewer system to safety. Led by one of the ZOB commanders, Yitzhak Zuckerman, they escaped to the countryside. After surviving the war, Lubetkin and Zuckerman married and lived in Israel.

Most of the Jewish fighters did not survive the fighting in the ghetto, which lasted for nearly a month. On May 16, 1943, Stroop announced that the fighting had ended and more than 56,000 Jews had been killed. According to Stroop's numbers, 16 Germans were killed and 85 wounded, but those numbers are believed to be very low. The ghetto was a ruin.


15 January 1943

The world’s largest office building, construction began on the Pentagon on September 11, 1941. Designed by architect George Bergstrom, approved construction contracts totaled $3.1 million. The original site for this government facility was Arlington Farms, which was shaped like a pentagon. This is why the building is shaped as such. However, concerns that the building might obstruct the view of Washington, D.C. from Arlington Cemetery, President Roosevelt opted for the Hoover Airport site.The Pentagon took less than two years to complete and was dedicated on January 15, 1943.

Some interesting facts about this historical building:

Design work for the building proceeded during actual construction. Sometimes construction would get ahead of design and different materials were used than specified in the final plans.

Due to racial segregation, the Pentagon was constructed with separate dining and toilet facilities. In June 1941, President Roosevelt ordered the end to discrimination and to remove the “Whites Only” signage. At the time, and for many years after completion, the Pentagon was the only building in Virginia where segregation was not allowed.

Construction contracts were approved on September 11, 1941 and construction began that same day.

Due to steel shortage the building’s height was capped at just over 77 feet and was built as a reinforced concrete structure. This explains its vast “sprawl” across nearly 29 acres.

Rather than elevators, concrete ramps were built.

Engineers used 680,000 tons of sand from the Potomac River. Indiana limestone was used for the facade.

The Pentagon uses six zip codes and it’s registered postal address is Washington, D.C., even though it is located in the state of Virginia.

The square footage of the Pentagon is 6,636,360 square feet. The parking lot is 67 acres.

During the Cold Ware, the central plaza was referred to as “ground zero” based on concerns the Soviet Union would target nuclear missiles to that location.

While the Pentagon has undergone many improvements over the years, the core design of this unique structure remains intact. Today, nearly 3,700,000 square feet are used as offices, and the building houses about 28,000 military and civilian personnel.


A Gentle War 16th Jan - 31 Jan 1943

During his RAF posting at Predannack Airfield in Cornwall my father, Kenneth Crapp, kept a diary. The diary runs from October 27th 1942 — June 7th 1944 and the first 4 month extract is included below. It shows an unexpectedly tranquil aspect of war — quiet background work on a somewhat isolated airfield, where an interest in birds and nature was undoubtedly ‘a saving grace’.

Saturday, January 16th
Unsatisfactory morning, endeavouring to dismantle jointed aerial poles that refused to be dismantled. Finished early, went to cycle inspection, helped to clean out the hut for the weekly inspection — then to Ruan Minor to post the parcel and get a p/o for another chap.

On the way back I fell in with a man who spoke to me. I asked him why everyone seemed to be going his way at the time and he said that the hunt was meeting up by the chapel. ‘There might be 4 or 5 horses’, he said, ‘and the hounds from Bochyn’.

Then round the corner came three gentleman in bowlers and black jackets, very lordly on their hunters, and a pack of hounds, noses questing busily. My companion stopped when one of the riders spoke with him ‘Where are these foxes you have for us?’ he asked. And the man pointed to the moor beyond the fields.

On duty at the transmitting station this afternoon, I gathered some dry gorse wood and packed it in a box for our hut fires. Gorse is excellent wood for fire-lighting when it’s dead.

To my surprise, I found myself lighting the fire in the hut — although I had washed, and shouldn’t be sleeping there that evening. At Mrs Trezise’s this evening I was welcomed and although we were a little shy at first, the piano soon broke down our reserve. I found that long absence from the piano made my fingers stiff and this, with the unaccustomed audience, made me play badly. Fred played a Mendelssohn Duetto much better than I played some Schubert’s pieces that I know.

Sunday, January 17th
The man I relieved yesterday has gone sick, so I had to take over his watch. I as glad that I didn’t have to ride back to the camp in driving rain. At 1230 the rain stopped. On the way back at 10 to 5 I heard and saw a blackbird singing on a bush top.

I spent the evening reading ‘Ariel’, [a biography of Shelley by Andre Maurois], and in doing crossword puzzles. We fried sausages for supper, then spent a long time telling each other yarns and listening to others from those at the DF station.

Monday, January 18th
Clothing parade resulted in two new vests, new pants, new socks, and a new shirt. We bombed Berlin Saturday night and last night London was bombed. I know no details yet. A very mild day, cloudy at first, but sunny later in the afternoon, so that I wanted to sit out in the sun and I did.

In the Reading Room this morning I found the padre playing over some of the records I missed at the Circle last night. A bit of Tchaikovsky’s Piano Concerto — the one from which the Warsaw Concerto was pinched, he says.

The Reading Room is to be closed every evening from 7 to 9.30, so that the RAF Regiment may have education drama. I don’t begrudge them their classes, but it’s most unfair that we should be denied the use of this room during the hours when we most often wish to use it. I hope it won’t last long.

The siege of Leningrad raised, Millerovo captured — such are the latest Russian successes. With Fred Behagg I went to Ruan Minor Institute to see Deanna Durbin in ‘Mad About Music’. Hard chairs, small screen, poor loudspeaker, yet Deana triumphed again: I wished she sang more than she did.

I rode down to the transmitters in a night of soft moonlight and air like that of a June night.

Tuesday, January 19th
I am to stay on here for a while and be in a 3 watch system with the other 2. Better still — we can work a day off each, so I’ve wangled tomorrow.

Blackbirds sing frequently at dawn and dusk.

Wednesday, January 20th
With Fred Behagg caught the milk lorry to St Erth. Rode with St Ives men from Helston to St Erth — 3 of us in front with the driver. Matt Cocking said he’s related by marriage to Mrs Jacobs.

At Hayle there was a boat on the bar there she’d stay until the next big tide the cargo was being taken off.

Haircut at a shop the owner’s name was Trezise he thought Friday a foolish day for early closing, but efforts to alter it have failed.

‘Gone with the Wind’ at the Ritz, but Fred had seen it, so I went with him to see ‘My Gal Sal’ — a musical tale of the Naughty Nineties with the tuneful music of Paul Dresser.

At the YM we had roast lamb for dinner with two veg and apple tart — no coffee or bread and butter served now: not with midday meal. For tea — cottage pie.

Along the prom waves were dashing across the front: we had to run to escape.

At Helston, supper at the YM of sausage and chips and beans and a chat with Fred — a real Londoner. In a daylight raid in London, a school was hit and many children are dead and missing.

Kamersk captured by Russians I think the myth of German invincibility is slowly dying: sometimes it renews itself for a short while.

Thursday, January 21st
T1190 gives trouble. I am told to look at the relays, but they are all right. At last Mr A turns up and is also puzzled. Seagulls calling at 10pm.

Friday, January 22nd
Bicycle cleaned and I went to inspection. Flight took my word that it had been cleaned. Spent the evening, first in a shower, and then changing and packing up my laundry. It took 2.5 hours — much chatter.

Saturday, January 23rd
Another day off to my surprise and delight so have we worked our rota. I do not thrust the fact and official notice, but take steps to get the ‘bus from Mullion unseen. I get on at Campden House, where Mrs T and Fred and another lady are waiting. She is Mrs Park, my officer’s wife. She is elegant indeed. I put her bag on the bus for her and get in after her. Mr A is there and all my precautions are in vain. I cannot guess his thoughts at what he sees.

Because of him I avoid the Falmouth ‘bus and hitch-hike, getting to Falmouth a good while before the ‘bus.

Peg and John with Michael are coming — I have chosen the right day. They arrive at 2.45 and we meet them.

News that Tripoli is ours!

Crowds through the streets in the town. I search in vain for a greetings or Xmas card with the RAF crest on — they seem unobtainable.

Walt Disney’s ‘Bambi’ next week — what I miss by being so far from home!

Joys of camp life — on their beds in the dark lie two drunken youths: one is in bed and not feeling good: the other worries over him and over the partner in another hut later two more appear, also slightly canned. They take a long time to get to sleep and are noisy: one groans loudly ere he sleeps.

Sunday, January 24th
A lovely morning. Chicken for dinner at Mrs Trezise’s, followed by Xmas pudding wherein I find a sixpence. Mrs T serves the pudding following the course of the sun: wallpaper should also be done that way too.

Monday, January 25th
A great change to work back at the workshop — so much to do and so few to do it. Usually the day concludes with the duty run normally this is just taking an accumulator to the HF/DF station: often it’s used for all sorts of odd jobs as well. Then tonight on duty as well with two calls out, one from 1030 — 1130 and later from -0140 until 0420 — both really unnecessary calls for me, but I had to turn out.

Tuesday, January 26th
Meals have improved again — breakfast is usually good dinner better than it was and we now get cake and jam every day for tea.

We have to carry our sten guns around with us — but no ammunition! It’s crazy. Our gum boots are only to be worn in inclement weather — this does not mean normal rain. I never know when I shall find myself plodding across the boggy moors, where every mountain and hollow is full of water, so I disregard this order.

Not long ago, when we’re looking forward to better weather to come, a notice appears in D R O’s about bicycles ‘Bicycles must be properly oiled before the really inclement weather sets in!’

I got a good fire going in the hut tonight, then went to the Reading Room for a while. So to the NAAFI and back to the hut to enjoy the fire.

Wednesday, January 27th
A very interesting letter form Uncle Fred, full of interesting bird lore, his own observations. He says I’m very lucky to be stationed here on one of the migratory routes!

I struggle today to repair the poles carrying our telephone lines over a roadway a new top to the pole, new stays and then the effort to put it up, with only one man to help me. The traffic held us up a lot and eventually I had to leave it to go on the duty run. When I returned, I had to connect up a lot of small accs for charging — a fiddling job that took a long time and I had to put off my proposed trip to see the Trezise’s.

Another good fire in the hut and I stayed there reading ‘Memory Hold the Door’ and the Arabian Nights.

A good tale of the camp. On the COs inspection last Saturday, he himself visited the ablutions. The corporal in charge gave him an elaborate salute, stalked ahead of him to the entrance of the showers, stood there and loudly called ‘Attention’!

Thursday, January 28th
I feel hungrier as a result of a more active life and I’ve a lot less time to spare. At dinnertime I read yesterday’s papers and so I read of the ‘Unconditional Surrender’ meeting between Churchill and Roosevelt at Casablanca. The papers have been hinting at big news to come for several days.

On Tuesday, as we lay in bed, we talked of piles and we listened especially to Stan Webster’s experiences. ‘If they are big’ he said ‘one sometimes pops out like a gremlin out of a rabbit hole’.

The news is now on — Russians recapture Maikop oil wells. 8th Army pushes on towards Tunisia: RAF stage a short, heavy attack on Düsseldorf.

Friday, January 29th
At Campden House this evening I played the piano while Fred played the mandolin. I missed an ENSA film show by this visit. The film was ‘Mrs Miniver’ — a film which is drawing huge crowds wherever it’s shown.

Saturday, January 30th
To celebrate the tenth anniversary of the Nazis advent to power, Mosquitoes raided Berlin in daylight this morning, sending Goering scurrying for shelter and delaying his speech to the German armed forces by more than one hour. Another raid was carried out later, just before Goebbels was to broadcast Hitler’s proclamation. It is significant that Hitler did not speak.

At Campden House this evening I was regaled with a hot pasty and tea. Supper too, later, with coffee. I played, badly I feel, some light pieces by Schubert, and Fred had a go as well. Rough winds and heavy showers prevalent now.

Sunday, January 31st
January got a real farewell this year, a rollicking, roistering gale early in the day that tore off our chimney top, drove rain into buildings everywhere and developed gusts of 80mph.

Two jobs to do on duty, before it got too dark ….. and then I hurried to the Music Circle where the chief item was Brahms’ 2nd Symphony.

Russians yesterday captured Tikhoretsk railway junction — thereby increasing the peril of the German forces in the Caucasus.

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Key Dates

July 28, 1942
Jewish Fighting Organization established

In the midst of the first wave of deportations from Warsaw ghetto to the Treblinka killing center, the Jewish Fighting Organization (ZOB, Zydowska Organizacja Bojowa) is established. On July 22, 1942, the Germans begin massive deportations which last virtually without stop until September 12, 1942. During this time more than 250,000 Jews from the ghetto are deported or killed. The ZOB, formed by members of Jewish youth organizations, calls for the Jews of the ghetto to resist deportation. Reports of the massacres of Jews by mobile killing units and in killing centers have already filtered into the ghetto. However, the ZOB is not yet ready to stage a revolt. After deportations end in September, the ZOB expands to incorporate members of underground political organizations and establishes contact with the Polish resistance forces who provide training, armaments and explosives. Mordecai Anielewicz is appointed commander.

January 18–21, 1943
Germans encounter resistance

The Germans renew deportations from the Warsaw ghetto. This time however, they encounter resistance from the ZOB (Jewish Fighting Organization Zydowska Organizacja Bojowa). The early morning roundups take the ZOB organization by surprise, and individuals take to the streets to resist the Germans. Other Jews in the ghetto retreat into prepared hiding places. The Germans, expecting the expulsions to run smoothly, are surprised by the resistance. In act of retaliation they massacre 1,000 Jews in the main square on January 21, but suspend further deportations. The Germans were able to deport or kill 5,000-6,500 Jews. Encouraged by the results of resistance actions, the Jews in the ghetto plan and prepare a full-scale revolt. The fighting organization is unified, strategies are planned, underground bunkers and tunnels are built, and roof-top passages are constructed. The Jews of the Warsaw ghetto prepare to fight to the end.

May 16, 1943
Ghetto destroyed, uprising ends

After a month of fighting, the Germans blow up the Great Synagogue in Warsaw, signaling the end of the uprising and the destruction of the ghetto. On April 19, 1943, the Germans under the command of SS General Juergen Stroop, began the final destruction of the ghetto and the deportation of the remaining Jews. The ghetto population, however, does not report for deportations. Instead, the ghetto fighting organizations have barricaded themselves inside buildings and bunkers, ready to resist the Germans. After three days, German forces begin burning the ghetto, building by building, to force Jews out of the hiding places. Resistance continues for weeks as the Germans reduce the ghetto to rubble. Although there are only about 50,000 Jews left in the ghetto after the January 1943 deportations, General Stroop reports after the destruction of the ghetto that 56,065 Jews have been captured of those 7,000 deported to the Treblinka killing center, and the remainder sent to forced-labor camps and the Majdanek camp. Some of the resistance fighters succeed in escaping from the ghetto and join partisan groups in the forests around Warsaw.


Military Agency Records

1. Researchers may find useful Henry Stimson, On Active Service in Peace and War (New York: Harper, 1948) William D. Leahy, I Was There: The Personal Story of the Chief of Staff to Presidents Roosevelt and Truman Based on His Notes and Diaries Made at the Time (New York: Whittlesley House, 1950) Ernest J. King, Fleet Admiral King: A Naval Record (New York: W. W. Norton, 1952) Forrest C. Pogue, George C. Marshall: Organizer of Victory (New York: Viking Press, 1973). [Back to text]

2. The Bank for International Settlements (BIS) [in French the "BRI " Banque de Reglements Internationaux, and in German the "BIZ " Bank fur Internationalen Zahlungesausgleich] was established as an international financial institution, enjoying special immunities, pursuant to the Hague Agreements of January 20, 1930. The founder shareholding members were the central banks of Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the United Kingdom and the United States. Within two years of its founding, nineteen other European central banks had subscribed to the Bank's capital. The Bank opened its doors in Basel, Switzerland on May 17, 1930. Its main objectives were to act as trustee or agent in regard to international financial settlements, particularly in regard to German reparations under the so-called Young Plan adopted at the 1930 Hague Conference to promote central bank cooperation and, to provide additional facilities for international financial operations. During the 1930s the BIS developed its activities along these lines. Before long, however, the Bank's functions in regard to German reparations were interrupted. The international financial crisis of 1931, coming on top of the world depression, led first to a partial and soon to a complete suspension of German reparation payments (Luasanne Agreement, 1932). During World War II the president of the bank was an American Thomas H. McKittrick. The general manager was a Frenchman, Roger Auboin and the assistant general manager was Paul Hechler, a German and Nazi Party member. Among its board of directors were Hermann Schmitz, head of I.G. Farben Baron Kurt von Schroder, head of the J. H. Stein Bank of Cologne (and leading officer and financier of the Gestapo) Walter Funk, the Reichsbank president and, Emil Puhl, Reichsbank vice-president. At the Bretton Woods Conference in 1944 the Allies called, in Resolution V, for the elimination of the BIS, in part because it was seen as a money-laundering entity for the Germans. In 1948 the BIS handed over $4 million in looted gold to the Allies. The BIS still exists, located in Basel, Switzerland. For a brief introduction to the BIS's wartime activities see Charles Higham, Trading With the Enemy: The Nazi-American Money Plot 1933-1949 (New York: Barnes & Noble Books, 1995), pp. 1-19, and Arthur L. Smith, Hitler's Gold: The Story of the Nazi War Loot (Washington, D.C., Berg, 1996), pp. 52-62 and passim. Researchers may find useful Roger Aubion, The Bank for International Settlements, 1930-1955 (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1955) and Henry H. Schloss., The Bank for International Settlements (Amsterdam: North Holland Publishing Co., 1958). [Back to text]

3. Perhaps the best brief introduction to economic warfare during World War II is contained in I.C.B. Dear, gen. ed. and M.R.D. Foot, consultant editor, The Oxford Companion to World War II (Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 1995), pp. 318-321. Researchrs may also want to consult David L. Gordon and Royden Dangerfield, The Hidden Weapon: The Story of Economic Warfare (New York: Harper & Bros., 1947) W. N. Medlicott, The Economic Blockade 2 vols. (Lodnon: His Majesty's Stationery Office and Longmans, Green, and Co. 1952, 1959) Alan S. Milward, War, Economy, and Society, 1939-1945 (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1977). [Back to text]

4. For information about the organizational structure and records of The Ministry of Economic Warfare (MEW) please see John D. Cantwell, The Second World War: A Guide to Documents in the Public Record Office (London: HMSO, 1993) pp. 70-73. Useful for understanding the British economic warfare role and activities is W. N. Medlicott, The Economic Blockade (London: HMSO and Longmans, Green, and Co. 2 vols. 1952, 1959). [Back to text]

5. Throughout NARA's holdings (identified in this finding aid) are many series of records relating to the looting, attempted recovery, recovery, and retsitution of monetary gold taken by Nazis from the Central banks of countries they occupied, as well as non-monetary gold taken from victims of Nazi persecution. The Harry S. Truman Library at Independence, Missouri contains one box of personal papers (Nazi Gold File, 1945-1988) of Bernard Bernstein relating to the discovery, recovery, and disposition of the gold found at Merkers. Researchers may find useful Arthur L. Smith, Jr., Hitler's Gold: The Story of the Nazi War Loot (Oxford and Washington, DC: Berg, 1996) Ian Sayer and Douglas Botting. Nazi Gold (New York: Congdon and Weed, 1984) U.S. Department of State, U.S. and Allied Effots To Recover and Restore Gold and Other Assets Stolen or Hidden by Germany During World War II: Preliminary Study , coordinated by Stuart E. Eizenstat and prepared by William Z. Slany (May 1997) U.S. Department of State, U.S. and Allied Wartime and Postwar Relations and Negotiations with Argentina, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, and Turkey on Looted Gold and German External Assets and U.S. Concerns About the Fate of the Wartime Ustasha Treasury: Supplemtn to Preliminary Study of U.S. and Allied Efforts to, Recover and Restore Gold and Other Assets Stolen or Hidden by Germany During World War II , coordinated by Stuart E. Eizenstat and prepared by William Slany (June 1998) Foreign & Commonwealth Office, General Services Command, History Notes, Nazi Gold: Information from the British Archives, No. 11 (September 1996) Foreign & Commonwealth Office, General Services Command, History Notes, Nazi Gold: Information from the British Archives, Second Edition, No. 11 (January 1997) Foreign & Commonwealth Office, General Services Command, History Notes, Nazi Gold: Information from the British Archives, Part II: Monetary gold, non-monetary gold and the Tripartite Gold Commission, No. 12 (May 1997) Sidney Zabludoff, Movements of Nazi Gold: Uncovering the Trail , Institute of the World Jewish Congress Policy Study No. 10 (1997). For additional information regarding the discovery and recovery of the Nazi looted gold at Merkers mine in Germany, please see Greg Bradsher, "Nazi Gold: The Merkers Mine Treasure, " Prologue: Quarterly of the National Archives and Records Administration (forthcoming, Spring issue 1999). [Back to text]

6.For information about the wartime activities and records of the Foreign Office see John D. Cantwell, The Second World War: A Guide to Documents in the Public Record Office (London: HMSO, 1993), pp. 82-92. [Back to text]

7. Researchers may find useful Anthony Cave Brown, The Last Hero: Wild Bill Donovan (New York: Vintage Books, 1984) Corey Ford, Donovan of OSS (Boston: Little, Brown, 1970) Richard Dunlop, Donovan: America's Master Spy (Chicago: Rand McNally. 1982) Thomas F. Troy, Donovan and the CIA (Frederick, Maryland: University Press of America, 1981). [Back to text]

8. Researchers may find useful: History Project, Strategic Services Unit, Office of the Assistant Secretary of War, War Department, Washington, D.C., War Report of the OSS (Office of Strategic Services) with a new introduction by Kermit Roosevelt (New York: Walker and Company, 1976, 2 vols.) Bradley F. Smith, The Shadow Warriors: O.S.S. and the Origins of the C.I.A. (New York: Basic Books, Inc., 1983) Richard Harris Smith, The Secret History of America's First Central Intelligence Agency (Berkeley, Los Angeles, London, University of California Press, 1972) and, George C. Chalou, ed., The Secrets War: The Office of Strategic Services in World War II (Washington, DC: National Archives and Records Administration, 1992) David K. E. Bruce, OSS Against the Reich: The World War II Diaries of Colonel David K. E. Bruce, ed., Nelson Lankford (Kent, Ohio: Kent State University Press, 1991) H. Montgomery Hyde, Secret Intelligence Agent: British Espionage in America and the Creation of the OSS (New York: St. Martin's Press 1982) William Casey, The Secret War against Hitler (Washington, D.C.: Regnery, Gateway, 1988)Joseph E. Persico, Piercing the Reich: The Penetration of Nazi Germany by American Secret Agents During World War II (New York: Viking Press, 1979) John H. Waller, The Unseen War in Europe: Espionage and Conspiracy in the Second World War (New York: Random House, 1996) Neal H. Petersen, ed. and commentary, From Hitler's Doorstep. The Wartime Intelligence Reports of Allen Dulles, 1942-1945 (University Park, Pennsylvania: The Pennsylvania State University Press, 1996) Nicholas Dawidoff, The Catcher was a Spy: The Mysterious Life of Moe Berg (New York: Pantheon Books, 1994) Barry M. Katz, Foreign Intelligence: Research and Analysis in the Office of Strategic Services 1942-1945 (Cambridge, Massachusetts and London: Harvard University Press, 1989) Allen W. Dulles, The Craft of Intelligence (New York: Harper & Row, 1963) Burton Hersh, The Old Boys: The American Elite and the Origins of the CIA (New York: Scribners, 1992) Edward Hymoff, The OSS in World War II (New York: Richardson & Steirman, 1986) Thomas F. Troy, ed., Wartime Washington: The Secret OSS Journal of James Grafton Rogers, 1942-1943 (Frederick, Maryland: University Publications of America, 1987). [Back to text]

9. Many records relating to the Safehaven program are available in three volumes of the Foreign Relations of the United States [a publication of the State Department that serves as a key finding aid to the records because the documents selected for printing include the source file designation.]. These three volumes are: FRUS, 1944, Vol. II, pp. 213-251. "Concern of the United States over Enemy Attempts to Secrete Funds or Other Assets in Neutral Countries Inception of the Safehaven Program " FRUS, 1945 , Vol. II, pp. 852-932. "Concern of the United States over Enemy Attempts to Secrete Funds or Other Assets in Neutral Countries Implementation of the Safehaven Program " and, FRUS, 1946 , Vol. V, pp. 202-220. "Implementation of the Safehaven Program Negotiation of Accords with Switzerland and Sweden on Liquidation of German External Assets in their Countries. " [Back to text]

10. Margaret Clarke, a Federal Economic Administration historian, in 1946 wrote a 193-page history of the Safehaven Program, " entitled "Safehaven Study. " This study was never published. A copy of it is contained in the Records of the Federal Economic Administration (RG 169). It is a useful tool for understanding the organization, administration, and activities of the Safehaven Program. Early in her study she states "the Safe haven Program, or project, was organized as one of the chief instruments by which the United States Government meant to defeat Germany's aim to rebuild its strength outside of Germany. The fundamental purpose was to frustrate Germany's attempt to penetrate foreign economies, to transfer internal assets beyond reach of the Allies, to evade payment of reparations by having no apparent resources, and to avoid any share in the rehabilitation of Europe. The term safe haven, originally designed as a code phrase to explain the activities of the first American representatives sent to Europe to explore the nature and extent of the German plan, lost its virtue as a secret designation so soon that the term became descriptive of the counter-plan of this government (One of the early uses of the term Safehaven was on September 28, 1944, when the Secretary of State sent a circular airgram to certain diplomatic and consular officers, instructing them to "preserve all intelligence of this general nature [he was referring earlier to German assets abroad] which comes into your possession since information on looted and flight capital will tend to merge with information relating to German assets generally. In order to expedite prompt distribution, all cables, airgrams, and despatches on this subject should contain the code word 'SAFEHAVEN' " Foreign Relations of the United States, 1944, Vol. II pp. 234-235) To those concerned with preventing resurgence of German industrial and military strength, Safe Haven became a name of the activity they were engaged in, although later on, the term External Security was used as more descriptive of the program. "(Clarke, "Safehaven Study, " p. 21). "There were, " she continues, "specific ends toward which the Safe Haven project worked: To restrict and prevent German economic and cultural penetration outside of Germany to block Germany from transferring internal assets to neutral countries to insure that German wealth would be administered by the Allies so German payment of war reparations would be assured to make certain that Germany's resources would be available for use in the rehabilitation of Europe to make possible the return to legal owners of properties looted from countries once occupied by the Germans and to prevent the escape of strategic German personnel to neutral havens. The all-over purpose was, of course, to implement plans for lasting peace, by helping to make it impossible for Germany to start another war. "(Clarke, "Safehaven Study, " p. 22). In her study Clarke critiqued the Safehaven Program. She observed that the program "was not organized by the highest levels of administrative authority. " Further, "the Treasury Department showed no interest at first. " but. "later on the Foreign Funds Control of Treasury became very much interested and tried in fact to take over the direction and conduct of the entire matter. " "The State Department, " she stated, "in general was cooperative although. there was sometimes failure of sympathy on the part of the State representation at the neutral capitals. Indeed, at one point, suggestions and attempts were made to secure a decision from the President which would settle once and for all the jurisdictional disputes and clarify the correct roles of the various interested agencies. This was never accomplished. " "Within FEA itself, " she added, "there was intra-agency conflict. The conflict is not surprising in light of the fact that no one actually knew where authority lay. " Further, "by the time Safe Haven got under way certain features of the economic warfare program were diminishing or disappearing. Safe Haven offered an opportunity to continue a challenging and absorbing game. Everyone wanted to participate in it. Everyone did, in a manner of speaking and thus confusion, jealousies, misunderstandings and waste resulted. Had the project been clearly defined by the FEA Administration, and had authority for it been placed definitely and absolutely in the hands of a single director, many of the difficulties which did arise would have been overcome before they manifested themselves. " "Likewise, " she continues, " it can be speculated that had such an integration been managed at first, State, Treasury and FEA would have acted always as a unit, and not as sometimes happened, as a tri-dimensional agency whose three sides pulled against each other. "(Clarke, "Safehaven Study, " pp. 189-190). The various spellings of the Safehaven Program (e.g., Safehaven project, Safe Haven reports) in this finding aid reflects the diverse number of Government agencies participating in it and the fact that there was no ultimate authority for the program. Researchers should be aware that the Departments of State and Treasury (primarily the Foreign Funds Control unit) and the Foreign Economic Administration all believed, to one degree or another, that they were the key agency. Similarly, many agencies, including the Military and Naval Establishment, the Office of Strategic Services, all supplied the Safehaven intelligence to the Departments of State and Treasury and the Foreign Economic Administration. And those three agencies also gathered their own intelligence. Thus researchers will find Safehaven-related records identified throughout this finding aid. [Back to text]

11. Margaret Clarke, "Safehaven Study, " n.d. [1946] 193 pp. Contained in Material on the "Safe Haven " Project 1943-1945 (entry 170) in the Records of the Foreign Economic Administration (RG 169) pp. 104-105 hereafter cited as Clarke, "Safehaven Study. ". Needless to say, the Records of the Office of the Military Governor, United States (OMGUS) (RG 260) are full of intelligence based on seized German records. [Back to text]

12. OSS Evaluation of Evidence, Entry 147, Box 7 (Office Procedure), Folder 103, RG 226. [Back to text]

13. At the United Nations Monetary and Financial Conference, Bretton Woods, New Hampshire Resolution No. VI was adopted. It not only made recommendations regarding steps to be taken to guard United Nations interest in German external assets, but referred specifically to the broader aims of the Safehaven Program. The preamble to the resolution accused Axis leaders, enemy nationals and their collaborators of transferring assets through and to neutral countries for the purpose of concealing them, and of thus maintaining Axis power, influence, and ability "to plan future aggrandizement and world domination. " The preamble names loot, transfers of assets of occupied and neutral nations accomplished by threat, transfers of Axis property by use of blinds and cloaks, as the kinds of wealth Germany found it useful and easy to conceal. It also marked the guilt of puppet governments and of Nazi sympathizers for future reference. The preamble concludes "Whereas, the United Nations have declared their intention to do their utmost to defeat the methods of dispossession practiced by the enemy, have reserved their right to declare invalid any transfers of property belonging to persons with occupied territory, and have taken measures to protect and safeguard property, within their respective jurisdictions, owned by occupied countries and their nationals, as well as to prevent the disposal of looted property in United Nations markets therefore the United Nations Monetary and Financial Conference 1) takes note of and fully supports steps taken by the United Nations for the purpose of: (a) uncovering, segregating, controlling, and making appropriate disposition of enemy assets (b) preventing the liquidation of property looted by the enemy, locating and tracing ownership and control of such looted property, and taking appropriate measures with a view to restoration to its lawful owners. " The resolution further recommends that the governments represented at the Conference call on the governments of neutral countries: "(a) to take immediate measures to prevent any disposition or transfer within territories subject to their jurisdiction of any (1) assets belonging to the Government or any individuals of institutions within those United Nations occupied by the enemy and (2) looted gold, currency, art objects, securities, other evidences of ownership in financial or business enterprises, and of other assets looted by the enemy as well as to uncover, segregate and hold at the disposition of the post-liberation authorities in the appropriate country any such assets within territory subject to their jurisdiction (b) to take immediate measures to prevent the concealment by fraudulent means or otherwise within countries subject to their jurisdiction of any (1) assets belonging to, or alleged to belong to, the Government of and individuals or institutions within enemy countries (2) assets belonging to, or alleged to belong to, enemy leaders, their associates and collaborators and to facilitate their ultimate delivery to the post-armistice authorities. " United Nations Monetary and Financial Conference, Bretton Woods, New Hampshire, July 1 to July 22, 1944, Final Act and Related Documents (U.S. Government Printing Office, 1944). Researchers may find useful Proceedings and Documents of the United Nations Monetary and Financial Conference, Bretton Woods, New Hampshire, July 1-22, 1944 (Washington, DC: United States General Printing Office, 1948). [Back to text]

14. This was the Senate Military Affairs Subcommittee on War Mobilization (the so-called Kilgore Committee). The subcommittee, headed by Senator Harley M. Kilgore, held several hearings throughout the second half of 1945 that focused on German economic penetration of neutral countries, elimination of German resources for war, German's resources for a third world war, and related matters. Throughout this finding aid researchers will note that there are numerous references to the Kilgore Committee. For access to the complete files of the hearings please contact NARA's Center for Legislative Archives in the Archives I building in Washington, DC. Their telephone number is 202-501-5350. [Back to text]

15. From 1943 to 1945 he was an unpaid personal adviser to James Byrnes, Director of Economic Stabilization and later Director of War Mobilization. Baruch also headed a special fact-finding commission for President Franklin D. Roosevelt. [Back to text]

16. Boxes 1-537 of this series are field station files and are descibed later in this finding aid. [Back to text]

17. Abwehr was short for Amt Austlandsmachrichten und Abwehr, the German Secret Intelligence and Military Counter-Intelligence Department of the High Command (OKW) headed by Admiral Wilhelm Canaris. Its independent role ended with the dismissal of Canaris in February 1944 and its subordination to the the SS. Researchers may find useful Lauran Paine, The Abwehr: German Military Intelligence in World War II (London: Robert Hale, 1988). [Back to text]

18. The Nationalist Socialist German Workers' Party-the full title of the Nazi Party headed by Adolf Hitler. Often referred to as NSDAP (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeitperpartei). [Back to text]

19. For accounts of art looting during the war by the Nazis, Americans, Soviets and others see Lynn H. Nicholas, The Rape of Europa: The Fate of Europe's Treasures in the Third Reich and the Second World War (New York: Vintage Books, 1995), Hector Feliciano, The Lost Museum: The Nazi Conspiracy to Steal the World's Greatest Works of Art (New York: Basic Books, 1997), and Elizabeth Simpson, ed., The Spoils of War: World War II and Its Aftermath: The Loss, Reappearance, and Recovery of Cultural Property (New York: Harry N. Abrams, Inc. 1997) Jonathon Petropoulos, Art as Politics in the Third Reich (Durham: University of North Carolina Press, 1996) Charles De Jaeger, The Linz File: Hitler's Plunder of Europe's Art (Exeter: Webb & Bower, 1981) David Roxan and Ken Wanstall, The Jackdaw of Linz: The Story of Hitler's Art Thefts (London: Cassell, 1964) Thomas Carr Howe, Salt Mines and Castels: The Discovery and Restitution of Looted European Art (Indianapolis and New York: The Bobbs-Merrill Company, 1946) George Mihan, Looted Treasure: Germany's Raid on Art (London: Alliance Press, 1944) United States American Commission for the Protection and Salvage of Artistic and Historic Monuments in War Areas, Report of the United States American Commission for the Protection and Salvage of Artistic and Historic Monuments in War Areas (Washington, D.C.: United States Government Printing Office, 1946) Henry Adams La Farge, Lost Treasures of Europe (New York: Pantheon Books, 1946) Konstantin Akinsha and Grigorii Kozlov, Stolen Treasure: The Hunt for the World's Lost Masterpieces (London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1995) Michael J. Kurtz, Nazi Contraband: American policy on the Return of European Cultural Treasures, 1945-1955 (New York and London: Garland Publishing Inc., 1985).Kenneth D. Alford, The Spoils of World War II: The Ameican Military's Role in the Stealing of Europe's Treasures (New York: A Birch Lane Press Book, 1994) William H. Honan, Treasure Hunt, A New York Times reporter Tracks the Quedlingburg Hoard (New York: Fromm International Publishing Coporation, 1997) Also useful are two United States Government reports, copies of which reside in the records of several government agencies. They are External Economic Security Staff, Enemy Branch, Foreign Economic Administration, "Looted Art in Occupied Territories, Neutral Countries and Latin America, Preliminary Report, " May 5, 1945, 40 pp., and Art Looting Investigative Unit, Strategic Services Unit, Office of the Assistant Secretary of War, War Department, "Art Looting Investigation Unit Final Report, " May 1, 1946, 170 pp. Researchers in the Washington D.C. area doing research on the art issues may find useful the holdings of the Archives of American Art and the National Gallery of Art. The latter has produced a useful guide to its World War II-era related holdings: Kate Moore, compiler, World War II Records at the National Gallery of Art Washington, D.C.: Collections in the Gallery Archives, Gallery Library, Photographic Archives (June 1996). [Back to text]

20. Executive Director of the Board of Economic Warfare and the Office of Economic Warfare. [Back to text]

21. Concentration camp located southeast of Hamburg. It was established in 1940 to supply labor for the armaments factories. Of the 90,000 people sent there, nearly half died from disease, starvation, and some were executed. [Back to text]

22. JIC referes to the Joint Intelligence Committee, that was a continuation and enlargement of the Joint Board committee of the same name, which had been authorized in 1941. It received no charter from the Joint Chiefs of Staff until May 1943, but it was given a directive and was reorganized early in March 1942. Even before this, on February 11, 1942, a Combined Chiefs of Staff paper had defined the duties and membership of the JIC. Its primary functions throughout the war period were to furnish intelligence in various forms to other agencies of the Joint Chiefs of Staff and to represent it on the Combined Intelligence Committee. As originally constituted, the JIC, was composed of the directors of the intelligence services of the Army and Navy and representatives of the State Department, the Board of Economic Warfare (later the Foreign Economic Administration), and the Coordinator of Information (later the Director of Strategic Services). The charter of May 1943 added the director of the Intelligence Staff of the Army Air Forces. The membership remained unchanged throughout the remainder of the war. [Back to text]

23. The Emperor of Abyssinia who was exiled in 1936 after the Italian occupation of his country. He returned in May 1941. [Back to text]

24. Shortened form of Interessen Gemeinschaft Farbenindustrie Aktiengesellschaft (Community of Interests of Dye industries, incorporated), often referred to American records as IG Farbenindustrie, A.G. This was the largest and most powerful German cartel, with some 2,000 cartel agreements distributed throughout the world (including Standard Oil of New Jersey, the Aluminum Company of America, Dow Chemical Company, E.I. du Pont de Nemours & Co.). During the war it controlled 900 chemical factories inside Germany and in the occupied territories and controlled some 500 firms in ninety-two countries. After the war the IG Farben directors were charged with the enslavement and mass murder of foreign workers as well as with "the plunder and spoilation of public and private properties in invaded countries. " Researchers may find useful Richard Sasuly, I.G. Farben (New York: Boni & Gaer, 1947) Joseph Borkin, The Crime and Punishment of I.G. Farben (New Yor: Barnes & Noble Books, 1978). [Back to text]

25. The Federal Bureau of Investigation's organizational element in Latin America. [Back to text]

26. Walter Funk was the German Minister of Economic Affairs from 1937 to 1945 and president of the Reichsbank and Plenipotentiary of the War Economy beginning in 1939. In his dual capacity Funk was responsible for the economic and financial leadership of Germany. In 1942, he came to a secret agreement with Heinrich Himmler that "gold, jewels, and other valuables taken from murdered Jews were to be deposited in the so-called 'Max Heileger' account of his bank and credited to the SS. " [Back to text]

27. Italian neo-Fascist minister of war of Mussolini's Fascist Republic. [Back to text]

28. Nazi propagandists proclaimed and some of the Allied leaders believed that the Nazis would establish military bases of guerilla operations, "redoubts, " in soutern Bavaria and western Austria and continue waging war even after Germany was defeated. Researchers may find useful Rodney G. Minott, The Fortress That Never War: The Myth of Hitler's Bavarian Stronghold (New York: Holt, Rinehart, & Winston, 1964). [Back to text]

29. Marcel Pilet-Golaz was a member of the Swiss Federal Council (1929-1944), head of the Ministry of the Interior in 1929, head of the Federal Postal and Railways Department, 1930-1940, and head of the Political Darprtment, 1940-1944. [Back to text]

30. John Edgar Hoover was Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation 1924-1972. [Back to text]

31. Hermann Wilhelm Goering was Commander in Chief of the German Air Force, Plenipotentiary for the Four Year Plan, and Chairman of the Reich Council for National Defense.. His Four Year Plan Office was formally in control of economic policy in the occupied lands. On August 31, 1939 Hitler named Goering his successor in the event of his death. Researchers may find useful Charles Bewley, Hermann Goering and the Third Reich (New York: Devin-Adair, 1962) Willi Frischauer, The Rise and Fall of Hermann Goering (New York: Ballantine, 1951) David Irving, Goering (New York: Avon Books, 1989) Leonard Mosley, The Reich Marshal (Garden City, New York: Doubleday & Company, 1974). [Back to text]

32. This extermination referes to the Holocaust, a term generally used to describe Hitler's attempt to exterminate all European Jews. Die Endlosung (The Final Solution) was the cover name used by the Nazis to describe their extermination plan and operations. Researchrs may find useful Gerald Reitlinger, The Final Solution (New York: Perpetua, 1961) David S. Wyman, The Abandonment of the Jews (New York: Pantheon, 1984) Jeremy Noakes and Geoffrey Pridham, eds., Nazism 1919-1945. Vol. 3, Foreign Policy, War and Racial Extermination. A Documentary Reader (Exeter, United Kingdom: University of Exeter, 1988) Lucy S. Davidowicz, The War Against the Jews 1933-1945 (New York, Toronto, London: Bantam Books, 1976) Raul Hilberg, ed., The Destruction of the European Jews. 3 vols. (New York: Holmes and Meier, 1984) Israel Gutman, ed. Encyclopedia of the Holocaust. 4 vols. (New York: Macmillan, 1989) Martin Gilbert, Atlas of the Holocaust (New York: Macmillan, 1982) Martin Gilbert, The Holocaust (New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston, 1986) Saul S. Friedman, ed. Holocaust Literature: A Handbook of Critical, Historical, and Literary Writings (Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood, 1993) Harry James Cargas, ed., The Holocaust: An Annotated Bibliography (Chicago: American Library Association, 1985) Abraham Edelheit and Herschel Edelheit, eds. Bibliography on Holocaust Literature (Boulder, Colorado: Westview, 1986) Henry Friedlander and Sybil Milton, eds., Archives of the Holocaust. 23 vols. (Hamden, Connecticut: Garland, 1989) Rhoda Lewin, ed., Witness to the Holocaust: An Oral History (Boston: Twayne, 1989) John Mendelsohn, The Holocaust: Selected Documents (New York: Garland, 1982) Monty Noam Penkower, The Jews Were Expendable (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1983) Walter Laqueur, The Terrible Secret (Boston, Little, Brown, 1980) Avraham Barkai, From Boycott to Annihilation (Hanover, New Hampshire: Brandeis University Press, 1989) Yehuda Baurer, A History of the Holocaust (New York: Franklin Watts, 1982)ernst Klee, Willi Dressen, Volker Riess, eds., trans. Deborah Burnstone, "The Good Old Days ": The Holocaust as Seen by Its Perpetrators and Bysanders (New York: Konecky & Konecky, 1991) Rhoda G. Lewin, ed., Witness to the Holocaust: An Oral History (Boston: Twayne Publishers, 1990) Michael Berenbaum, Witness to the Holocaust (New York: Harper Collins Publishers, 1997) Richard Plant, The Pink Triangle: The Nazi War against Homosexuals (New York: H. Holt, 1988). [Back to text]

33. Name for the area of the Ukraine between the Dniester and Bug rivers, over which Marshal Antonescu, the Romanian leader, proclaimed sovereignty in August 1941, and which was forced to abandon in April 1944. It was designated a resettlement area for Jews and gypsies deported from Bucovina and Bessarabia. By December 1941 over 100,000 Jews had been resettled there. Resettlement stopped early in 1942. It is estimated that well over 70,000 Jews and Gypsies from Romania, together an unknown number of Soviet Jews perished in Transnistria. [Back to text]

34. Wise served as president of the American Jewish Congress, the World Jewish Congress, and the Jewish Institute of Religion, chairman of the American Emergency Committee for Zionist Affairs, vice-president of the Zionist Organization of America, and co-chairman of the the American Jewish Conference. He edited also edited Opinion magazine and served as rabbi of the large Free Synagogue of New York City. [Back to text]

35. Born, Eugenio Pacelli, Piux II was elected Pope in March 1939, having previously served as papal nuncio in Germany from 1917 to 1930 and as Vatican secretary of state from 1930. Researchers may find useful Saul Friedlander, Pius XII and the Third Reich (New York: Octagon, 1986) Carlo Falconi, The Silence of Pius XII (London: Faber & Faber, 1970) Saul Friedlander, Pius XII and the Third Reich (London: Chatto & Windus, 1966) Nazareno Padallaro, Portrait of Pius XII (London: J. M. Dent, 1956) Alexander Ramati, While the Pope Kept Silent (London: Allen & Unwin, 1978) John Pollard, The Vatican and Italian Facism (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988) Mark Aarons and John Loftus, Unholy Trinity: The Vatican, The Nazis, and Soviet Intelligence (New York: St. Martin's Press, 1991) Mark Aarons and John Loftus, Unholy Trinity: The Vatican, The Nazis, and Swiss Banks. New and rev. ed. (New York: St. Martin's Griffin, 1998). [Back to text]

36. Emil Puhl served as Vice President of the Reichsbank, beginning in 1939, and as one of the directors of the Bank for International Settlements. [Back to text]

37. SKF was founded in Gothernburg in 1907 by Sven Wingquist. SKF, with its subsidiaries, was the world's largest manufacturer of bearings. It controlled 80 percent of blast furnances and factories and plants in the United States, Great Britain, and Germany. The largest share of its production until late in World War II was allocated to Germany 60 percent of the world-wide production of SKF was dedicated to the Germans. Charles Higham, Tradeing With the Enemy: The Nazi-American Money Plot 1933-1949 (New York: Barnes & Noble Books, 1995), p. 117. For background information on SKF see Gerard Aalders and Cees Wiebes, The Art of Cloaking: The Case of Sweden Ownership: The Secret Collaboration and Protection of the German War Indusstry by the Neutrals (Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, 1996), especially pp. 71-91. [Back to text]

38. Almost from the beginning of the war the Germans began using foreign workers and forced-labor for work in Germany. By the summer of 1944, nearly 8 million foreign workers, three-quarters of them (mostly Soviets and Poles) forced-labor, were in Germany, representing almost a quarter of the work force. Researchers may find useful Edward L. Homze, Foreign Labor in Nazi Germany (Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1967) Ulrich Herbert, A History of Foreign Labor in Germany 1880-1980. Seasonal Workers, Forced Laborers, Guest Workers (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1990). [Back to text]

39. United States Ambassador to Spain, 1942-1945. Researchers may find useful Carlton J. H. Hayes, Wartime Mission in Spain 1942-1945 (New York: The Macmillan Company, 1945). [Back to text]

40. United Kingdom's Ambassador to Spain during World War II. [Back to text]

42. Reich Minister for Armaments and War Production from 1942 to 1945, succeeding Fritz Todt who had been killed in a plane accident. He also oversaw the Todt Organization. Researchers may find useful Albert Speer, Inside the Third Reich (New York: Macmillan, 1970) Albert Speer, Spandau: The Secret Diaries (New York: Macmillan, 1976) Matthias Schmidt, Albert Speer, the End of a Myth (New York: St. Martin's Press, 1985) Gitta Sereny, Albert Speer: His Battle with Truth (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1995) Edward R. Zilbert, Albert Speer and the Nazi Ministry of Arms: Economic Institutions and Industrial Production in the German War Economy (London: Associated University Presses, 1981). [Back to text]

43. KAPPA indicates messages containing information and documents obtained from the German Foreign Ministry by Fritz Kolbe (alias "George Wood ") who worked in the Foreign Ministry as an assistant to Karl ritter, who was responsible for liaison between the Foreign Ministry and the military. The information he supplied Allen Dulles, OSS station chief in Bern, Switzerland, which was then sent to OSS headquarters, can be found in the "Boston Series " of records described later in the OSS section of the finding aid. [Back to text]

44. Glavin was with the OSS. [Back to text]

45. Allen Welsh Dulles from October 1942 until the end of the war served as Chief of the OSS in Switzerland, with his office on the Herrengasse in Bern. He was assisted by Gerd von Gavernitz, a German-American living in Switzerland. Dulles, late in 1945, would lead the OSS mission to Germany. Researchers may find useful Robert Edwards, A Study of a Master Spy, Allen Dulles (London: Housmans, 1961) Peter Grose, Gentleman Spy: TheLife of Allen Dulles (Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1994) Neal H. Petersen, From Hitler's Doorstep: The Wartime Intelligence Reports of Allen Dulles, 1942-1945 (university Park, Pennsylvania: The Pennsylvania State University Press, 1996). [Back to text]

46. Nazi death camp 45 miles from Warsaw, Poland, that opened in July 1942. By the time the camp closed in November 1943, at least 900,000 Jews were exterminated. Researchers may find useful Alexander Donat, ed., The Death Camp Treblinka (New York: Holocaust Library, 1979) Yitzhak Arad, Belzec, Sobibor, Treblinka (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1987). [Back to text]

47. United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration was established in November 9, 1943 by delegates from 44 countries meeting in Atlantic City, New Jersey. It was initially set up to provide help for the peoples of liberated countries. In the immediate post-war period it looked after displaced persons. It began work in North Africa in the winter of 1943-1944, followed the Allied armies into Europe and was at its most active in 1945-1946. It assisted over 1 billion people, and destributed 24 million tons of goods, including 9 million tons of food and 11 million tons of industrial equipment (of which Italy received half). Its refugee camps provided food and shelter for several million "displaced persons. " It was financed mainly by the United States, with substantial British and Canadian help, and at its height employed a staff of 25,000. Before it was phased out on June 30, 1947, it turned over its work to various United Nations agencies. [Back to text]

48. From 1934 to 1938 served as Germany's Ambassador to Austria and as the German ambassador to Turkey between September 1939 and August 1944. Researchers may find useful Franz von Papen, Memoirs (London: A. Deutsch, 1952). [Back to text]

49. Franco y Bahamonde, General Francisco. Fascist Caudillo (leader) of Spain, who refused to join the Axis and would not permit the passage of German troops through Spain to attack Gibraltar. His principal fighting contributions to the Axis cause was to allow army and air units to fight on the Easter Front (Blue Division and Spanish Legion). [Back to text]

50. Indicator for a series of reports from a supposedly spurious source in the Vatican. [Back to text]

51. Served as the President's personal representative to Pope Pius XII. [Back to text]

52. Marshal Henri Philippe Petain served as head of the Vichy state from July 1940 to August 1944. Researchers may find useful Richard Griffiths, Marshal Petain (London: Constahble & Co., 1970). [Back to text]

53. German Counsel General in Turkey 1943-1944. [Back to text]

54. The War Refugee Board (WRB) was established within the Executive Office of the President by Executive Order 9417 of January 22, 1944, "to effectuate with all possible speed the rescue and relief of victims of enemy oppression who are in imminent danger of death, and otherwise to afford such victims all possible relief and assistance consistent with the successful prosecution of the war. " The WRB developed, in cooperation with other Federal agencies, plans and programs and initiated measures for the rescue, transportation, maintenance, and relief of victims of Axis oppression, and established havens of temporary refuge for such victims. The Board worked with foreign governments to gain their participation in the Board's plans and programs. The membership of the board included the Secretaries of State, War, and the Treasury. The Board was terminated by Executive Order 9614 of September 14, 1945. [Back to text]

55. Financial attache at the U.S. Embassy, Lisbon, Portugal during the war. [Back to text]

56. Code name for War Refugee Board. [Back to text]

57. Background information about the Research and Analysis Branch may be found in Barry M. Katz, Foreign Intelligence: Research and Analysis in the Office of Strategic Services 1942-1945 (Cambridge, MA and London, England: Harvard University Press, 1989) Stanley P. Lovell [former head of the R&A Branch], Of Spies and Stratagems (Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Printice-Hall, 1963). [Back to text]

58. In The Records of the Army Staff (RG 319) described later in this guide are numerous copies of these R & A reports. They can be found within the records contained in the Reports and Messages 1918-1951 (Entry 82A) of the Records of the Document Library of the Records of the Records of the Collecting and Dissemination Division. There are also eight boxes of the R & A reports produced during 1944 and 1945 in the records of Records of the Office of Military Government, Bavaria-Records of the Intelligence Division-Records of Predecessor Intelligence Offices, within the Records of the Office of the Military Governor, U.S. (OMGUS) (RG 260), described later in this finding aid. In addition, there are a relatively complete set of the R & A reports, with an index, in Entries 448 and 449, of the Records of the Bureau of Intelligence and Research within the General Records of the Department of State (RG 59), described later in this finding aid. [Back to text]

59. Contains index cards on General (Bank for International Settlements), Axis, Axis Countries, Belgian Congo, Belgian, Europe, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iran, Iraq, Italy, Netherlands, Portugal, Russia, Spain, Switzerland, and Turkey, among others). [Back to text]

60. The British Statutory List was very similar to the American Proclaimed List, in that it published the names of persons and firms in areas outside of enemy control who had in some way rendered significant aid to the enemy war machine, and that those listed were proscribed from trading with the British Empire. For records relating to the Statutory List see the listing for the Records of the Division of World Trade Intelligence and its Successor, Division of Economic Security Controls, Records of Interdepartment and Intradepartmental Committees (State Department) (RG 235). [Back to text]

61. British Missions in December 1939, began issuing navicerts, i.e., a certificate of destination for specified cargoes through contraband control. Initially, the Missions issued the navicert either on their own responsibility or after reference to the Ministry of Economic Warfare (MEW). Where all the cargo in a ship was covered by navicerts the ship could be given a navicert of its own. After the fall of France when the rigor of the blockade was greatly increased the navicert procedure was made compulsory and all un-navicerted cargo was liable to be regarded as destined for the enemy. All applications had to be referred to the MEW. At the same time the ship warrant scheme was introduced in conjunction with the Ministry of Shipping, whereby only those neutral shipowners who had given satisfactory evidence as to the employment of their vessels would be given access to British insurance, stores, repairs, and other facilities. [Back to text]

62. Heinrich Himmler was Reichsfuhrer-SS, head of the Gestapo (acronym for the Gerheime Staats Polizei, the German secret state police) and the Waffen-SS, and Minister of the Interior from 1943 to the end of the war. In October 1939 Hitler made him Reich Commissar for the Consolidation of German Nationhood. In this position Himmler devised methods of mass extermination of "racial degenerates, " such as Jews, Poles, Russians, Czechs, and gypsies among others. Researchers may find useful Richard Breitman, The Architect of Genocide: Heinrich Himmler and the Final Solution (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1991) Roger Manvell and H. Fraenkel, Himmler (New York: Paperback Library, 1968) Peter Padfield, Himmler: Reichsfuhrer SS (New York: Henry Holt & Co., 1990) Willi Frischauer, Himmler (London: Odhams Press, Ltd., 1953). [Back to text]

63. A conference of the American Republics held in Rio de Janeiro in late January 1942. A conference compromise resolution "recommended " the Latin American states break relations with the Axis nations. The United States desired stronger wording. Argentina opposed any resolution. [Back to text]

64. November 1936 agreement initially between Germany and Japan to exchange information on the activities of Soviet-backed international communist parties. Pact later signed by Italy, Hungary, Manchukuo, Spain, Bulgaria, Croatia, Denmark, Finland, Romania, Slovakia, and Wang Ching-wei's government in Nanking. [Back to text]

65. Goebbels recorded in his diary on January 22, 1942, that "The Swedes and Swiss are playing with fire. Let us hope they will burn their fingers before this war is over. " The Goebbels Diaries 1942-1943, ed., trans., and intro. By Louis P. Lochner (Garden City, NY: Doubleday & Company, Inc., 1948), p. 38. Goebbels served as Nazi Minister of Propaganda from 1933 until he committed suicide on May 1, 1945. [Back to text]

66. Almost ten miles in length the St. Gotthard tunnel connected central and southern Switzerland. [Back to text]

67. A Spanish unit of some 20,000 volunteers and five air squadrons, which served with the Germany Army on the Eastern Front from late 1941 to April 1944. It was disbanded at the latter date, as a result of Allied pressure, but a clandestine "Blue Legion " continued to serve until January 1945. Researchers may find useful Gerald R. Kleinfeld and Lewis A. Tambs, Hitler's Spanish Legion: The Blue Division in Russia (Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 1979) John Scurr, Germany's Spanish Volunteers 1941-1945: The Blue Division in Russia (London: Osprey Publishing, 1980) [Back to text]

68. Laval from June to December 1940, served as the minister of state and vice-premier in France's Petain government. He was recalled by Petain to service in April 1942 to head the Vichy government, including heading the ministries of foreign affairs, interior, and information. He was the main agent of German power in France. He raised a French army for Hitler, allowed Frenchmen to be deported to Germany for forced labor, and made no objections to Nazi plundering in France. In September 1944 he fled to Germany. Researchers may find useful Geoffrey Warner, Pierre Laval and the Eclipse of France (London: Eyre & Spottiswoode. 1968). [Back to text]

69. Henri Guisan, a gentleman-farmer from Canton Vaud, was elected on August 30, 1939, by the Swiss Combined Federal Assembly, to be the Commanding General of the Swiss Army. [Back to text]

70. Bohemia and Moravia (Czechoslovakia) was occupied by the German Army on March 15, 1939, and Hitler established the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia with Baron von Neurath as the Reichsprotektor. [Back to text]

71. In 1939 Hitler made Sauckel a Reich defense commissioner with a special post as Plenipotentiary for Labor Allocation. In March 1942 Hitler appointed Fritz Sauckel plenipotentiary for the mobilization of labor which made him responsible for Germany's entire workforce including foreigners (including slave laborers) and prisoners of war. [Back to text]

72. Acronmyn derived from Geheime Staatspolizei (State Secret Police), which replaced the Prussian political police in 1933. In 1936 it became a branch of Reinhard Heydrich's security police, which remained within the Ministry of the Interior, but in September 1939, when the RSHA (Reichssicherheitshaumptampt) was formed as a main office of the SS, it became its department Amt IV, headed by Heinrich Muller. Researchers may find useful Edward Crankshaw, The Gestapo (London: Putnam & Co., Ltd., 1956). [Back to text]

73. The SS (Schutztaffel), protection squads formed in 1925, became the personal bodyguard of Adolf Hitler and grew into the most powerful organization within the Nazi Party and the Nazi State under the leadership of Heinrich Himmler. The SS served as a political police and was later assigned the duty of administering concentration camps and extermination camps. Researchers may find useful SS Gerald Reitlinger, The SS. Alibi of a Nation 1922-1945 (London: Arms and Armour Press, 1981) G. S. Graber, The History of the SS (New York: David McKay, 1978). [Back to text]

74. See the descriptions of the various lists in the description of the records of Records of the Division of World Trade Intelligence and Its Successor, Division of Economic Security Controls within the Records of Interdepartmental and Intradepartmental Committees (State Department)(RG 353). [Back to text]

75. Served as Reichsbank president from December 1923 till 1930. In March 1933, Hitler reappointed him to that position and appointed him Minister of Economics, in which position he served from 1934 to 1937. He was appointed Plenipotentiary-General for the War Economy in May 1935, and proceeded to direct the economic preparations for war. He was dismissed as Reichsbank President on January 20, 1939. He served as Minister without Portfolio until January 1943. Researchers may find useful Hjalmar Schacht, Account Settled (London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1949) Hjalmar Schacht, Confessions of "the Old Wizard " (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company) John Weitz, Hitler's Banker: Hjalmar Horace Greeley Schacht (Boston, New York, Toronto, London: Little, Brown and Company, 1997) Edward N. Peterson, Hjalmar Schacht: For and Against Hitler (Boston: Christopher Publishing House, 1954) Amos E. Simpson, Hjalmar Schacht in Perspective (New York: Humanities Press, 1969). [Back to text]

76. Josef Goebbels, served as Nazi minister of propaganda from 1933 until he committed suicide on May 1, 1945. In 1944 Hitler made him general Plenipotentiary for the Mobilization of Total War. Researchers may find useful Joseph Goebbels, The Goebbels Diaries, 1939-1941. Ed. and trans. Fred Taylor (New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons, 1983) Joseph Goebbels, The Goebbels Diaries, 1942-1943. Ed. And trans. Louis Lochner (Garden City, New York: Doubleday, 1948) Joseph Goebbels, The Goebbels Diaries: The Last Days. Ed. Hugh Trevor-Roper trans. Richard Barry (London: Book Club Associates, 1978) Ralf Georg. Reuth, Goebbels (New York: Harcourt, Brace, 1990) Roger Manvell and Heinrich Fraenkel, Doctor Goebbels: His Life and Death (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1960). [Back to text]

77. Researchers may find useful information about corporations among the Records of the Securities and Exchange Commission (Record Group 266). Finding aids for these records are located in the consultation area of Room 2600. [Back to text]

78. Name for the Irish Free State after 1937. When the war began its prime minister Eamon de Valera declared the country neutral--the only member of the British Empire to remain outside the conflict. Researchers may find useful John P. Duggan, Neutral Ireland and the Third Reich (Dublin: Gill & Macmillan, 1985) Robert Fisk, In Time of War: Ireland, Ulster, and the Price of Neutrality 1939-1945 (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1983) Keven T. Nowlan and T. Desmond Williams, Ireland in the War Years and After 1939-1951 (Dublin: Gill & Macmillan, 1989) Bernard Share, The Emergency: Neutral Ireland, 1939-1945 (Dublin: Gill & Macmillan, 1978) Carolle J. Carter, The Shamrock and the Swastika: German Espionage in Ireland in World War II (Palo Alto: Pacific Books, 1977) T. Ryle Dwyer, Neutral Ireland and the U.S.A. 1937-1947 (Dublin: Rowman & Littlefield, 1977) Dermont Keogh, Ireland & Europe 1919-1989: A Diplomatic History (Cork and Dublin: Hibernian University Press, 1990) Jerrold M. Packard, Neither Friend Nor Foe: The European Neutrals in World War II (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1992). [Back to text]

79. The founder of the Norwegian Fascist National Union Party, proclaimed himself Norway's prime minister after the German invasion of Norway in April 1940, and in February 1942, Hitler made him the country's minister-president and began the Nazification of his country. Researchers may find useful Ralph Hewins, Quisling: Prophet without Honor (London: W. H. Allen & Co., 1965). [Back to text]

80. A military Reich Commissariat established under Alfred Rosenberg as Reich Minister for the Occupied Eastern Territories. It consisted of the Baltic States, part of Byelorussia, and part of eastern Poland. [Back to text]

81. Most likely Marshal Baron Carl Gustaf von Mannerheim Commander of the Finnish Army who fought against the Russians and who became Finland's president in August 1944. [Back to text]

82. King of Bulgaria who wanted to extract Bulgaria from the war. After a stormy meeting with Hitler he returned to Bulgaria and died on August 28, 1943, possibly poisoned. [Back to text]

83. Ante Pavelic was the leader of the Croatian Utasha movement and in April 1941 became the head of the Independent State of Croatia (Nezavisna Drzava Hrvatska or NDH), which included Bosnia and Herzegovina. [Back to text]

84. Leader of the opposition to the Axis in Serbia and Minister of Defense of the Yugoslavian Government-in-Exile. [Back to text]

85. Almost 13-mile long tunnel that crossed the frontier between Switzerland and Italy. [Back to text]

86. Site, near Smolensk, of the death of 15,000 Polish officers and other Poles presumably at the hands of the Russians during the spring of 1940. The site was discovered by the Germans in April 1943. Researchers may find useful Janusz, Zawodney, Death in the Forest: The Story of the Katyn Forest Massacre (Notre Dame, Indiana: University of Notre Dame, 1964) Foreign & Commonwealth Office, General Services Command, History Notes, The Katyn Massacre: an SOE Perspective , No. 10 (February 1996). [Back to text]

87. Identified in various files as either a socialist or communist political leader. [Back to text]

88. Researchers may find useful Neil Gregor, Daimler-Benz in the Third Reich (New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1998). [Back to text]

89. The foreign ministers of the United Kingdom, Russia, and the United States met in Moscow in October 1943, where, among other things they agreed to a declaration against those responsible for Nazi atrocities in occupied countries, to establish an European Advisory Commission, and that Austria would become an independent state after the war. They also signed the Four Power Declaration (known as the Moscow Declaration). [Back to text]

90. Marshal Pietro Badoglio became head of the Italian Government after Mussolini was deposed in July 1943, and signed an armistice with the Allies in September 1943. He was forced to resign during the summer of 1944. [Back to text]

91. Shipping firm of international reputation, with branches in the principal European countries. The most important German firm utilized for the packing and removal of looted art and art purchased by the Germans in occupied countries. [Back to text]

92. Salazar became prime minister and virtual dictator of Portugal in 1932. Inclined towards Fascism, but detested the Nazis. Maintained strictly neutral stance until October 1943 when he allowed the Allies an air base on the Azores. [Back to text]

93. At 10:40 am on April 1, 1944, thirty-eight heavy bombers of the United States 8th Air Force, apparently believing they were over the Germany city of Tuttlingen, bombed Schauffhausen. Destroyed were a group of small factories producing anti-aircraft shells, ball-bearings, and Me-109 parts for Germany. In all sixty-six buildings were consumed by fire and more than 500 damaged 450 people were left homeless, 271 injured, and 40 killed. Besides offering immediate apologizes the United States Government placed $1 million at the disposal of the Swiss Government to disburse to the victims. Full financial settlement, $3.1 million, was made in 1949, for not only the Schauffhausen incident but also for other damage inflicted by American bombers. [Back to text]

94. Auschwitz, in southern Poland, 160 miles southwest of Warsaw, was the location of three concentration camps and 36 sub-camps, which were built during the 1940-1942 period. Auschwitz I, under the command of Rudolf Hoess, was built in May-June 1940 for Polish political prisoners Auschwitz II, or Birkenau (which became an extermination camp), opened in October 1941 with a capacity for 100,000 inmates, and Auschwitz III, at nearby Monowitz, supplied forced labor for the nearby I.G. Farben synthetic rubber and oil plant. It is estimate that at least 1.2 to 1.5 million people died at Auschwitz I, of whom about 800,000 were Jews, and that perhaps as many as 2 million died at the other two camps, either being exterminated or being starved to death. Researchers may find useful: Martin Gilbert, Auschwitz and the Allies (London: M. Joseph and Rainbird, 1981) Primo Levi, Survival in Auschwitz (New York: Collier, 1958) Albert Menasche, Birkenau (New York: Saltiel, 1947) Rudolf Hoess, Commandant of Auschwitz: The Autobiography of Rudolf Hoess (London: Pan, 1974) Rudolf Hoess, Death Dealer: The Memoirs of the SS Kommandant at Auschwitz, ed. Steven Paskul trans. Andrew Pollinger (New York: Da Capo, 1996) Israel Gutman, et al., eds. Anatomy of the Auschwitz Death Camp (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1994). [Back to text]

95. Lwow, a major city in southeast Poland and during German occupation (1941- July, 1944) became the site of a major ghetto and the infamous Janowska Street concentration camp. The killing of the city's 150,000 Jews was completed by November 1943. [Back to text]

96. The site of the first Nazi Party concentration camp located 12 miles north of Munich. It opened in March 1933, under the command of Theodor Eicke. During the war the number of inmates grew to about 17,000, including Socialists, Communists, Jews, Gypsies, and homosexuals. In all some 225,000 people were held at Dachau, of which somewhere between 30,000 and 60,000 perished. Researchers may find useful Marcus J. Smith, The Harrowing of Hell: Dachau (Albuquerque, The University of New Mexico Press, 1972). [Back to text]

97. Chairman of the Federal Department of Economics, that is, minister of economic affairs, from 1940 to 1947. [Back to text]

98. For various accounts of the treatment of American airmen by the Swiss see Donald Arthur Waters, Hitler's Secret Ally, Switzerland (La Mesa, California: Pertinent Publications, 1992). [Back to text]

99. On July 17, 1941, President Roosevelt issued Presidential Proclamation 2497, which instructed the Secretary of State to prepare an appropriate list of persons working with or for the Axis and persons to whom exports from the United States were deemed to be detrimental to the interests of national defense. The resulting Division of World Trade Intelligence and its successor, the Division of Economic Security Controls, prepared the original "Proclaimed List of Certain Blocked Nationals " and maintained its various supplements and revisions from 1941 to 1946. The lists named persons and companies, resident in areas outside of enemy control, who directly or indirectly rendered substantial aid to the enemy war machine. Those listed were denied the privilege of trading with the United States. For detailed information on "The Proclaimed List of Certain Blocked Nationals " see the World Trade Intelligence records in Records of Interdepartmental and Intradepartmental Committees (State Department) RG 353. [Back to text]

100. The Todt Organization, formed by Fritz Todt (in February 1940 appointed Minister for Weapons and Munitions), was responsible for construction projects (e.g., strategic highways and military installations) for the Third Reich. More than 1.4 million men served in the organization, about 80% non-Germans, including forced laborers and prisoners of war. In February 1942, Todt was killed in a mysterious air accident. His successor, Albert Speer, increased the size and activities of the organization, which was renamed Front-Todt in the fall of 1944. [Back to text]

101. For various accounts of American planes being shot down by the Swiss see Donald Arthur Waters, Hitler's Secret Ally, Switzerland (La Mesa, California: Pertinent Publications, 1992). [Back to text]

102. Situated near Weimar, Germany, opened in July 1937. It supplied forced labor to local armament manufacturers, which operated 24 hours a day, using two 12-hour shifts of prisoners. It is estimated that of the some 240,000 people imprisoned there, over 56,000 died. It was liberated on April 10, 1945. [Back to text]

103. The SD (Sicherheitsdienst) was the Security Service of the SS founded in 1932 and directed by Reinhard Heydrich, which became the sole intelligence of the Nazi Party. It was also one of the chief executive organs of the annihilation of the Jews, gypsies, Communists, and "Asiatic inferiors. " SD men arrested 67,000 "enemies of the state " in Vienna during the occupation of Austria in 1938. During the war SD personnel were responsible for reporting on the morale of the civilian population active against partisans in the occupied countries executed thousands of prisoners and, along with the SS, helped to clear the ghettoes in the east. [Back to text]

104. At the extermination camp at Lublin, Poland, some 370,000 Poles, Russians, Jews and people of 17 other nationalities were murdered between 1941 and 1944. [Back to text]

105. Reinhard Heydrich in 1932 established the intelligence department (Sicherheitsdienst, or SD) of the SS and in 1934 became an SS lieutenant general and took command of the Prussian Gestapo in Berlin. In 1936 he was appointed head of the security police (Sicherheitspolizei, or Sipro), within the Ministry of the Interior, giving him nationwide control of the Gestapo and the criminal police (Kriminalpolizei, or Kripo). Thus, as head of the RSHA (Reichssicherheitshaumptamt, or Reich Security Main Office), which was established in 1939, to oversee all police activity, he was Heinrich Himmler's deputy. On September 27, 1941, Hitler appointed him Deputy Reich Protector for Bohemia and Moravia. At the Wannsee Conference held on January 20, 1942, he was chosen to administer the "Final Solution. " His brutal actions in Czechoslovakia resulted in him being assassinated by members of the Czech resistance in May 1942. Researchers may find useful Charles Wighton, Heydrich: Hitler's Most Evil Henchman (London: Odhams Press, Ltd., 1962) Edouard Calic, Reinhard Heydrich, trans. Lowell Blair (New York: Morrow, 1982). [Back to text]

106. Ernst vom Rath, a third secretary in the German embassy in Paris was assassinated on November 7, 1938 (died from his wounds on November 9), by a seventeen-year old Polish Jewish student. [Back to text]

107. German Post Office Saving Bank. [Back to text]

108. Director of the Linz Special Commission, the Linz Fuhrer Museum, and the Wiesbaden Museum from March 1943 and the Dresden State Gallery from May 1943. He was involved in Schloss and Mannheimer collection (forced) sales, and the official chiefly responsible for Hitler's looting and purchasing policies after 1943. [Back to text]

109. German or Swiss national of Italian birth. She was a contact of Frau Maria Schmidlin and allegedly involved in art looting transactions. [Back to text]

110. Prominent art dealer of The Hague, the Netherlands, working with Hofer, Posse, and Miedl, as well as Lange, Haberstock, Boehler and other German buyers. [Back to text]

111. Jewish dealer, active formerly in Berlin, Munich, and Amsterdam. Former brother-in-law of Walter Andreas Hofer and his former employer. His Dutch firm was aryanized after Hofer arranged to have his sister divorced from him. [Back to text]

112. Leader of the German Labor Front (Deutsche Arbeitsfront), beginning in 1933. Researchers may find useful Ronald Smelser, Robert Ley: Hitler's Labor Front Labor (New York: Berg, 1988). [Back to text]

113. Martin Bormann was private secretary to Hitler and later director of the party chancellery, Reich Minister, and member of the Cabinet Council for Defense. During the last year of the war Bormann was the most important man in the Reich with the exception of Hitler, who he was often near to coordinate access to the Fuhrer. Researchers may find useful Joseh von Lang, The Secretary, Martin Bormann, the Man Who Manipulated Hitler. trans. Christa Armstrong and Peter White (Athens: Ohio University Press, 1981) William Stevenson, The Bormann Brotherhood (New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Inc., 1973) J. MacGovern, Martin Bormann (New York: Morrow, 1968). [Back to text]

114. German film actress, director, and producer most noted for two films she produced in the 1930s, Triumph of the Will and Olympia. Researchers may find useful Leni Riefenstahl, A Memoir (New York: St. Martin's Press, 1993). [Back to text]

115. German national considered a strong Nazi and possibly implicated in looting transactions. Had contacts with Lindpaintner, Frey, and Fischer. [Back to text]

116. Former German cavalry officer and amateur art dealer, with broad official and aristocratic connections throughout Europe. He was the Paris, France agent of Fritz Possenbacher (art and antique dealer of Munich, Germany), and traveled extensively during the war from Germany to France, Switzerland, Spain and Portugal. [Back to text]

117. Art dealer of German birth and Hungarian citizenship. He was purported to be involved in several important looted art transactions in France and Switzerland. He was second to Hans Wendland in the Swiss art trade. He was believed to have brought works of art illegally into Switzerland through Rumanian diplomatic channels and participated in an exchange of loot with the ERR. Throughout the war maintained contact with the New York art trade. [Back to text]

118. German organization of guerrilla fighters set up in the last days of the war and commanded by SS General Hans Pruetzmann. The werewolves were modeled on the Resistance fighters in German-occupied countries. It was thought they would continue to fight once the war ended but after Admiral Doenitz, Hitler's successor, ordered them to cease operations, they complied. Researchers may find useful Charles Whiting, Werewolf: The Story of the Nazi Resistance Movement 1944-1945 (London: Leo Cooper, 1996). [Back to text]

119. The RSHA (Reichssischerheitshauptampt) was The Reich Main Security Office formed under the leadership of Reinhard Heydrich in September 1939. Its departments included the Intelligence Division, the Gestapo (Secret State Police), the Criminal Police and the SD (Security Service). The Special Intelligence Division, established by Walter Schellenberg, was charged with procuring foreign currency, among other activities. Amt VI (Office VI), headed by Adolf Eichmann, was responsible for implementing the "Final Solution " to the Jewish problem. [Back to text]

120. Walter Schellenberg from 1939 to 1942 was Deputy Chief of Amt VI of the RSHA (Reich Main Security Office), in charge of the political secret service for foreign countries. In 1942, he was promoted to head Amt VI of the RSHA and Chief of Security in the occupied territories. In 1944 he was appointed head of the united SS and Wehrmacht military intelligence, standing second only to Himmler in the Gestapo hierarchy. Researchers may find useful Walter Schellenberg, Hitler's Secret Service: Memoirs of Walter Schellenberg, ed. and trans., Louis Hagen, 2nd Ed., (New York: Pyramid, 1962). [Back to text]

121. Admiral Wilhelm Canaris was head of the Abwehr, the German military intelligence and counter-intelligence organization. He was removed from office in February 1944 and arrested in July 1944 for plotting against Hitler. Researchers may find useful K. H. Abshagen, Canaris (London: Hutchinson, 1956) Heinz Hohne, Canaris (New York: Doubleday, 1979) Andre Brissaud, Canaris: The Biography of Admiral Canaris, Chief of German Military Intelligence in the Second World War (New York: Grosset & Dunlap, 1974) Roger Manvell and Heinrich Fraenkel, The Canaris Conspiracy (New York: David McKay, Inc., 1969). [Back to text]

122. German Foreign Minister from February 1938 to 1945, having served previously as Ambassador-at-Large and from 1936 to 1938 the German ambassador to Great Britain. Researchers may find useful John Weitz, Hitler's Diplomat: The Life and Times of Joachim von Ribbentrop (New York: Ticknor & Fields, 1992) Joachim von Ribbentrop, The Ribbentrop Memoirs (London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1983) Paul Schwartz, This Man Ribbentrop: His Life and Times (New York: Julian Messner, Publishers, Inc., 1943). [Back to text]

123. A Bavarian financial and speculator, who was a personal friend of Hermann Goering. He purchased the Goudstikker Collection. [Back to text]

124. Dr. Arthur Wiederkehr, a Zurich, Switzerland attorney, on the Proclaimed List, who held six looted pictures for Miedl, five of which were from the Paul Rosenberg Collection offered one of them, the Van Gogh "Self Portrait, " for sale to Buehrle. [Back to text]

125. Director of the Goering Collection and Goering's chief purchasing agent. [Back to text]

126. German national. Art dealer, resident alternatively in France, Switzerland, Italy, and Germany since World War I. Probably the most important individual engaged in quasi-official looted art transactions in France, Germany, and Switzerland during World War II. Acted as intermediary between Hofer and Fischer, and as Fischer's chief purchasing agent. He was frequently in Paris, France, during the occupation close contact of Lohse, Rochlitze, Loebl, Petrides, Mandl, Wuester, etc. He never sold works directly to private purchasers always working as dealers' expert and agent. Was on the Proclaimed List. [Back to text]

127. Karl W. Bruemming was a bookseller and antique dealer in Darmstadt, Germany. He was chief representative in Germany for Fischer and was an important intermediary in Hofer-Fischer exchanges, as well as many of Dr. Wolffhardt's (SS Hauptsturmfuehrer) transactions for the Linz Library. He traveled frequently to Switzerland during the war and was a key figure in movement of looted works of art between Germany and Switzerland. [Back to text]

128. Baron Eduard von Der Heydt of Ascona, Switzerland, was a former German banker who obtained Swiss citizenship in 1937. He was a wealthy collector, particularly of Chinese art, with strong international connections and was supposedly a cover for protecting the assets of Nazi industrialists, politicians, diplomats, and intelligence chiefs. [Back to text]

129. A Hungarian fascist faction headed by Ferenc Szalasi. By 1939 it was the second largest party in the Hungarian parliament. [Back to text]

130. SS Lieutenant Colonel Adolf Eichmann in December 1939 he took command of Referat IV B4 of the Amt IV (Gestapo) of the Reich Main Security Office (RSHA), dealing with Jewish affairs, including the implementation of the 'Final Solution,' i.e., the extermination of the Jews. Researchers may find useful Jochen von Lang, ed., Eichmann Interrogated (New York: Farrar, Strauss & Giroux, 1983) Hannah Arendt, Eichmann in Jerusalem: A Report on the Banality of Evil (New York: The Viking Press, Inc., 1963). [Back to text]

131. Important Swiss dealer. He owned a large establishment which did a considerable volume of international business prior to World War II. During the war he was the focal point in all looted art transactions in Switzerland, and recipient of the greatest number of looted paintings. He conducted extensive business with Haberstock, Hofer, Wendland, Buemming, and all Swiss art dealer. Fischer was on the Proclaimed List. [Back to text]

132. Count Dino Grandi in 1939 became Italy's Minister of Justice. In February 1943 he was dismissed from the cabinet and lead the effort that summer to remove Mussolini from power. He fled Italy before the September 1943 armistice with the Allies. [Back to text]

133. Galeazzo Ciano di Cortellazzo was Mussolini's son-in-law and served as Italy's foreign minister for seven years. In February 1943, he resigned and was appointed ambassador to the Holy See and that July voted in the Fascist Grand Council for Mussolini's dismissal. Later that summer he was seized by the Mussolini supporters and executed in January 1944. [Back to text]

134. Researchers may find useful Galeazzo Ciano, The Ciano Diaries, 1939-1943. Ed. Hugh Gibson (New York: Doubleday, 1983). [Back to text]

135. Partner of Erich Schiffman in "Moubles Manonellas, a Barcelona, Spain shop opened ostensibly for the disposal of porcelain and china smuggled by him from France. [Back to text]

136. German industrialists and steel magnate who helped finance the Nazi Party. Once Hitler took power, Thyssen was chosen to direct an institute of studies devoted to research on the corporate state. By 1935 he began having doubts about the Nazi party's rearmament program and anti-Semitic policies, and in 1938 he resigned from the Prussian Council of State to protest against the persecution of the Jews and the next year he left Germany. He was later turned over to the Nazis, who had already confiscated his property, by the Vichy government and spent the remainder of the war in a concentration camp. Researchers may find useful Fritz Thyssen, I Paid Hitler (New York: Farrar & Rinehart, Inc., 1941). [Back to text]

137. Located in Alsace-Lorraine, it was used mainly for political prisoners. [Back to text]

138. The Birkenau extermination camp was located in the Birkenau woods near Auschwitz in occupied Poland. It was constructed in 1941 on orders from Himmler as a special killing center for 100,000 Russian prisoners. [Back to text]

139. Open in May 1938 near the Bavarian town of Flossenburg. During the next seven years some 65,000 people were incarcerated there. During 1944-1945, over 14,000 people died or were executed at the camp. [Back to text]

140. Near Linz, Austria, it had 60 sub-camps. The main camp was opened in August 1938, and housed European Jews. Of the over 200,000 Jews held there at least 70,000 died from overwork in nearby stone quarries and the armaments industries, from starvation and disease, and by execution. [Back to text]

141. An operation which entailed the wholesale confiscation of household goods and furnishings of French Jewish families in 1943 and 1944, and the disposal thereof by sale in Paris or by shipment to Germany. [Back to text]

This page was last reviewed on August 15, 2016.
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