Enrico Dandolo

Enrico Dandolo



We are searching data for your request:

Forums and discussions:
Manuals and reference books:
Data from registers:
Wait the end of the search in all databases.
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.


Italian ironclad Enrico Dandolo

Enrico Dandolo was the second of two Caio Duilio-class ironclad turret ships built for the Italian Regia Marina (Royal Navy) in the 1870s. They were fitted with the largest guns available, 17.72 in (450 mm) rifled, muzzle-loading guns, and were the largest, fastest and most powerful ships of their day. [1] Enrico Dandolo was built in La Spezia, with her keel laid in January 1873 and her hull launched in July 1878. Construction was finally completed in April 1882 when the ship, named for the 41st Doge of Venice, was commissioned into the Italian fleet.

    : 11,025 long tons (11,202 t) : 12,037 long tons (12,230 t)
  • 8,045 ihp (5,999 kW)
  • 8 coal-fired boilers
  • 2 × twin 17.72 in (450 mm)rifled, muzzle-loading guns
  • 3 × 14 in (356 mm) torpedo tubes
    : 21.5 in (550 mm)
  • Transverse bulkheads: 15.75 in (400 mm) : 17 in (430 mm) : 2 in (51 mm)

Enrico Dandolo spent much of her career in the Active Squadron of the Italian fleet, primarily occupied with training exercises. She was heavily modernized in 1895–1898, receiving a new battery of fast-firing 10 in (254 mm) guns in place of the old 17.72 in guns. The ship served in the Reserve Squadron after 1905, and then became a gunnery training ship. During the Italo-Turkish War of 1911–1912, Enrico Dandolo was among the few ships of the Italian fleet to see no action. She was employed as a harbor defense ship, first in Tobruk, Libya in 1913 and then in Brindisi and Venice during World War I. The ship was ultimately broken up for scrap in 1920.


Dandolo Family

Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article.

Dandolo Family, an ancient Italian family distinguished in the history of Venice. It rose quickly to prominence when expansion from the lagoons to the mainland began. By the 11th century it was rich, and by the 12th (when the branches of San Luca, San Severo, and San Moisè can already be distinguished) it was competing for the highest posts in church and state. In the middle decades of the 12th century, when Enrico di Domenico Dandolo, as patriarch of Grado from 1146 to 1154, strove to defend his prerogatives against Pietro Polani (doge from 1130 to 1148) and the Michiel family, the whole Dandolo family was exiled until, after about 10 years, peace was made on the basis of political concessions and matrimonial alliances.

As the power of the Michiel family declined, trouble arose between the restless Dandolo family and the Ziani family, headed by the doge Sebastiano, who wanted to impose a policy of peace and internal reform instead of his predecessors’ war program. In 1192 the elderly Enrico Dandolo (d. 1205), of the branch of San Luca, himself became doge. His rule was chiefly important for his preponderant role in promoting the Fourth Crusade, which led to the overthrow of the Greek Byzantine Empire and the establishment of the Latin Empire in its place. He reserved a wide field of activity in the East for his own family: Marco Dandolo became lord of Andros, and Giovanni founded a powerful company that long exploited the colony of Tyre. The Dandolo policy, however, proved an embarrassment to Venice when the colonists tended to secede. In reaction against it, the Ziani and Tiepolo families came to power in Venice for much of the 13th century, so that the Dandolo family had to confine its energies to Crete, to the Negropont (Euboea), to the Aegean islands, and to Dalmatia.

Reaction in turn against the Tiepolo family brought Giovanni Dandolo (d. 1289), of the San Severo branch, to the dogeship in 1280, in a period of internal crisis in Venice. At the same time, the conflict between Venice and Genoa was on the point of developing into a general Mediterranean crisis. When this came to a head, two more Dandolo doges had to bear the brunt of it: Francesco from 1329 to 1339 and Andrea from 1343 to 1354. Seeking allies near and far, the Dandolo doges resolutely refused compromise and also surmounted the further disasters of earthquake, plague (1348), financial crisis, and ultimate defeat by the Genoese (1354).

After Andrea, no Dandolo was ever doge again, but members of the family still held high offices in the Venetian service until the fall of the republic.


Enrico Dandolo and the way history overlooks disability

For a long time there has been Black History Month, but now similar efforts are being made to highlight people with disabilities. So who are the disabled figures in history that we should know more about?

In a museum in Venice stand four remarkable horses made of copper.

A thousand miles away in the magnificent former church of Haghia Sophia in Istanbul, there is a plaque on the upper gallery bearing the name Henricus Dandolo.

This plaque marks the probable site of the tomb of the man who looted those horses in 1204, better known to history as Enrico Dandolo.

Doge of the Republic of Venice from 1192, Dandolo led the Fourth Crusade - an expedition intended to conquer Muslim Egypt - to Constantinople. His armies smashed the heart of the Christian Byzantine Empire.

Dandolo was a dynamic leader, reorganising the Venetian currency and beginning the first codification of the republic's laws.

On the battlefield he was an inspirational figure. When the crusader fleet faltered under a withering hail of arrows from the Byzantine defenders, he was the leader who drove them on.

They became the first foreign force to breach the walls of Constantinople. Dandolo died after campaigning in Bulgaria the following year.

To his supporters, he was brave, forceful and vigorous. To his enemies, ambitious, cunning and unscrupulous.

But there are two facts about Dandolo that are likely to surprise the modern reader.

He achieved all this when he was in his 90s. And he had been blind for more than two decades.

Dandolo went blind in his 60s after a severe blow to his head caused damage to his brain, says Prof Thomas Madden, author of the definitive biography.

Dandolo wasn't the only disabled warrior in the Middle Ages. King John of Bohemia died on horseback in the thick of the Battle of Crecy against the English, having been blind for over a decade.

And the Ridley Scott film Kingdom of Heaven portrays the life of Baldwin IV, king of Jerusalem, who was debilitated by leprosy but still able to win a massive victory against Saladin at the Battle of Montgisard in 1177.

But Dandolo is one of a long line of historical figures whose disability is, in a sense, overlooked.

Many will know about Beethoven's deafness, or be aware of the seizures of Julius Caesar - possibly due to epilepsy. The Madness of King George III has been established for posterity by a play and movie. Joanna the Mad of Castile was a key figure in the struggle for control of 16th Century Spain.

Then there is Lord Nelson's disability. The loss of his right arm might have caused the curtailment of his career. It prompted him to write: "A left-handed admiral will never again be considered as useful, therefore the sooner I get to a very humble cottage the better, and make room for a better man to serve the state."

And yet there is a perceptional gap. People do not always think of Nelson, or these other figures, and think of them as "disabled". Few children are taught about the plethora of disabled people in history.

"They are overlooked for two reasons," says sociologist Tom Shakespeare, author of Disability Rights and Wrongs. "Either they are genuinely obscure, or they are not obscure at all but they are not thought of as disabled."

The concept of disabled people as one identity is comparatively recent, says Shakespeare, who writes a blog picking out disabled figures from history.

"The word ɽisabled' used to describe the whole gamut is a 20th Century thing.

"Disability is very associated with being 'rubbish'. When you get somebody like Dandolo then they are given a kind of honorary non-disabled status. If they are so successful they can't be disabled. That aspect of their identity is not prioritised."

And of course there was always an incentive for disabled people to downplay or even hide their disability.

So it was with Dandolo. "There were stories that he would hide his blindness. He would put a hair in his soup and loudly complain about it," says Madden.

Dandolo's efforts to hide his disability foreshadow those of US President Franklin Roosevelt more than seven centuries later.

Paralysed from the waist down for more than a decade before becoming president, Roosevelt also made great efforts to hide his disability.

There are a handful of images of Roosevelt standing while president, but in every one he is carefully propped up against something.

Roosevelt guessed that knowledge of his disability would harm his electoral prospects.

"How could you be the leader of the free world and disabled?" sums up his attitude, says Shakespeare.

His appearances at speeches and rallies, and in the news media, were carefully choreographed so his wheelchair was never seen.

Here you can see Franklin D Roosevelt propping himself up while standing, and sitting down when meeting people

"There are no cartoons of him as disabled. There is no news reel footage, which is quite extraordinary," says Shakespeare.

Now people are aware of Roosevelt having been in a wheelchair. It made for a pivotal scene in the movie Pearl Harbor.

In the case of Dandolo, it is easy even for modern students to forget the level of his impairment. "I've never really thought about him as ɽisabled'," admits Madden.

He is shown a number of times in the illustrations on the magnificent Chamber of the Grand Council in Venice. But you wouldn't necessarily guess his blindness from the paintings.

"It shows a very vigorous man looking at things and doing things," says Madden.

"None of the depictions include people leading him around and showing him places. It was always just this very powerful man."

In the modern mind, such extraordinary success for a person with a particular disability would be a reason to espouse optimism about the potential of all people with that disability. The medieval mindset was different.

"Venetians in the medieval world would see the blindness purely as a deficit. There is no way they would see this as a victory [for a disabled person]," says Madden.

But there is a glorious irony in the life of Dandolo. The Byzantine Empire often blinded its deposed emperors in the belief that would preclude them from retaking power, yet it was eventually toppled by a blind enemy.

Of course, history is not all a story of "great men".

The lives of ordinary people, and the social and legal landmarks, are what many disabled people will look back on as important.

But there is emblematic purpose in picking out disabled figures from history, says Shakespeare. "It is very important to name people because we have such a negative view [of disabled people]."

There might be a useful lesson in the Mary Seacole effect. Seacole - a contemporary of Florence Nightingale - is now a well-known and celebrated figure, having descended into obscurity for over a century at least in part due to racial prejudice.

The reestablishment of Seacole as a major figure is still an important landmark for black history.


Bible Encyclopedias

Doge of Venice from 1192 to 1205 died, aged about a hundred years, in 1205. He belonged to one of the electoral families who claimed descent from the twelve tribunes by whom the first doge had been elected in 697. In the course of the twelth century one of his relations was Patriarch of Grado for fifty years (Mon. Germ. Hist.: Script., XIV, 71). Of his life, we only know the role he played in history, but he appears to have been a man of uncommon physical and mental strength. At the age of almost a hundred he took the cross, and led the expedition against Constantinople a fearless knight and the first to scale the walls of a city, he was also a distinguished diplomat, and his influence seems to have been predominant in the . He is first mentioned as taking part in the war between Venice and the Emperor Manuel Comnenus in 1171. The Venetians, decimated by the plague, were at Chios, and Dandolo was sent to Constantinople to make a treaty of peace. According to a tradition quoted by the "Chronicle of Novgrod", the emperor burnt out his eyes. Andrea Dandolo (1307-1354), a descendant of the same family, makes the statement that he was partly deprived of his sight in the services, of his country (pro salute patriae constanter resistens, visu aliqualiter obtenebratus est, "Chronic.", ed. Muratori, xii, 298). It would seem that in spite of all the torture he underwent Dandolo was not completely deprived of sight (see Luchaire in "Journal des Savants", 1907, p. 110). In 1172 he went on a mission to William II of Sicily, then once more to Constantinople. In 1178 Dandolo was one of the forty electors commissioned, for the first time, to elect the doge. He himself was elected doge in his turn (1 June, 1192). In spite of his advanced age he displayed great activity, put an end to the commercial quarrels with Verona, declared war against the inhabitants of Zara for uniting their city to Hungary, and against the Pisans, who had attempted to establish themselves in Istria. In 1198 he concluded a treaty of alliance with the Emperor Alexis III of Constantinople, but as early as 1201 Venice had disagreements with Alexis who broke all his promises and granted numerous privileges to the Genoese and the Pisans.

At this time (March, 1201) the leaders of the came to negotiate with Venice for the transport of the troops to the Orient Dandolo himself took the cross as well as several other Venetian nobles. In consequence of circumstances not yet clearly explained, the crusade, originally directed against Egypt, was turned first against Zara and then against Constantinople. Streit (Venedig und die Wendung des vierten Kreuzzuges, 1877) attributes to Enrico Dandolo the principal role in the intrigues which preceded these events. Riant (Revue des question historiques, XXIII, 109) has pointed out very truly that the initiative of the doge was strictly limited by the Constitution of Venice. If Dandolo directed the negotiations he did it in agreement with the councils of Venice. With this reservation it may be admitted that Dandolo took the leading part in the negotiations which ended in the capture of Constantinople. In fact it was to the interest of Venice to re-establish order and security in the Byzantine Empire. Dandolo proposed the expedition against Zara (October, 1212) to the crusaders, as a way to pay off their debt to Venice. In the council of war held after the capture of Zara, according to the testimony of Robert de Clare, Dandolo was the first to suggest that the preliminary occupation of Greece would greatly facilitate the conquest of the Holy Land. Thereafter, during the entire expedition, his influence over the leaders of the Crusade grew from day to day. He presided at the council of war held the Abbey of San Stefano, 23 June, 1203, and gave the wisest advice to the barons. In spite of his age he took an active part in the operations of the siege of Constantinople. While the barons attacked the walls in the Blachernae quarter, Dandolo directed the assault of the Venetians against the sea walls and hoisted the gonfalon of St. Mark on his galley. The city captured, he wished to force Alexis IV to keep the promises made to the crusaders. Upon his refusal, Dandolo boldly defied him and advised the barons to undertake a second siege of the city. In the council of war, 1 May, 1204, Dandolo signed with them the treaty partitioning the empire between Venice and the crusaders.

After the capture of the city he had Boniface of Montferrat driven out of the empire the barons offered him the imperial crown, but he loyally refused it, so as not to violate the Constitution of Venice. The new emperor Baldwin gave him the title of "Despot", and he settled in Constantinople. In 1205 he took part in the disastrous expedition against the Bulgarians he died shortly afterwards and was buried in St. Sophia. Dandolo by his skill and energy established the political and commercial power of Venice in the Orient.


Just history.

Conquest Of Constantinople By The Crusaders In 1204

Enrico Dandolo had an ax to grind. At first, it seemed like he had a pretty good life. He was born in the early 12th century to an influential Venetian noble family. His father was Vitale Dandolo, who was a famous jurist and diplomat. His uncle, another Enrico Dandolo, was the patriarch of Grado, the highest ranking churchman in Venice. Young Enrico followed in his father’s footsteps and went on many diplomatic for the Republic. He was a shrewd politician and survived a disastrous mission Constantinople in 1171. The Byzantine Empire was the biggest kid on the block, and had seized the goods of thousands of Venetians living in the Empire and threw the people in prison. The initial mission was a complete mess, and ended up with the Doge being killed by a mob. Dandolo survived and made many diplomatic trips to Constantinople, Ferrara and Sicily. It is said one trip to Constantinople, Enrico lost his sight. One story says that he so vigorously defended the rights of the Venetians living in Constantinople, the Byzantine emperor had him blinded. However, Groffroi de Villehardouin, a chronicler of the fourth Crusade, reports Dandolo lost his sight from a blow to the head. However, he lost his sight, it did not quench his ambition or his ability, and stoked a growing hatred for the Byzantine Empire.

At a time when most men were settling down, Dandolo began his rise to power. He became the forty-first Doge of Venice on June 1, 1192. He was 84 years old and blind to boot. However, he wasn’t about to rest on his laurels. He had a score to settle with Byzantium. By the end of the 12th century, there had been three crusades to retake the holy land with varying degrees of success. The Third Crusade had just ended with the Treaty of Jaffa, which left the city of Jerusalem under Muslim control. No one much liked that. The Saladin died, and his successors looked easier to beat. So in 1198, Pope Innocent III immediately began calling for a new crusade to free Jerusalem. Unfortunately, no one was much interested as literally everyone in Europe was busy with something else.

Finally in 1202, the army of mostly French recruits, marched to Venice, who had agreed to provide them with transport to Cairo. Slight problem, no one had any money to pay the Venetians. This turned into a huge problem for Venice as they had sunk all their ready cash in building a fleet for the crusaders, which put their shipbuilding economy on hold. Plus there were 12,000 soldiers wandering around with no money and bored out of their minds. That wasn’t going to end well. A deal was struck. The crusaders could go to Cairo, if they captured the port of Zara on the Dalmatian coast for Venice on the way. Zara was a Christian city, but no matter. They would get some cash plus revenge for the Dalmatians not aligning themselves with Venice, the crusaders would get where they needed to go. Win win. Not exactly in the eyes of Pope Innocent III, who put tried to put the kibosh on the plan by threatening to excommunicate everyone if they went through with it. Everyone kind of forgot to tell the rank and file that, and they took Zara anyway.

So, now that Dandolo was officially excommunicated he was now free to do exactly what he wanted, and he smelled profit and revenge. While all this was going on,

Tomb of Enrico Dandolo in Hagia Sofia in Istanbul Photo Credit- https://wordscene.wordpress.com/tag/fourth-crusade/

there was a power struggle in Constantinople. Isaac II lost the throne and his brother was crowned as Alexios III. Isaac’s son, another Alexios, was not keen on losing his inheritance, and cast about for allies and found one Enrico Dandolo. Dandolo had the crusader army sale not for Cairo, but for Constantinople with Isaac’s son in tow. He was to be proclaimed basileus for the tidy sum of 236,000 silver marks. Yet another problem- Isaac’s son did not have that kind of money. Alexios decided to keep that to himself as the crusader army and Venetian ships attacked Constantinople. They almost lost, but eventually Alexios III lost his nerve and fled. Young Alexios was crowned Alexios IV as co-emperor with his old father, Isaac II. It was time to pay up, but Alexios decided to try to to skip out on the debt.

When the Venetians found out they were pissed. They refused to leave the city until they got every cent, and eventually the crusader army and the citizens of Constantinople were brawling in the city streets. The citizens were fed up and brought in a new basileus, yet another Alexios who became Alexios V. This Alexios was very anti-Latin, as the crusaders and Venetians were called. Dandolo knew they weren’t going to get any money from him, so they declared him a usurper and let the crusader army loose on the great city of Constantinople. Not exactly what Pope Innocent had in mind, but he eventually got his cut so he let it slide.

The city fell to the crusader army on April 13, 1204 and it is estimated that 900,000 silver marks was looted out of Constantinople. Jerusalem wasn’t conquered and the Muslims were never engaged in one battle. The only people who fought were Christians against Christians, which greatly belittled the worth of the Pope’s word. Innocent fought that battle for years after. However, everyone made their money and Dandolo got his revenge. However, the price for his revenge was quite high. The Byzantine Empire had been the bulwark against the Muslims for years and this little escapade had weakened it significantly. There was a series of “Latin” rulers, but within sixty years the Greeks were back in charge. However, it never recovered and became an easy mark for the Ottoman Empire.


Enrico Dandolo

Doge of Venice from 1192 to 1205 died, aged about a hundred years, in 1205. He belonged to one of the electoral families who claimed descent from the twelve tribunes by whom the first doge had been elected in 697. In the course of the twelth century one of his relations was Patriarch of Grado for fifty years (Mon. Germ. Hist.: Script., XIV, 71). Of his life, we only know the role he played in history, but he appears to have been a man of uncommon physical and mental strength. At the age of almost a hundred he took the cross, and led the expedition against Constantinople a fearless knight and the first to scale the walls of a city, he was also a distinguished diplomat, and his influence seems to have been predominant in the Fourth Crusade . He is first mentioned as taking part in the war between Venice and the Emperor Manuel Comnenus in 1171. The Venetians, decimated by the plague, were at Chios, and Dandolo was sent to Constantinople to make a treaty of peace. According to a tradition quoted by the "Chronicle of Novgrod", the emperor burnt out his eyes. Andrea Dandolo (1307-1354), a descendant of the same family, makes the statement that he was partly deprived of his sight in the services, of his country (pro salute patriae constanter resistens, visu aliqualiter obtenebratus est, "Chronic.", ed. Muratori, xii, 298). It would seem that in spite of all the torture he underwent Dandolo was not completely deprived of sight (see Luchaire in "Journal des Savants", 1907, p. 110). In 1172 he went on a mission to William II of Sicily, then once more to Constantinople. In 1178 Dandolo was one of the forty electors commissioned, for the first time, to elect the doge. He himself was elected doge in his turn (1 June, 1192). In spite of his advanced age he displayed great activity, put an end to the commercial quarrels with Verona, declared war against the inhabitants of Zara for uniting their city to Hungary, and against the Pisans, who had attempted to establish themselves in Istria. In 1198 he concluded a treaty of alliance with the Emperor Alexis III of Constantinople, but as early as 1201 Venice had disagreements with Alexis who broke all his promises and granted numerous privileges to the Genoese and the Pisans.

At this time (March, 1201) the leaders of the Fourth Crusade came to negotiate with Venice for the transport of the troops to the Orient Dandolo himself took the cross as well as several other Venetian nobles. In consequence of circumstances not yet clearly explained, the crusade, originally directed against Egypt, was turned first against Zara and then against Constantinople. Streit (Venedig und die Wendung des vierten Kreuzzuges, 1877) attributes to Enrico Dandolo the principal role in the intrigues which preceded these events. Riant (Revue des question historiques, XXIII, 109) has pointed out very truly that the initiative of the doge was strictly limited by the Constitution of Venice. If Dandolo directed the negotiations he did it in agreement with the councils of Venice. With this reservation it may be admitted that Dandolo took the leading part in the negotiations which ended in the capture of Constantinople. In fact it was to the interest of Venice to re-establish order and security in the Byzantine Empire . Dandolo proposed the expedition against Zara (October, 1212) to the crusaders, as a way to pay off their debt to Venice. In the council of war held after the capture of Zara, according to the testimony of Robert de Clare, Dandolo was the first to suggest that the preliminary occupation of Greece would greatly facilitate the conquest of the Holy Land. Thereafter, duuring the entire expedition, his influence over the leaders of the Crusade grew from day to day. He presided at the council of war held the Abbey of San Stefano, 23 June, 1203, and gave the wisest advice to the barons. In spite of his age he took an active part in the operations of the siege of Constantinople. While the barons attacked the walls in the Blachernae quarter, Dandolo directed the assault of the Venetians against the sea walls and hoisted the gonfalon of St. Mark on his galley. The city captured, he wished to force Alexis IV to keep the promises made to the crusaders. Upon his refusal, Dandolo boldly defied him and advised the barons to undertake a second siege of the city. In the council of war, 1 May, 1204, Dandolo signed with them the treaty partitioning the empire between Venice and the crusaders.

After the capture of the city he had Boniface of Montferrat driven out of the empire the barons offered him the imperial crown, but he loyally refused it, so as not to violate the Constitution of Venice. The new emperor Baldwin gave him the title of "Despot", and he settled in Constantinople. In 1205 he took part in the disastrous expedition against the Bulgarians he died shortly afterwards and was buried in St. Sophia. Dandolo by his skill and energy established the political and commercial power of Venice in the Orient.

To all our readers, Please don't scroll past this.

Today, we humbly ask you to defend Catholic Online's independence. 98% of our readers don't give they simply look the other way. If you donate just $5.00, or whatever you can, Catholic Online could keep thriving for years. Most people donate because Catholic Online is useful. If Catholic Online has given you $5.00 worth of knowledge this year, take a minute to donate. Show the volunteers who bring you reliable, Catholic information that their work matters. If you are one of our rare donors, you have our gratitude and we warmly thank you. Help Now >

Enrico Dandolo

Probably the most well-known Doge of Venice is Enrico Dandolo, a man who was the chief organizer of the Crusader Sack of Constantinople in 1204 which established the base for Venetian power over the Eastern Mediterranean, while fatally weakening the Byzantine Empire.

Was Dandolo the most powerful Doge of Venice and what sources do we have about his life and career?

Probably the most well-known Doge of Venice is Enrico Dandolo, a man who was the chief organizer of the Crusader Sack of Constantinople in 1204 which established the base for Venetian power over the Eastern Mediterranean, while fatally weakening the Byzantine Empire.

Was Dandolo the most powerful Doge of Venice and what sources do we have about his life and career?

Melisende

AlpinLuke

Probably the most well-known Doge of Venice is Enrico Dandolo, a man who was the chief organizer of the Crusader Sack of Constantinople in 1204 which established the base for Venetian power over the Eastern Mediterranean, while fatally weakening the Byzantine Empire.

Was Dandolo the most powerful Doge of Venice and what sources do we have about his life and career?

Sure he was a great statesman, with a clear geopolitical vision. The Crusade needed the Venetian vessels, he probably suspected that they weren't that able to pay, so he was, with all probability, ready to ask something else . and when the Crusaders didn't pay all . he saw a nice mass of potential mercenaries to enlarge the sphere of influence of the "Serenissima".

And when Alessio IV asked for help to regain the imperial throne . he saw an other great occasion. And he took it.

About being the most powerful, we should underline the structure of the power in the city of Venice and remind that there were [like in the great municipalities around the peninsula in the Middle Ages] powerful families behind who leaded Venice.

Among these families there was the Foscari House [at Venice there is even a university called "Ca' Foscari"]. A member of this noble House is considered among the most powerful Doge in Venetian history: Francesco Foscari.

Francesco Foscari was the Doge who expanded like any other the land domain of the Serenissima [and his "dogado" was really long: 1423 - 1457 CE].


Enrico Dandolo and the Rise of Venice

Between the eleventh and thirteenth centuries, Venice transformed itself from a struggling merchant commune to a powerful maritime empire that would shape events in the Mediterranean for the next four hundred years. In this magisterial new book on medieval Venice, Thomas F. Madden traces the city-state's extraordinary rise through the life of Enrico Dandolo (c. 1107–1205), who ruled Venice as doge from 1192 until his death. The scion of a prosperous merchant family deeply involved in politics, religion, and diplomacy, Dandolo led Venice's forces during the disastrous Fourth Crusade (1201–1204), which set out to conquer Islamic Egypt but instead destroyed Christian Byzantium. Yet despite his influence on the course of Venetian history, we know little about Dandolo, and much of what is known has been distorted by myth.

The first full-length study devoted to Dandolo's life and times, Enrico Dandolo and the Rise of Venice corrects the many misconceptions about him that have accumulated over the centuries, offering an accurate and incisive assessment of Dandolo's motives, abilities, and achievements as doge, as well as his role—and Venice's—in the Fourth Crusade. Madden also examines the means and methods by which the Dandolo family rose to prominence during the preceding century, thus illuminating medieval Venice's singular political, social, and religious environment. Culminating with the crisis precipitated by the failure of the Fourth Crusade, Madden's groundbreaking work reveals the extent to which Dandolo and his successors became torn between the anxieties and apprehensions of Venice's citizens and its escalating obligations as a Mediterranean power.


Enrico Dandolo

Enrico Dandolo (lat. Henricus Dandulus * okolo 1107, Benátky – † 1205, Konštantínopol, Latinské cisárstvo) [1] bol benátsky patricij, diplomat, neskôr 41. dóža Benátskej republiky v rokoch 1192 – 1205. Patril k najvýznamnejším benátskym dóžom. Stabilizoval moc republiky, položil základy jej právneho systému a patril k vodcom IV. križiackej výpravy, ktorá skončila dobytím Konštantínopola v roku 1204. Svojou politikou výrazne rozšíril moc Benátok v Stredomorí, zvlášť na gréckych ostrovoch. [1] [2]

Enrico Dandolo sa narodil okolo/po roku 1107 [1] do vplyvnej benátskej patricijskej rodiny Dandolovcov. Jeho otec Vitale bol právnikom a držal významné verejné funkcie, jeho strýko Enrico Dandolo bol v rokoch 1134 – 1188 patriarchom v talianskom Grade. [3] Pred tým ako sa stal dóžom plnil Enrico viaceré úlohy pre benátsku vládu. V roku 1171 sprevádzal dóžu Vitala II. Michiela na expedícii do Konštantínopola, a druhýkrát sa z dôvodu obrany benátskych záujmov do Konštantínopola dostal o dva roky neskôr. Podľa legendy bol pri tejto príležitosti cisárom Andronikom I. oslepený, no táto skutočnosť nebola potvrdená. [1] Naopak, križiacky kronikár Geoffroi de Villehardouin, ktorý Dandola osobne poznal, deklaroval, že Dandolo oslepol pre zranenie hlavy. Po misiách v Byzantskej ríši bol Dandolo v roku 1174 vyslaný ako ambasádor do Sicílskeho kráľovstva a následne do Ferrary (1191). [2]

Po tom, čo v roku 1192 benátsky dóža Orio Mastropiero vstúpil do kláštora, bol v apríli 1192 [1] /1. júna 1192 [2] Enrico ako 85 ročný zvolený za benátskeho dóžu. Po nástupe sa začal venovať benátskemu právu a vo svojom sľube (promissione ducale) deklaroval práva a povinnosti benátskeho dóžu (konštitučné limity moci dóžu). Revidoval trestný zákonník a vydal prvú benátsku zbierku súkromného práva, čím položil základy benátskeho právneho poriadku. Zaviedol taktiež novú striebornú menu grosso (aj matapan) a začal rozvíjať novú benátsku obchodnú politiku na Východe. V zahraničnej politike uzavrel viacero dohôd a viedol úspešnú vojnu s konkurujúcou Pisankou republikou (1199). [2]

Najvýznamnejším Dandolovým činom bola jeho účasť na IV. križiackej výprave. Do výpravy sa Benátky zapojili na hneď na začiatku, keď križiakom výmenou za peniaze poskytli prepravu svojimi loďami. Francúzski baróni však neboli schopní svoj dlh splatiť, a za poskytnutie odkladu splátok, ako i za poskytnutie prostriedkov pomohli Benátkam dobyť uhorský prístav Zadar (1202). Následne na stretnutí v Zadare križiaci súhlasili s návrhom Filipa Švábskeho a Dandola zmeniť cieľ križiackej výpravy na byzantský Konštantínopol, kde mala výprava na trón dosadiť Alexia IV. Odtiaľ mala výprava pokračovať do Svätej zeme. Dôvodom benátsko-byzantského nepriateľstva bol obchod. Hoci byzantský cisár Alexios III. v roku 1198 obnovil benátske privilégia, ich práva boli byzantskými úradníkmi porušované. Križiaci Alexia IV. na byzantský trón dosadili. Následne Enrico zohral významnú úlohu pri rokovaniach Alexia IV. s Alexiom V., ako i pri dobytí Konštantínopola a delení koristi. [2] [1] [4]

Po páde Konštantínopola Benátky počas delenia koristi získali na základe dohody Partitio Romaniae byzantské ostrovy v Egejskom a Iónskom mori (celkovo 3/8 Byzantskej ríše). Značné bolo aj bohatstvo, ktoré Benátky získali plienením Konštantínopola. V roku 1205 takmer storočný Dandolo v Konštantínopole zomrel a bol pochovaný v Chráme Hagia Sofia. V budove možno dodnes vidieť moderný náhrobok, no Dandolo pod ním nespočíva. Jeho kosti pozostatky boli odstránené po znovudobytí Konštantínopola Byzanciou [5] a skutočná hrobka bola zničená, možno po konverzii chrámu na mešitu v roku 1453. [2]


Watch the video: Star Wars: Knights of the Old Republic Credits