Iberian Ram Protome

Iberian Ram Protome



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Talk:Iberian horse

User Montanabw edited my last edit, removed 'history' section, and there are following problems with that edit primo, contrary to what user Montanabw states Marismeño horse is not an offshot of Sorraia, it is a horse on its own from southern Spain (Royo at al, p.663), whereas Sorraia is a Portuguese breed with quite extreme bottleneck effect ( two maternal lines ) , and the hypothesis that the Sorraias represent the ancestors of the present Southern Iberian horses ( e.g. d'Andrade 1945) would not be well supported on a maternal genetic basis). secundo, Montanabw wrote as a summary of her/his edit (Sources lack full and proper citation. Your information is also misinterpreted, the Moors invaded c. 700 AD, and the 5000 BC date is highly speculative) well, when I state domestication of horses in the Iberian peninsula dates back either to late 13th century B.C.E. - invasion of Iberian Peninsula by African tribes who brought domesticated horse with them (after M. Pidal, Baroja) (Ramon Menendez Pidal, Julio Caro Baroja ) I meant 13th century BC or some 3300 years ago - Iberian tribes came from Africa to migrate/invade the Iberian Peninsula during the Bronze Age (after Pidal and Baroja) or during the Copper Age - 2000 years earlier. When I state they [horses] came with Sredny Stog culture people some 5000 years ago (Anthony http://users.hartwick.edu/anthonyd/harnessing%20horsepower.html ,1992, Horse, Wheel,Language 2009) I mean 3000 B.C.E. It should be noted that Azzaroli links the domesticated horse introduction into Spain with Bell-Beaker culture but he states that they were not ridding people, and the ridding horse came with Celtic tribes in the 9th-7th century BCE (Azzaroli, p.124-125 ) Whereas I agree that sources lacked full citations, I do not work for Wikipedia, and do this on my free time :) - I have not had time to add full and more sources, and this edit by Montanabw imposes unduly harsh standard without first finishing the article that is now incomplete and unscientific, I guess quite a 'novel standard' in Wikipedia, encyclopedia that is mostly built on unsourced material and slow period of adjustment of articles to desired wikipedia standard, ie., sourced and cited. tertio, statement in new edit - Iberian horses are thought to be one of the oldest types of domesticated horses is a hearsay and needs a source citation to such statement,and closer to truth is 'oldest types of domesticated horses in Europe' - Asia has seen domestication 1-3000 years before Europe quarto, Iberian Horses in antiquity period needs inclusion - Ann Hyland wrote Equus, Horse in the Roman World, it has a section devoted to Iberian horses, but more scientific approach is in Azzaroli, Fernando Quesada Sanz, Caballo en la antigua Iberia., and also Roman writers like Columella, Vegetius etc quinto, Medieval period is needed - perhaps also Hyland but then also Spanish authors etc sexto, Early modern period through end of the 18th century - development of Andalusian horse, spread to the Americas, - many authors, but precious sources from the popular horsemanship and breeding manuals known as libro de la gineta septimo, Napoleonic period and 19th century - decline of Iberian horse octavo, Modernity and establishment of current breeds based on stud books etc I would be a fool to claim having possessed all the knowledge in the equine history - :) , but I know a bit and would like to collaborate, therefore I think it will aid this article if we all work together here, (my main area of research is ancient Eurasian steppe and Iranian peoples of Central Asia, early modern Eastern Europe and Ottoman Turkey, American Plains Indian pre-1880s horse culture, and Spanish 16-17th century Libros de la gineta), and improve this article and its parts. It would be grat is people from Spain and Portugal versed (via language, recent literature and access to it) in these subject joined the effort here - bienvenidos DarioTW (talk) 05:55, 10 February 2011 (UTC)

OK, I agree the article needs expansion and improvement, but it is mostly about the modern Iberian breeds, not the history of the Iberian horse (that would be another good article, though, maybe you should create it!) A lot of what you wrote above would make more sense if you'd slow down, spell words like "riding" properly, refrain from throwing in insults, (especially at me, as I am actually trying to help you out here, and I work for free in my spare time too!) and not toss around random facts without full citation -- you need to cite fully so other people can access what you claim to be quoting. However, I DO happen to have a copy of the Anthony book, so toss me a page number for your bit about the Sredni Stog culture, because I can verify that or not. Hyland is solid, but I don't have her books, so must trust you not to misquote or misuse material (which I don't yet because so far you are pretty careless) The material on the arrival of Iberian people and horses is worth further study. Overall the problem is the way you throw in massive edits to these articles, disorganized, and not properly cited. It would take hours to painstakingly review and revise what you write because it is, frankly, incomprehensible. Your English skills are less of a worry if you'd just make smaller, sequential edits, and properly provide full source citations with a good URL so other people can easily find the source material and rephrase things as needed. Montanabw (talk) 05:41, 11 February 2011 (UTC)

Hi. I'm the author of the last changes to the article and wanted to disscus a few things about your edits. My take, as i signaled is still a Work In Progress, so perhaps you've been a bit too fast .

  • The lack of cold bloods /heavy draft horses from native stocks
  • The economical priority of mule breeding over horse. Most ewes were turned to this breeding
  • The bulk of of the stock (until the mid XX century) were pony C-D sized horses (12-14 some hands), what we call jacas. And most of the listed breeds are simply the survivors . with the criollos of South America.

Most of this I hope will make into the article, properly sourced

If you find a proper title, i think the information available in that column was valuable and should be restored --Wllacer (talk) 20:44, 18 March 2012 (UTC)

We can discuss what material to move and keep, but the general rule is to NOT remove (or hide) sourced information without discussion. We might be able to use both sources for various info. I do agree there is some redundant material and that the chart is nice and handy. I'm thinking that your discussion of mule and coldblood breeding could go into a narrative paragraph, and no problem if you want to whip up something. But we MUST stick with standard English terminology, or maybe just put in the height range (in both hands, inches and centimeters so people worldwide can understand we have a template that does conversions) In English we don't say "big pony" (and "ewes" are female sheep, not horses, by the way) or have any classification other than horse and pony. If there is a place for narrative to explain what a "jaca" is, or something like that, we could discuss the Spanish classification system and maybe put in the Spanish terms and definitions, but the English translations like "big pony" are non-standard and really of no use at all. The "cutoff" between horses and ponies is actually random, ranging in English-speaking nations from 14 hands in Australia to 14.3 in some FEI competition. Truth is, as explained in the pony article, "pony" status is more of a phenotype designation anyway. Also, in English, the only breed that uses "ABCD" height classifications is, I think, theWelsh pony. Montanabw (talk) 18:44, 19 March 2012 (UTC) Last first, the ABCD classification comes from the Spanish Hipical Federation I thought it was widespread and is handy to avoid the phenotipical image. Legally in Spain the cutoff is now 150 cm (14h3). It was formerly 147 cm ( 7 cuartas,14h2). Don't know how ewe came in my mind as a synonym of mare, the ram-head of many PRE, perhaps? -) Thanks for correcting me I'm working on the narrative . simply it takes some time.--Wllacer (talk) 13:30, 20 March 2012 (UTC) The trick on some of this will be to explain the Spanish classifications and such to English speakers, who are not familiar with this. I'm glad to help out with that bit. If you wonder how to approach something like this, take a look at how we handled the totally atypical coat color classifications in the Fjord horse article -- they are based on Norwegian language, hence totally weird to English speakers, no one else does them that way, and so we have a lot of time spent explaining the terminiology and what each thing means. Montanabw (talk) 17:27, 20 March 2012 (UTC)

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The Magic Of Cannae: Battering Ram Versus Quicksand

What were the key factors enabling Hannibal to achieve victory against overwhelming odds at Cannae? Hannibal’s battlefield genius was multifaceted. A master of the unexpected, he was unpredictable and capable of non-linear thought—what today we would call “thinking outside the box.” He had the uncanny ability of grasping at a glance the advantages and disadvantages of terrain and weather. He understood perfectly well the strengths and weaknesses of the diverse components of his multi-ethnic army, and how to utilize each to his greatest advantage. Most importantly, he understood his enemies, perhaps better than they understood themselves. His tactical vision is reflected in the manner in which he deployed his forces to face the massive Roman army at Cannae and in his ability to implement his battle plan with clockwork precision. With a virtuosity resembling Capablanca’s brilliance on the chessboard, he achieved what lesser mortals would have regarded as impossible.

On that fateful morning of August 2, 216 BCE, on the plain by Cannae, the Roman army formed facing south/southwest on the right of the Aufidus (now Ofanto) river, with Hannibal’s forces looking north/northeast, neither army at a disadvantage by being blinded by the sun. It is said that a hot wind—the Volturnus—may have blown dust onto the faces of the Romans during the course of the day, but this may have been a circumstance invented by the pro-Roman chroniclers to help explain their defeat. The battlefront was over a mile wide, with 150,000 men prepared to engage in the greatest death struggle of Antiquity.

Let us try to visualize the scenario. It’s mid-morning. Hannibal is on horseback on a slight acclivity, casting his gaze over the plain of Cannae, together with his brother Mago and a small group of officers. The Roman army under consuls Lucius Aemilius Paullus and Caius Terentius Varro is deploying for battle. It is the largest Roman army ever assembled, eight Roman and eight allied legions, 16 legions total, and there are Romans filling the horizon right and left as far as the eye can see. Gisgo, one of the officers, whispers, “Hannibal, there are a lot of Romans there!” The Carthaginian commander replies, “Yes, Gisgo, but you don’t seem to have noticed a very important thing.” “What, my general?” “Among all those Romans, there isn’t a single one named Gisgo!” Gisgo breaks out laughing and is joined by the officer corps, and pretty soon laughter reverberates through the assembled Carthaginian forces. Hannibal could have added, “and among them, there is also no Hannibal!”

The Romans deployed as follows. The equites, numbering 2,400 (or 3,200, if we accept the enhancement of 400 per legion) were on the right wing, commanded by Aemilius Paullus. The allied cavalry, numbering 7,200 (or 9,600), formed the left wing, and was under the command of Terentius Varro. The center, led by Minucius and Servilius, consisted of the massed infantry forces, placed in more compact and deeper formation than was usual for a Roman army. Their number was 80,000 minus the forces left to guard the Roman camps on both sides of the river. The front line consisted of skirmishers.

Hannibal’s army also had cavalry contingents on both flanks. On the Carthaginian left, facing the 2,400-3,200 Roman equites, Hannibal placed his 6,000-strong heavy Celtic and Iberian horse, led by Hasdrubal (no relation to Hannibal’s brother by that name). On the right wing, he deployed the Numidian horse, led by Hanno (or Maharbal), numbering 4,000, and facing the 7,200-9,600 allied horse. In the center he placed his weakest infantry forces, some 30,000 (minus the men left to defend his camp on the left side of the river). They consisted of Gauls interspersed with contingents of more reliable Iberians. He kept his 10,000 elite African veterans (many wearing armor and weapons captured from the Romans at the battle of Lake Trasimene the previous year) as a reserve force, positioning 5,000 on each side. The Carthaginian center formation, directly under the command of Hannibal and his brother Mago, advanced and took position as a convex semicircle (as seen from the Roman side). In front was a line of skirmishers.

Hannibal had to have planned his troop deployment well before the battle, it could not have been an improvisation conceived on the spot while the Roman army was moving into place. Why did Hannibal choose to position his forces as he did? How was he able to predict the movements of his enemies? Did he recognize a fatal flaw in the Roman formation?

It can be argued that what doomed the Romans was their elitism, which rendered them predictable. Hannibal knew that the Roman nobility would ride on the right, the place of honor, and not together with their “lesser” peers, the Italian allies. If the Romans had divided their total cavalry into two equal forces, deployed on either side of the field, the outcome of the battle might have been quite different. But they predictably placed the smaller elite Roman force on the right, creating a fatal vulnerability. Hannibal deployed against them the heavy Celtic and Iberian horse under Hasdrubal, outnumbering them by more than two to one and practically assuring a swift victory on the flank nearest the river. The amazing thing is that he did so without creating a comparable vulnerability on his own right flank, where his cavalry was vastly outnumbered.

Hannibal’s cavalry force consisted of two contingents with completely different capabilities: Celtic/Iberian and Numidian. The heavy Celtic and Iberian riders formed a shock force that would crush their outnumbered Roman counterparts, the cavalry battle becoming compacted between the river and the Roman right infantry flank, to the point that part of the riders had to dismount in order to fight, lacking sufficient room to maneuver. The Numidian horse, on the other hand, which Hannibal placed on his right wing, was a highly mobile force, specializing in hit and run clashes. While for the Italian allies horses were forms of transport taking their riders into battle, the Numidians, who practically grew up on horseback, were one with their mounts, with man and animal functioning as one. They were the best, the most agile and versatile cavalry force in the world in their time. Their tactics involved advancing and retreating, circling and changing directions, closing in to strike and immediately withdrawing too far away to be struck, hit and run, materialize and vanish in a deadly ballet of supreme horsemanship. They were the ideal forces to harass and keep busy the larger contingent of allied horse on the Roman left, immobilizing and pinning down their less mobile adversaries and thus negating the advantage of their numerical superiority.

As the Celtic and Iberian horse routed the Roman cavalry, rather than chase after the few survivors, the disciplined riders under Hasdrubal rode swiftly behind the battlefield to fall upon the back of the allied horse at the opposite side, the forces that were being kept in check by the whirling Numidians. Surprised by the thundering charge, the allied cavalry under Varro panicked and broke, the riders fleeing from the field with tremendous losses, being chased by the Numidians. Varro managed to escape and reached safety in Venusia, 10 miles away, with only 70 riders. The heavy horse under Hasdrubal, eschewing pursuit once more, wheeled around and fell upon the back of the struggling Roman army, again displaying total and perfect discipline in the implementation Hannibal’s master plan. In the meantime, the Carthaginian general had sprung a deadly trap hidden in plain sight—in the very plain the Romans had chosen because there no ambush would be possible!

Following exchanges between the skirmishers, which included Cretan archers on the Roman side and Balearic slingers on the Carthaginian, the massed Roman legions in the center charged, confident of crushing the brave but less disciplined and vastly outnumbered Gauls and Iberians facing them. The Roman battle plan was sound and would have worked under normal circumstances. Their massive army, many men deep, would punch through the enemy center like a gigantic battering ram, cutting Hannibal’s army in half and mopping up the defeated enemy right and left of the broken center. But it was not to be—these were not normal circumstances: they were facing Hannibal, perhaps the greatest military genius in history. The battering ram encountered quicksand.


Contents

The English word Basque may be pronounced / b ɑː s k / or / b æ s k / and derives from the French Basque (French: [bask] ), which is derived from Gascon Basco (pronounced [ˈbasku] ), cognate with Spanish Vasco (pronounced [ˈbasko] ). These, in turn, come from Latin Vascō (pronounced [ˈwaskoː] plural Vascōnes—see history section below). The Latin /w/ generally evolved into the bilabials /b/ and /β̞/ in Gascon and Spanish, probably under the influence of Basque and its relation Aquitanian (the Latin /w/ instead evolved into /v/ in French, Italian and other Romance languages).

Several coins from the 2nd and 1st centuries BC found in the Basque Country bear the inscription barscunes. The place where they were minted is not certain, but is thought to be somewhere near Pamplona, in the heartland of the area that historians believe was inhabited by the Vascones. Some scholars have suggested a Celtic etymology based on bhar-s-, meaning "summit", "point" or "leaves", according to which barscunes may have meant "the mountain people", "the tall ones" or "the proud ones", while others have posited a relationship to a proto-Indo-European root *bar- meaning "border", "frontier", "march". [12]

In Basque, people call themselves the euskaldunak, singular euskaldun, formed from euskal- (i.e. "Basque (language)") and -dun (i.e. "one who has") euskaldun literally means a Basque speaker. Not all Basques are Basque-speakers. Therefore, the neologism euskotar, plural euskotarrak, was coined in the 19th century to mean a culturally Basque person, whether Basque-speaking or not. Alfonso Irigoyen posits that the word euskara is derived from an ancient Basque verb enautsi "to say" (cf. modern Basque esan) and the suffix -(k)ara ("way (of doing something)"). Thus euskara would literally mean "way of saying", "way of speaking". One item of evidence in favour of this hypothesis is found in the Spanish book Compendio Historial, written in 1571 by the Basque writer Esteban de Garibay. He records the name of the Basque language as enusquera. It may, however, be a writing mistake.

In the 19th century, the Basque nationalist activist Sabino Arana posited an original root euzko which, he thought, came from eguzkiko ("of the sun", related to the assumption of an original solar religion). On the basis of this putative root, Arana proposed the name Euzkadi for an independent Basque nation, composed of seven Basque historical territories. Arana's neologism Euzkadi (in the regularized spelling Euskadi) is still widely used in both Basque and Spanish, since it is now the official name of the Autonomous Community of the Basque Country. [13]

Early anthropological and genetical studies from the beginning and end of the 20th century theorized that the Basques are the descendants of the original Cro-Magnons. [14] [15] Although they are genetically distinctive in some ways due to isolation, the Basques are still very typically European in terms of their Y-DNA and mtDNA sequences, and in terms of some other genetic loci. These same sequences are widespread throughout the Western half of Europe, especially along the Western fringe of the continent. [16] [17] The distinctiveness noted by studies of 'classical' genetic markers (such as blood groups) and the apparently "pre-Indo-European" nature of the Basque language has resulted in a popular and long-held misleading view that Basques are "living fossils" of the earliest modern humans who colonized Europe. [18] 12

However, studies of the Y-DNA haplogroups found that on their direct male lineages, the vast majority of modern Basques have a common ancestry with other Western Europeans, namely a marked predominance of Indo-European Haplogroup R1b-DF27 (70% [19] ). [18] [20] Although also initially theorised to be that a Palaeolithic marker, [21] [16] ( p.1365 Table 3 ) this theory encountered inconsistencies even prior to most recent chronological re-evaluations, [18] [22] as more recent studies instead conclude that R1b spread up to Western Europe from southwestern Eurasia in the Neolithic period or later, between 4,000 and 8,000 years ago. [23] [24] [25] [26] The age of subclade which Basque carry, R1b-DF27, "is estimated at

4,200 years ago, at the transition between the Neolithic and the Bronze Age, when the Y chromosome landscape of Western Europe was thoroughly remodeled. In spite of its high frequency in Basques, Y-STR internal diversity of R1b-DF27 is lower there, and results in more recent age estimates", implying it was brought to the region from elsewhere. [19]

Next to the main lineage R1b, high frequencies of E-V65 were found among Basque autochthonous inhabitants of Alava province (17.3%), Vizcaya province (10.9%), and Guipuzcoa province (3.3%). [27] Several ancient DNA samples have been recovered and amplified from the Iberian and Basque region. The collection of mtDNA and Y-DNA haplogroups sampled there differed significantly compared to their modern frequencies. The authors concluded that there is "discontinuity" between ancient locals and modern Basques. [28] Thus, while Basques harbour some very archaic mtDNA lineages, [29] [30] they are not of "undiluted Palaeolithic ancestry" but of significantly early Neolithic origin with a connection to the isolate Sardinian people. [9] Rather, some 4500 years ago almost all Y-DNA heritage from Iberian admixture of Mesolithic hunter-gatherers and Neolithic farmers was replaced by the R1b lineage of Indo-European herders from the steppe, [31] [32] and the Basque genetic distinctiveness is a result of centuries of low population size, genetic drift, and endogamy. [11]

Autosomal genetic studies have confirmed that Basques share close genetic ties to other Europeans, especially with Spaniards, who have a common genetic identity of over 70% with Basques, a homogeneity amongst both their Spanish and French populations, according to high-density SNP genotyping study done in May 2010, and a genomic distinctiveness, relative to other European populations. [16] [33]

In 2015, a new scientific study of Basque DNA was published which seems to indicate that Basques are descendants of Neolithic farmers who mixed with local Mesolithic hunters before becoming genetically isolated from the rest of Europe for millennia. [34] Mattias Jakobsson from Uppsala University in Sweden analysed genetic material from eight Stone Age human skeletons found in El Portalón Cavern in Atapuerca, northern Spain. These individuals lived between 3,500 and 5,500 years ago, after the transition to farming in southwest Europe. The results show that these early Iberian farmers are the closest ancestors to present-day Basques. [35] The findings were published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States. [9] According to the study, the "results show that the Basques trace their ancestry to early farming groups from Iberia, which contradicts previous views of them being a remnant population that trace their ancestry to Mesolithic hunter-gatherer groups." These early Neolithic farmer ancestors of the Basques, however, additionally mixed with local southwestern hunter-gatherers, and "the proportion of hunter gatherer-related admixture into early farmers also increased over the course of two millennia." This admixed group was also found to be ancestral to other modern-day Iberian peoples, but while the Basques remained relatively isolated for millennia after this time, later migrations into Iberia led to distinct and additional admixture in all other Iberian groups. [36]

In 2019, a study was published in Science in which a more fine-tuned and deep time-transect of Iberian ancient populations including the Basque were analyzed. From their abstract, it says: "and we reveal that present-day Basques are best described as a typical Iron Age population without the admixture events that later affected the rest of Iberia." This indicates Basques were isolated from admixture with outside groups since at least 1000BC or 3000 years before the present. In Iberia, these later admixture (interbreeding) events were with central European (Celtic), eastern Mediterranean and northern African populations, and genomic ancestry from them are found in all or most present-day Iberian populations, except for the Basque. [10]

Basque tribes were mentioned in Roman times by Strabo and Pliny, including the Vascones, the Aquitani, and others. There is enough evidence to support the hypothesis that at that time and later they spoke old varieties of the Basque language (see: Aquitanian language).

In the Early Middle Ages the territory between the Ebro and Garonne rivers was known as Vasconia, a vaguely defined ethnic area and political entity struggling to fend off pressure from the Iberian Visigothic kingdom and Arab rule to the south, as well as the Frankish push from the north. [37] [38] By the turn of the first millennium, the territory of Vasconia had fragmented into different feudal regions, such as Soule and Labourd, while south of the Pyrenees the Castile, Pamplona and the Pyrenean counties of Aragon, Sobrarbe, Ribagorça (later Kingdom of Aragon), and Pallars emerged as the main regional entities with Basque population in the 9th and 10th centuries.

The Kingdom of Pamplona, a central Basque realm, later known as Navarre, underwent a process of feudalization and was subject to the influence of its much larger Aragonese, Castilian and French neighbours. Castile deprived Navarre of its coastline by conquering key western territories (1199–1201), leaving the kingdom landlocked. The Basques were ravaged by the War of the Bands, bitter partisan wars between local ruling families. Weakened by the Navarrese civil war, the bulk of the realm eventually fell before the onslaught of the Spanish armies (1512–1524). However, the Navarrese territory north of the Pyrenees remained beyond the reach of an increasingly powerful Spain. Lower Navarre became a province of France in 1620.

Nevertheless, the Basques enjoyed a great deal of self-government until the French Revolution (1790) and the Carlist Wars (1839, 1876), when the Basques supported heir apparent Carlos V and his descendants. On either side of the Pyrenees, the Basques lost their native institutions and laws held during the Ancien régime. Since then, despite the current limited self-governing status of the Basque Autonomous Community and Navarre as settled by the Spanish Constitution, many Basques have attempted higher degrees of self-empowerment (see Basque nationalism), sometimes by acts of violence. Labourd, Lower Navarre, and Soule were integrated into the French department system (starting 1790), with Basque efforts to establish a region-specific political-administrative entity failing to take off to date. However, in January 2017, a single agglomeration community was established for the Basque Country in France. [39]

Political and administrative divisions Edit

The Basque region is divided into at least three administrative units, namely the Basque Autonomous Community and Navarre in Spain, and the arrondissement of Bayonne and the cantons of Mauléon-Licharre and Tardets-Sorholus in the département of Pyrénées Atlantiques, France.

The autonomous community (a concept established in the Spanish Constitution of 1978) known as Euskal Autonomia Erkidegoa or EAE in Basque and as Comunidad Autónoma Vasca or CAV in Spanish (in English: Basque Autonomous Community or BAC), [40] is made up of the three Spanish provinces of Álava, Biscay and Gipuzkoa. The corresponding Basque names of these territories are Araba, Bizkaia and Gipuzkoa, and their Spanish names are Álava, Vizcaya and Guipúzcoa.

The BAC only includes three of the seven provinces of the currently called historical territories. It is sometimes referred to simply as "the Basque Country" (or Euskadi) by writers and public agencies only considering those three western provinces, but also on occasions merely as a convenient abbreviation when this does not lead to confusion in the context. Others reject this usage as inaccurate and are careful to specify the BAC (or an equivalent expression such as "the three provinces", up to 1978 referred to as "Provincias Vascongadas" in Spanish) when referring to this entity or region. Likewise, terms such as "the Basque Government" for "the government of the BAC" are commonly though not universally employed. In particular in common usage the French term Pays Basque ("Basque Country"), in the absence of further qualification, refers either to the whole Basque Country ("Euskal Herria" in Basque), or not infrequently to the northern (or "French") Basque Country specifically.

Under Spain's present constitution, Navarre (Nafarroa in present-day Basque, Navarra historically in Spanish) constitutes a separate entity, called in present-day Basque Nafarroako Foru Erkidegoa, in Spanish Comunidad Foral de Navarra (the autonomous community of Navarre). The government of this autonomous community is the Government of Navarre. Note that in historical contexts Navarre may refer to a wider area, and that the present-day northern Basque province of Lower Navarre may also be referred to as (part of) Nafarroa, while the term "High Navarre" (Nafarroa Garaia in Basque, Alta Navarra in Spanish) is also encountered as a way of referring to the territory of the present-day autonomous community.

There are three other historic provinces parts of the Basque Country: Labourd, Lower Navarre and Soule (Lapurdi, Nafarroa Beherea and Zuberoa in Basque Labourd, Basse-Navarre and Soule in French), devoid of official status within France's present-day political and administrative territorial organization, and only minor political support to the Basque nationalists. A large number of regional and local nationalist and non-nationalist representatives have waged a campaign for years advocating for the creation of a separate Basque département, while these demands have gone unheard by the French administration.

Population, main cities and languages Edit

There are 2,123,000 people living in the Basque Autonomous Community (279,000 in Alava, 1,160,000 in Biscay and 684,000 in Gipuzkoa). The most important cities in this region, which serve as the provinces' administrative centers, are Bilbao (in Biscay), San Sebastián (in Gipuzkoa) and Vitoria-Gasteiz (in Álava). The official languages are Basque and Spanish. Knowledge of Spanish is compulsory under the Spanish constitution (article no. 3), and knowledge and usage of Basque is a right under the Statute of Autonomy (article no. 6), so only knowledge of Spanish is virtually universal. Knowledge of Basque, after declining for many years during Franco's dictatorship owing to official persecution, is again on the rise due to favorable official language policies and popular support. Currently about 33 percent of the population in the Basque Autonomous Community speaks Basque.

Navarre has a population of 601,000 its administrative capital and main city, also regarded by many nationalist Basques as the Basques' historical capital, is Pamplona (Iruñea in modern Basque). Only Spanish is an official language of Navarre, and the Basque language is only co-official in the province's northern region, where most Basque-speaking Navarrese are concentrated.

About a quarter of a million people live in the French Basque Country. Nowadays Basque-speakers refer to this region as Iparralde (Basque for North), and to the Spanish provinces as Hegoalde (South). Much of this population lives in or near the Bayonne-Anglet-Biarritz (BAB) urban belt on the coast (in Basque these are Baiona, Angelu and Miarritze). The Basque language, which was traditionally spoken by most of the region's population outside the BAB urban zone, is today rapidly losing ground to French. The French Basque Country's lack of self-government within the French state is coupled with the absence of official status for the Basque language in the region. Attempts to introduce bilingualism in local administration have so far met direct refusal from French officials.

Large numbers of Basques have left the Basque Country to settle in the rest of Spain, France or other parts of the world in different historical periods, often for economic or political reasons. Historically the Basques abroad were often employed in shepherding and ranching and by maritime fisheries and merchants. Millions of Basque descendants (see Basque American and Basque Canadian) live in North America (the United States Canada, mainly in the provinces of Newfoundland [41] and Quebec), Latin America (in all 23 countries), South Africa, and Australia.

Miguel de Unamuno said: "There are at least two things that clearly can be attributed to Basques: the Society of Jesus and the Republic of Chile." [42] Chilean historian Luis Thayer Ojeda estimated that 48 percent of immigrants to Chile in the 17th and 18th centuries were Basque. [43] Estimates range between 2.5 - 5 million Basque descendants live in Chile the Basque have been a major if not the strongest influence in the country's cultural and economic development.

Basque place names are to be found, such as Nueva Vizcaya (now Chihuahua and Durango, Mexico), Biscayne Bay (United States), and Aguereberry Point (United States). [44] Nueva Vizcaya was the first province in the north of the Viceroyalty of New Spain (Mexico) to be explored and settled by the Spanish. It consisted mostly of the area which is today the states of Chihuahua and Durango.

In Mexico most Basques are concentrated in the cities of Monterrey, Saltillo, Reynosa, Camargo, and the states of Jalisco, Durango, Nuevo León, Tamaulipas, Coahuila, and Sonora. The Basques were important in the mining industry many were ranchers and vaqueros (cowboys), and the rest opened small shops in major cities such as Mexico City, Guadalajara and Puebla. In Guatemala, most Basques have been concentrated in Sacatepequez Department, Antigua Guatemala, Jalapa for six generations now, while some have migrated to Guatemala City.

In Colombia, Basques settled mainly in Antioquia and the Coffee Axis. It is estimated that nearly 2,500,000 persons from all Antioquia (40% of this department) have Basque ancestry, as well, in the 19th century about 10% of Colombia's total population were Basque descendants. [45] [ failed verification ] Antioquia has one of the biggest concentrations of Basques descendants around the world. [ citation needed ] In 1955, Joaquín Ospina said: "Is there something more similar to the Basque people than the "antioqueños". [46] Also, writer Arturo Escobar Uribe said in his book "Mitos de Antioquia" (Myths of Antioquia) (1950): "Antioquia, which in its clean ascendance predominates the peninsular farmer of the Basque provinces, inherited the virtues of its ancestors. Despite the predominance of the white race, its extension in the mountains. has projected over Colombia's map the prototype of its race in Medellín with the industrial paisa, entrepreneur, strong and steady. in its towns, the adventurer, arrogant, world-explorer. Its myths, which are an evidence of their deep credulity and an indubitable proof of their Iberian ancestor, are the sequel of the conqueror's blood which runs through their veins. ". [47] Bambuco, a Colombian folk music, has Basque roots. [48] [49]

The largest of several important Basque communities in the United States is in the area around Boise, Idaho, home to the Basque Museum and Cultural Center, host to an annual Basque festival, as well as a festival for the Basque diaspora every five years. Reno, Nevada, where the Center for Basque Studies and the Basque Studies Library are located at the University of Nevada, is another significant nucleus of Basque population. Elko, Nevada, sponsors an annual Basque festival that celebrates the dance, cuisine and cultures of the Basque peoples of Spanish, French and Mexican nationalities who have arrived in Nevada since the late 19th century.

Texas has a large percentage of Hispanics descended from Basques who participated in the conquest of New Spain. Many of the original Tejanos had Basque blood, including those who fought in the Battle of the Alamo alongside many of the other Texans. Along the Mexican/Texan border, many Basque surnames can be found. The largest concentration of Basques who settled on Mexico's north-eastern "frontera", including the states of Chihuahua, Durango, Coahuila, Nuevo León, and Tamaulipas, also settled along Texas' Rio Grande from South Texas to West Texas. Many of the historic hidalgos, or noble families from this area, had gained their titles and land grants from Spain and Mexico they still value their land. Some of North America's largest ranches, which were founded under these colonial land grants, can be found in this region.

California has a major concentration of Basques, most notably in the San Joaquin Valley between Stockton, Fresno and Bakersfield. The city of Bakersfield has a large Basque community and the city has several Basque restaurants, including Noriega's which won the 2011 James Beard Foundation America's Classic Award. There is a history of Basque culture in Chino, California. In Chino, two annual Basque festivals celebrate the dance, cuisine, and culture of the peoples. The surrounding area of San Bernardino County has many Basque descendants as residents. They are mostly descendants of settlers from Spain and Mexico. These Basques in California are grouped in the group known as Californios.

Basques of European Spanish-French and Latin American nationalities also settled throughout the western U.S. in states like Louisiana, New Mexico, Arizona, Utah, Colorado, Wyoming, Montana, Oregon, and Washington.

Language Edit

The identifying language of the Basques is called Basque or Euskara, spoken today by 25%-30% [50] of the region's population. An idea of the central place the language has in cultural terms is given by the fact that Basques identify themselves by the term euskaldun and their country as Euskal Herria, literally "Basque speaker" and "Country of the Basque Language" respectively. The language has been made a political issue by official Spanish and French policies restricting its use either historically or currently however, this has not stopped the teaching, speaking, writing, and cultivating of this increasingly vibrant minority language. This sense of Basque identity tied to the local language does not only exist in isolation. For many Basques, it is juxtaposed with a sense of either Spanish or French identity tied with the use of the Spanish and French languages among other Basques, especially in the French Basque Country. Regarding the Spanish Basque Country, Basques that don't have a sense of Spanish identity make up an important part of the population. [51] As with many European states, a regional identity, be it linguistically derived or otherwise, is not mutually exclusive with the broader national one. For example, Basque rugby union player for France, Imanol Harinordoquy, has said about his national identity:

I am French and Basque. There is no conflict, I am proud of both. . . . I have friends who are involved in the political side of things but that is not for me. My only interest is the culture, the Euskera language, the people, our history and ways. [52]

As a result of state language promotion, school policies, the effects of mass media and migration, today virtually all Basques (except for some children below school age) speak the official language of their state (Spanish or French). There are extremely few Basque monolingual speakers: essentially all Basque speakers are bilingual on both sides of the border. Spanish or French is typically the first language of citizens from other regions (who often feel no need to learn Basque), and Spanish or French is also the first language of many Basques, all of which maintains the dominance of the state tongues of both France and Spain. Recent Basque Government policies aim to change this pattern, as they are viewed as potential threats against mainstream usage of the minority tongue. [53]

The Basque language is thought to be a genetic language isolate in contrast with other European languages, almost all of which belong to the broad Indo-European language family. Another peculiarity of Basque is that it has been spoken continuously in situ, in and around its present territorial location, for longer than other modern European languages, which were all introduced in historic or prehistoric times through population migrations or other processes of cultural transmission. [54] [ page needed ]

However, popular stereotypes characterizing Basque as "the oldest language in Europe" and "unique among the world's languages" may be misunderstood and lead to erroneous assumptions. [55] Over the centuries, Basque has remained in continuous contact with neighboring western European languages with which it has come to share numerous lexical properties and typological features it is therefore misleading to exaggerate the "outlandish" character of Basque. Basque is also a modern language, and is established as a written and printed one used in present-day forms of publication and communication, as well as a language spoken and used in a very wide range of social and cultural contexts, styles, and registers.

Land and inheritance Edit

Basques have a close attachment to their home (etxe(a) 'house, home'), especially when this consists of the traditional self-sufficient, family-run farm or baserri(a). Home in this context is synonymous with family roots. Some Basque surnames were adapted from old baserri or habitation names. They typically related to a geographical orientation or other locally meaningful identifying features. Such surnames provide even those Basques whose families may have left the land generations ago with an important link to their rural family origins: Bengoetxea "the house of further down", Goikoetxea "the house above", Landaburu "top of the field", Errekondo "next to the stream", Elizalde "by the church", Mendizabal "wide hill", Usetxe "house of birds" Ibarretxe "house in the valley", Etxeberria "the new house", and so on. [56]

In contrast to surrounding regions, ancient Basque inheritance patterns, recognised in the fueros, favoured survival of the unity of inherited land holdings. In a kind of primogeniture, these usually were inherited by the eldest male or female child. As in other cultures, the fate of other family members depended on the assets of a family: wealthy Basque families tended to provide for all children in some way, while less-affluent families may have had only one asset to provide to one child. However, this heir often provided for the rest of the family (unlike in England, with strict primogeniture, where the eldest son inherited everything and often did not provide for others). Even though they were provided for in some way, younger siblings had to make much of their living by other means. Mostly after [57] the advent of industrialisation, this system resulted in the emigration of many rural Basques to Spain, France or the Americas. Harsh by modern standards, this custom resulted in a great many enterprising figures of Basque origin who went into the world to earn their way, from Spanish conquistadors such as Lope de Aguirre and Francisco Vásquez de Coronado, to explorers, missionaries and saints of the Catholic Church, such as Francis Xavier.

A widespread belief that Basque society was originally matriarchal is at odds with the current, clearly patrilineal kinship system and inheritance structures. Some scholars and commentators have attempted to reconcile these points by assuming that patrilineal kinship represents an innovation. In any case, the social position of women in both traditional and modern Basque society is somewhat better than in neighbouring cultures, and women have a substantial influence in decisions about the domestic economy. In the past, some women participated in collective magical ceremonies. They were key participants in a rich folklore, today largely forgotten.

Cuisine Edit

Basque cuisine is at the heart of Basque culture, influenced by the neighboring communities and produce from the sea and the land. A 20th-century feature of Basque culture is the phenomenon of gastronomical societies (called txoko in Basque), food clubs where men gather to cook and enjoy their own food. Until recently, women were allowed entry only one day in the year. Cider houses (Sagardotegiak) are popular restaurants in Gipuzkoa open for a few months while the cider is in season.

Cultural production Edit

At the end of the 20th century, despite ETA violence (ended in 2010) and the crisis of heavy industries, the Basque economic condition recovered remarkably. They emerged from the Franco regime with a revitalized language and culture. The Basque language expanded geographically led by large increases in the major urban centers of Pamplona, Bilbao, and Bayonne, where only a few decades ago the Basque language had all but disappeared. Nowadays, the number of Basque speakers is maintaining its level or increasing slightly.

Music Edit

Religion Edit

Traditionally Basques have been mostly Catholics. In the 19th century and well into the 20th, Basques as a group remained notably devout and churchgoing. In recent years church attendance has fallen off, as in most of Western Europe. The region has been a source of missionaries like Francis Xavier and Michel Garicoïts. Ignatius Loyola, founder of the Society of Jesus, was a Basque. California Franciscan Fermín Lasuén was born in Vitoria. Lasuén was the successor to Franciscan Padre Junípero Serra and founded 9 of the 21 extant California Missions along the coast.

A sprout of Protestantism in the continental Basque Country produced the first translation of the new Testament into Basque by Joanes Leizarraga. Queen Jeanne III of Navarre, a devout Huguenot, commissioned the translation of the New Testament into Basque and Béarnese for the benefit of her subjects. By the time Henry III of Navarre converted to Catholicism in order to become king of France, Protestantism virtually disappeared from the Basque community.

Bayonne held a Jewish community composed mainly of Sephardi Jews fleeing from the Spanish and Portuguese Inquisitions. There were also important Jewish and Muslim communities in Navarre before the Castilian invasion of 1512–21.

Nowadays, according to one single opinion poll, only slightly more than 50% of Basques profess some kind of belief in God, while the rest are either agnostic or atheist. The number of religious skeptics increases noticeably for the younger generations, while the older ones are more religious. [58] Catholicism is, by far, the largest religion in Basque Country. In 2019, the proportion of Basques that identify themselves as Roman Catholic was 60%, [59] while it is one of the most secularized communities of Spain: 24.6% were non-religious and 12.3% of Basques were atheist.

Pre-Christian religion and mythology Edit

Christianisation of the Basque Country has been the topic of some discussion. There are, broadly speaking, two views. According to one, Christianity arrived in the Basque Country during the 4th and 5th centuries but according to the other, it did not take place until the 12th and 13th centuries. The main issue lies in the different interpretations of what is considered Christianisation. Early traces of Christianity can be found in the major urban areas from the 4th century onwards, a bishopric from 589 in Pamplona and three hermit cave concentrations (two in Álava, one in Navarre) that were in use from the 6th century onwards. In this sense, Christianity arrived "early".

Pre-Christian belief seems to have focused on a goddess called Mari. A number of place-names contain her name, which would suggest these places were related to worship of her such as Anbotoko Mari who appears to have been related to the weather. According to one tradition, she travelled every seven years between a cave on Mount Anboto and one on another mountain (the stories vary) the weather would be wet when she was in Anboto, dry when she was in Aloña, or Supelegor, or Gorbea. One of her names, Mari Urraca possibly ties her to an historical Navarrese princess of the 11th and 12th century, with other legends giving her a brother or cousin who was a Roman Catholic priest. So far the discussions about whether the name Mari is original and just happened to coincide closely with the Christian name María or if Mari is an early Basque attempt to give a Christian veneer to pagan worship have remained speculative. At any rate, Mari (Andramari) is one of the oldest worshipped Christian icons in Basque territories.

Mari's consort is Sugaar. This chthonic couple seems to bear the superior ethical power and the power of creation and destruction. It's said that when they gathered in the high caves of the sacred peaks, they engendered the storms. These meetings typically happened on Friday nights, the day of historical akelarre or coven. Mari was said to reside in Mount Anboto periodically she crossed the skies as a bright light to reach her other home at Mount Txindoki.

Legends also speak of many and abundant genies, like jentilak (equivalent to giants), lamiak (equivalent to nymphs), mairuak (builders of the cromlechs or stone circles, literally Moors), iratxoak (imps), sorginak (witches, priestess of Mari), and so on. Basajaun is a Basque version of the Woodwose. This character is probably an anthropomorphism of the bear. There is a trickster named San Martin Txiki ("St Martin the Lesser").

It is unclear whether neolithic stone structures called dolmens have a religious significance or were built to house animals or resting shepherds. Some of the dolmens and cromlechs are burial sites serving also as border markers.

The jentilak ('Giants'), on the other hand, are a legendary people which explains the disappearance of a people of Stone Age culture that used to live in the high lands and with no knowledge of iron. Many legends about them tell that they were bigger and taller, with a great force, but were displaced by the ferrons, or workers of ironworks foundries, until their total fade-out. They were pagans, but one of them, Olentzero, accepted Christianity and became a sort of Basque Santa Claus. They gave name to several toponyms, as Jentilbaratza.

Society Edit

Historically, Basque society can be described as being somewhat at odds with Roman and later European societal norms.

Strabo's account of the north of Spain in his Geographica (written between approximately 20 BC and 20 AD) makes a mention of "a sort of woman-rule—not at all a mark of civilization" (Hadington 1992), a first mention of the—for the period—unusual position of women. "Women could inherit and control property as well as officiate in churches. The evidence for this assertion is rather sparse however. [60]

This preference for female dominance existed well into the 20th century:

. matrilineal inheritance laws, and agricultural work performed by women continued in Basque country until the early twentieth century. For more than a century, scholars have widely discussed the high status of Basque women in law codes, as well as their positions as judges, inheritors, and arbitrators through ante-Roman, medieval, and modern times. The system of laws governing succession in the French Basque region reflected total equality between the sexes. Up until the eve of the French Revolution, the Basque woman was truly ‘the mistress of the house', hereditary guardian, and head of the lineage. [61]

While women continued to have a higher position in Basque than other western European societies, it is highly unlikely that any point the society was 'matriarchal', as is often falsely claimed about pre-Indo-European peoples in general. The 'Basque matriarchy' argument is typically tied to 20th century nationalism and is at odds with earlier accounts of the society. [62]

Although the kingdom of Navarre did adopt feudalism, most Basques also possessed unusual social institutions different from those of the rest of feudal Europe. Some aspects of this include the elizate tradition where local house-owners met in front of the church to elect a representative to send to the juntas and Juntas Generales (such as the Juntas Generales de Vizcaya or Guipúzcoa) which administered much larger areas. Another example was the fact that in the medieval period most land was owned by the farmers, not the Church or a king. [54] [ page needed ] [63]


Prevent Iberian Wedding

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Delpiero1234

WritAAR

As a player, what I can do to prevent the Iberian Wedding from firing? I think it can fire when Aragon and Castile have a female and male ruler or something like that.
Can it also fire if one of the two parties is at war? If not then I could drag Aragon into a long war to ensure that it won't fire, or not?


Edit: Nvm the Iberian Wedding fired anyways


Take a look at Delpiero's Inkwell for a complete list of my AARs.

Londoner247

Field Marshal

It cannot fire if Aragon is human controlled. It also cannot fire whilst Aragon and Castile are at war with each other (but third party wars don't prevent it). Finally, it cannot fire if they do not share a border.

Your best bet therefore looks like allying France and going to war with Castile and / or Aragon to give France a chain of provinces separating Castile from Aragon. Not sure that's a good plan in the long run though as France doesn't need that help!

MWSampson

Second Lieutenant

GChapman

Lt. General

User4035

Field Marshal

You can make castile release Leon and such thus making castile weaker so the can't hold their PU.

I noticed if Poland doesn't conquer teutons then they usually lose their Lithuania PU. So similar logic for xastile.

MAKE ORTHODOXY GREAT AGAIN!

Freedavebrown

Major

Valanna

Second Lieutenant

Mackwolfe

General

Roprop

Corporal

User4035

Field Marshal

Its 75% of regular AE. So your getting a -25% to AE.
Claims also give the same amount.

. it used to be -75%. Personally I don't like the new way that claims and cores are same AE. But you also don't pay any diplo for taking those provinces either.

MAKE ORTHODOXY GREAT AGAIN!

AurochsAway

Field Marshal

Its 75% of regular AE. So your getting a -25% to AE.
Claims also give the same amount.

. it used to be -75%. Personally I don't like the new way that claims and cores are same AE. But you also don't pay any diplo for taking those provinces either.

Wickermoon

Lt. General

Its 75% of regular AE. So your getting a -25% to AE.
Claims also give the same amount.
. it used to be -75%. Personally I don't like the new way that claims and cores are same AE. But you also don't pay any diplo for taking those provinces either.

Issac1709

Lt. General

Issac1709

Lt. General

Its 75% of regular AE. So your getting a -25% to AE.
Claims also give the same amount.

. it used to be -75%. Personally I don't like the new way that claims and cores are same AE. But you also don't pay any diplo for taking those provinces either.

Just pay some dip and spam the return core button, also anyone have any idea what CB's give no dip return core?

I know Impreal Ban does (Best CB ever, no dip conquest), any more?

Wickermoon

Lt. General

Just pay some dip and spam the return core button, also anyone have any idea what CB's give no dip return core?

I know Impreal Ban does (Best CB ever, no dip conquest), any more?

Strangedane

General

I just fed an exiled portugal ALL of it's european holdings back in one war.


Ancient Greek Terracotta Protome of a ram head - 10×9×11 cm - (1)

Greece approx. 6th/5th century BC. representation of a ram's head. Height: 10 cm, width: 9 cm, length: 11 cm The animal is depicted with spiral horns and deliberately without ears to give the figure more strength, that the face is fine and detailed.
Claims of ram-condemnation types can be found in Egyptian and Vedic religiosity. In the Greco-Roman world, as in the biblical world, the ram is by definition an animal destined for sacrifice. In the Christian world, the Agnus Dei, who saves mankind with his sacrifice, is often represented as a ram, in contrast to the evil goat, symbolic of the unclean. An astral figure corresponding to the constellation that marks the beginning of spring, when the animals of the flock begin to move away from their mothers, and their horns begin to grow on their foreheads, the ram has a clear solar, warrior and phallic value.
Condition: some small losses on the neck and muzzle, horns, small cracks. Glued right horn.

Provenance: In 1994 from the German art trade, prior to that German private collection from the 1950s. Certificate of origin is available from Catawiki.

Important information:
The seller guarantees that this item was legally acquired and is entitled to send it.
The seller will ensure that the necessary documents are also supplied.
The seller will inform the buyer if this takes more than 2 days.

Greece approx. 6th/5th BC. Plastically shaped representation of a ram's head. Height: 10 cm, width: 9 cm, length: 11 cm The animal is depicted with spiral horns and deliberately without ears to give the figure more strength, that the face is fine and detailed.
Claims of comparable ram forms can be found in Egyptian and Vedic religiosity. In the Greco-Roman world as in the biblical world, the ram is by definition an animal destined for sacrifice. In the Christian world, the Agnus Dei, who saves humanity due to its sacrifice, is often portrayed as ram, as opposed to the evil goat, symbol of the unclean. An astral figure that corresponds to the constellation that marks the beginning of spring, when the births of the flock begin to distance themselves from their mothers, and their horns grow on their foreheads, the ram has a clear solar, warrior and phallic value.
Condition: Flaking at the neck and muzzle, horns, small cracks. Right horn glued.

Provenance: In 1994 from the German art trade, before that in a German private collection of the 50s. Proof of origin at Catawiki.

Important information:
The seller guarantees, that this object has been acquired legally and that he is entitled to ship it.
The seller will ensure that the necessary documents are provided.
The seller will inform the buyer if this should take more than 2 days.


First Punic War (264–241 bce )

The proximate cause of the first outbreak was a crisis in the city of Messana (Messina), commanding the straits between Italy and Sicily. The Mamertini, a band of Campanian mercenaries, had forcibly established themselves within the town and were being hard pressed in 264 by Hieron II of Syracuse. The Mamertini appealed to both Rome and Carthage, and the Carthaginians, arriving first, occupied Messana and effected a reconciliation with Hieron. The Roman commander, nevertheless, persisted in throwing troops into the city, and, by seizing the Carthaginian admiral during a parley, induced him to withdraw. This aggression provoked war with Carthage and Syracuse.

Operations began with a joint attack upon Messana, which the Romans easily repelled. In 263 the Romans advanced with a considerable force into Hieron’s territory and induced him to seek peace and alliance with them. They besieged and captured the Carthaginian base at Agrigentum in 262 but made little impression upon the Carthaginian fortresses in the west of the island and upon the towns of the interior.

In 260 the Romans built their first large fleet of standard battleships. At Mylae (Milazzo), off the north Sicilian coast, their admiral Gaius Duilius defeated a Carthaginian squadron of superior maneuvering capacity by grappling and boarding. This left Rome free to land a force on Corsica (259) and expel the Carthaginians but did not suffice to loosen their grasp on Sicily. A large Roman fleet sailed out in 256, repelled the entire Carthaginian fleet off Cape Ecnomus (near modern Licata) and established a fortified camp on African soil at Clypea (Kélibia in Tunisia). The Carthaginians, whose citizen levy was utterly disorganized, could neither keep the field against the invaders nor prevent their subjects from revolting. After one campaign they were ready to sue for peace, but the terms which the Roman commander Marcus Atilius Regulus offered were intolerably harsh. Accordingly they equipped a new army in which, by the advice of a Greek captain of mercenaries named Xanthippus, cavalry and elephants formed the strongest arm. In 255, under Xanthippus’ command, they offered battle to Regulus, who had taken up position with an inadequate force near Tunis, outmaneuvered him, and destroyed the bulk of his army. A second Roman fleet, which subsequently reached Africa after defeating the full Carthaginian fleet off Cape Hermaeum (Sharīk Peninsula), withdrew all the remaining troops.

The Romans now directed their efforts once more against Sicily. In 254 they captured the important fortress of Panormus (Palermo), but when Carthage threw reinforcements into the island the war again came to a standstill. In 251 or 250 the Roman general Lucius Caecilius Metellus at last brought about a pitched battle near Panormus in which the enemy’s force was effectively crippled. This victory was followed by an investment of the chief Punic base at Lilybaeum (Marsala), together with Drepanum (Trapani), by land and sea. The besiegers met with a gallant resistance and in 249 were compelled to withdraw by the loss of their fleet in a surprise attack upon Drepanum, in which the admiral Publius Claudius Pulcher was repulsed with a loss of 93 ships. While this was the Romans’ only naval defeat in the war, their fleet had suffered a series of grievous losses by storm, and now it was so reduced that the attack upon Sicily had to be suspended. At the same time, the Carthaginians, who felt no less severely the financial strain of the prolonged struggle, reduced their forces and made no attempt to deliver a counterattack. The only noteworthy feature of the ensuing campaigns is the skillful guerrilla war waged by a new Carthaginian commander, Hamilcar Barca, from his strong positions on Mt. Ercte (247–244) and Mt. Eryx (modern Erice) (244–242) in western Sicily, by which he effectually screened Lilybaeum from any attempt on it by the Roman land army.

In 242 Rome resumed operations at sea. By a magnificent effort on the part of private citizens a fleet of 200 warships was equipped and sent out to renew the blockade of Lilybaeum. The Carthaginians hastily collected a relief force, but in a battle fought off the Aegates Insulae (Egadi Islands), west of Drepana, their fleet was caught at a disadvantage and mostly sunk or captured (March 10, 241). This victory, by giving the Romans undisputed command of the sea, rendered certain the ultimate fall of the Punic strongholds in Sicily. The Carthaginians accordingly opened negotiations and consented to a peace by which they ceded Sicily and the Lipari (Eolie) Islands to Rome and paid an indemnity of 3,200 talents.


History – Moorish Art and Architecture

One of my favourite style of Islamic art and architecture is the Moorish Style.It is derived from the name Moors – a name the Europeans gave the Arab-muslims who took over the Iberian Peninsula in the early 8th Century.

The architecture style (and subsequently – the art) was influenced by Greco-Roman, Berber and Visigoth cultures and tradition and in turn influences the future Mediterranean culture.

La Mezquita – Cordoba, Spain

History of the Muslim government of the Iberian Peninsula.

Al-Andalus is the Arabic name given to the areas in the Iberian Peninsula and Septimania that was under the Muslims rule between the period of 711AD to 1492AD. It is said that the name Al-Andalus was taken from the name Vandal , the Germanic tribe who controlled parts of the Iberian Peninsula between 407AD to 429AD. However, there is no historical basis to support this fact. It is also said the name derived from Arabic name for Atlantis, taking that the sounds of both of these names were almost similar. The etymology of the name is still a disputed topic.

In the year 711AD, the Umayyad Caliph Al-Walid gave orders to Tariq bin Ziyad to lead a small force towards Spain, through Gibraltar (in fact, the name Gibraltar is derived from the Arabic word Jabal Tariq, meaning the Hill of Tariq) and successfully lead it from campaigns to campaigns and conquered the whole of Spain under the name of Al-Andalus, Governed by the Islamic Caliphate of Ummayad.

The Al-Andalus period was agreed by many historians to be very successful. Advances in Philosophy, Sciences, Medicines and the Arts was developed extensively great muslim men of philosophy and sciences emerged like Ibn Rushd (Averroes) and Ibn Bajjah ( Avempace) ,a considerable amount of medicines were discovered and utilized, many artistic revolutions were introduced. In short – the Muslim World back then contributed significantly to the relative fields and after the fall of the Muslim Empire in Spain in 1492 became the foundations of the European Renaissance.

The Art Form – The Uniqueness of The Moorish Art and Architecture

A collage of art relics from the Al-Andalus. From left to right – Pyxis of Al-Mughira, Louvre, A fragment of an Amulet, Louvre, tin-glazed with lusterware decoration, Spain and a Quran manuscript page.

The art of the Moors are very highly advanced,as with the advances of other academical fields. Many of modern musical instruments were based or even evolved from Arabic instruments, such as the lute (from the Arabian Oud), the guitar (Qitara), the castanet (Kasatan) and many more. The Flamenco, one of the hallmark of Spanish performing arts, were acknowledged to be heavily influenced by Arabian performing arts.

In this time period also the geometric and arabesque art, the characteristic art of the Islamic Empire, grew considerably. The art form of Geometric art are improvised with the advent of the new mathematical knowledge the Muslim scholars had acquired. In effect, more and more designs came up and utilized, and gets more and more complicated and intricate.

The Arabesques also enjoyed a significant transformation as with the Geometric art. Arabesques became more and more complex and elaborate, floral elements are more apparent and stylized, decorating everything to small daily items to buildings and palaces.

A variation of the Middle eastern and Central Asian space filling decoration called Mocárabe was founded and introduced – it is notable for it stalactite or honeycomb like form decorating the likes of La Mezquita and the Alhambra.

Many great fine works was done in this golden age from literature, to sciences to art . Cities and palaces were constructed -The Caliphate City of Medinat Azzahra, The Great Mosque of Cordoba (La Mezquita) and the Palace of Generalife. And of course, one place that serves as the witness of this great period, and the place to see it all is the Alhambra.

Courtyard of the Lions. note the intricate Arabesques on the walls and the Mocárabe beneath the arches

Mosaic works and stone works in the Alhambra.

Hall of the Ambassadors, Alhambra. Almost all of the characteristic Islamic art decoration were present here – the Zillij Tileworks, the pierced screens, the arabesques, calligraphy…


Resumen

Este artículo estudia la expansión de la enseñanza básica en América Latina durante el siglo xx desde una perspectiva mundial y comparativa. El trabajo argumenta que los niveles y la expansión, en términos de matrícula, fue bastante notable. Sin embargo, el análisis comparativo del grado de distribución de la matrícula demuestra que dicha expansión no se corresponde con mejoras equivalentes en la calidad de la educación. El persistente sesgo del gasto público en educación terciaria sugiere que la explicación de su baja calidad está relacionada con las carencias del financiamiento público de la educación primaria. Esto implica que la tesis de economía política sobre el subdesarrollo educativo de América Latina que proponen Engerman, Mariscal y Sokoloff para el siglo XIX, se mantiene durante la mayor parte del siglo xx.


Random-access Memory - History

Early computers used relays, or delay lines for "main" memory functions. Ultrasonic delay lines could only reproduce data in the order it was written. Drum memory could be expanded at low cost but retrieval of non-sequential memory items required knowledge of the physical layout of the drum to optimize speed. Latches built out of vacuum tube triodes, and later, out of discrete transistors, were used for smaller and faster memories such as random-access register banks and registers. Such registers were relatively large, power-hungry and too costly to use for large amounts of data generally only a few hundred or few thousand bits of such memory could be provided.

The first practical form of random-access memory was the Williams tube starting in 1947. It stored data as electrically charged spots on the face of a cathode ray tube. Since the electron beam of the CRT could read and write the spots on the tube in any order, memory was random access. The capacity of the Williams tube was a few hundred to around a thousand bits, but it was much smaller, faster, and more power-efficient than using individual vacuum tube latches.

Magnetic-core memory, invented in 1947 and developed up until the mid 1970s, became a widespread form of random-access memory. It relied on an array of magnetized rings by changing the sense of magnetization, data could be stored, with each bit represented physically by one ring. Since every ring had a combination of address wires to select and read or write it, access to any memory location in any sequence was possible.

Magnetic core memory was the standard form of memory system until displaced by solid-state memory in integrated circuits, starting in the early 1970s. Robert H. Dennard invented dynamic random-access memory (DRAM) in 1968 this allowed replacement of a 4 or 6-transistor latch circuit by a single transistor for each memory bit, greatly increasing memory density at the cost of volatility. Data was stored in the tiny capacitance of each transistor, and had to be periodically refreshed in a few milliseconds before the charge could leak away.

Prior to the development of integrated read-only memory (ROM) circuits, permanent (or read-only) random-access memory was often constructed using diode matrices driven by address decoders, or specially wound core rope memory planes.

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