John J. Powers DE-258 - History

John J. Powers DE-258 - History


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John J. Powers DE-258

John J. Powers

John James Powers, born in New York City 3 July 1912, graduated from the Naval Academy in 1935. After serving at sea for 5 years, he underwent flight training, reporting 21 January 1941 to Bombing Squadron 5, attached to famed Yorktown (CV-5). As the fleet moved to prevent further Japanese expansion in the Solomons on 1942, Powers took part in the important raid on Tulagi 4 May, flying without fighter cover to score two hits on Japanese ships. As the main Battle of the Coral Sea developed 7 May, Lt. Powers and his companions discovered carrier Shoho and, bombing at extremely low altitudes, sank her in 10 minutes. Next morning while the great carrier battle continued, he joined the attack on Shokaku, scoring an important bomb hit. His intrepid, low-bombing run, however, brought Powers into heavy antiaircraft fire; and his plane plunged into the sea. Lt. Powers was declared dead; but, for his indomitable spirit in this series of attacks, was awarded the Medal of Honor posthumously. According to the citation: ". completely disregarding the safety altitude and without fear or concern for his own safety, he courageously pressed home his attack, almost to the very deck of an enemy carrier and did not release his bomb until he was sure of a direct hit."

(DE-258; dp. 1,140: 1. 289'5"; b. 35'1"; dr. 8'3"; s. 21 k.; cpl. 186; a. 3 3", 4 1.1"; 9 20mm., 2 dct., 8 dcp., 1 dcp. (h.h.) el. Evarts)

John J. Powers (DE-528) was laid down 25 September 1943 by Boston Navy Yard; launched 2 November 1943; sponsored by Mrs. John J. Powers, mother of Lt. Powers; and commissioned 29 February 1944, Lt. Comdr. E. W. Loew in command.

After shakedown training off Bermuda, John J. Powers returned to Boston 19 April for antisubmarine exercises. She then steamed to New York to join a convoy for northern Europe, departing 2 May. The ship returned with another convoy 28 May 1944. With American troops and equipment building -up in England for the cross-channel invasion, John J. Powers made a second convoy voyage, arriving Boston 2 August 1944. She then engaged in training followed by a coastal run from New York to Halifax and back.

The escort vessel got underway for Atlantic convoy duty again 19 September 1944, escorting a convoy of tankers and barges to England. Seven days later the alert ship rescued four crewmen from capsized Army tuge ST-719. Powers returned to New York 20 November and in December conducted special depth charge tests for the Bureau of Ordnance off New York and in Chesapeake Bay. In the months that followed, the ship made three more escort voyages to Casablanca, departing Mers-el-Kebir 7 May 1945, the day of the German surrender.

John J. Powers returned to New York 23 May 1945 and, after maneuvers in Casco Bay, Maine, arrived Miami 21 July for duty as a training ship. During August she provided tactical training for student officers in the Straits of Florida. The war over, John J. Powers sailed 8 September 1945 for Charleston, where she decommissioned 16 October 1945.

The ship was scrapped by Charleston Navy Yard in February 1946.


John Mearsheimer’s Theory of Offensive Realism and the Rise of China

The rise of China has been met with mixed reactions. For optimists, the rise of China makes a world that has seen a long peace even less likely to see conflict. Others take a more cautious approach and argue that what the future holds cannot be predicted. China’s rise may give lead to conflict or it may not. For pessimists, the rise of China is likely to or will inevitably cause instability and conflict. Just as Thucydides deemed the Peleponnesian War inevitable as Athens rose and the relative power of Sparta declined (Thucydides 1996, 163), so history will repeat itself as China rises and the relative power of the United States declines.

John Mearsheimer is one of these pessimists and arguably one of the most prominent skeptics of China’s “peaceful rise” (referring to China’s foreign policy which has sought to mitigate the “China Threat” school of thought). Underpinning his skepticism of China’s peaceful rise is a compelling formulation of offensive realism. The aim of this essay is to examine whether Mearsheimer’s theory of offensive realism provides a logically coherent basis for the view that the rise of China will be unpeaceful. In answering this question, Mearsheimer’s theory as presented in the The Tragedy of Great Power Politics, earlier writings (1990, 1995) and his specific writings on the topic of the rise of China (2005, 2006a, 2010) will be assessed.

The first chapter of this essay will present Mearsheimer’s theory of offensive realism and his application of the theory to the rise of China. This section will clarify the assumptions that underlies his theory and the conclusion that Mearsheimer claims those assumptions logically generate. What sets Mearsheimer’s theory of offensive realism apart from Kenneth Waltz’s defensive realist theory will be explained. Intriguingly, both scholars start out with the same assumptions, yet reach vastly different conclusions. Mearsheimer concludes that states will ceaselessly pursue power while Waltz emphasizes how the balance-of-power constrains power maximizing behavior and makes states content once they have enough power to be secure. Mearsheimer’s theory will then be applied to the rise of China and I will present his case for why China’s rise will be unpeaceful.

The broader topic of analysis in the second chapter is whether Mearsheimer’s theory is internally coherent and whether the assumptions of Mearsheimer’s theory generates the conclusion that he claims they do. If his theory is internally inconsistent or if the conclusions do not logically follow from the assumptions, the theory will not provide good theoretical justifications for the view that China’s rise will be unpeaceful. A theory that is internally incoherent and generates illogical hypotheses, creates a false view of the world (Walt 1999, 12).

Specifically, this essay will first argue that Mearsheimer exaggerates the fear that an uncertainty over China’s intentions causes and that he underestimates ways by which such uncertainty can be mitigated (for instance, through costly signaling and by increasing the cost of conflict). The assumption of uncertain intentions therefore does not, contrary to Mearsheimer’s claims, make states assume that other states have the worst intentions.

Second, the essay will argue that Mearsheimer fails to distinguish between bidding for hegemony and being the hegemon. Being a hegemon gives a state the most security it can hope for. Bids for hegemony are so risky and so rarely successful, however, that such bids do not make sense for rational, survival-minded states except under extraordinary circumstances. Bids for hegemony therefore contradict Mearsheimer’s assumption that states are rational and primarily concerned with their survival.

Third, the case will be made that the only bidder for regional hegemony that has been successful, the United States, was successful for two extraordinary reasons: the lack of indigenous balancers and weak incentives for great powers with global projection powers (the European great powers) to contain the US. Short of being a model for the rise of China, as Mearsheimer claims, the US success story illustrates why it would irrational for China to try for hegemony. China shares a region with indigenous great powers (Russia, Japan and India) and shares the world with a state (the United States) that has the capability to project power across the world. A bid for dominance over Asia by “imitating Uncle Sam” (Mearsheimer 2010, 389) would therefore contradict the assumptions that China is rational and survival-minded.

The remainder of the second chapter goes towards explaining Mearsheimer’s claims that fear and insecurity are bred by the uncertainty over whether a state’s military might is meant for defensive or offensive purposes. This essay will argue that such uncertainty is largely irrelevent for security-seeking states that have a credible nuclear deterrence. This essay also explain that while past behaviour is nor a perfect indicator of future behavior, past behavior can be a good basis on which to calculate the probability that a state poses a threat to another state. These two points, as well as the rest of the chapter, lead up to a critique that shows how Mearsheimer’s theory never shows how security-seeking states become aggressive in the first place, contrary to Mearsheimer’s claims. The conclusion will conclude with a concise argument built on the preceding content for why Mearsheimer’s theory is not a logically coherent basis for the view that the rise of China will be unpeaceful.

CHAPTER ONE – Mearsheimer’s Theory and the Rise of China

Mearsheimer’s theory is built on five bedrock assumptions. The first assumption is that there is anarchy in the international system, which means that there is no hierarchically superior, coercive power that can guarantee limits on the behavior of states (Mearsheimer 2001, 30). Second, all great powers possess offensive military capabilities, which they are capable of using against other states (2001, 30-31). Third, states can never be certain that other states will refrain from using those offensive military capabilities (2001, 31). Fourth, states seek to to maintain their survival (their territorial integrity and domestic autonomy) above all other goals (2001, 31), as it is the means to all other ends (1990, 44). Fifth, states are rational actors, which means that they consider the immediate and long-term consequences of their actions, and think strategically about how to survive (2001, 31).

In an international system filled with such uncertainty regarding states’ intentions, the nature of states’ military capabilities and other states’ assistance in a struggle against hostile states, Mearsheimer (2001, 31) argues that the best way for great powers to ensure their survival – a goal which is favored above all others – is to maximize power and pursue hegemony. The pursuit of regional and global hegemony among all great powers gives rise to constant security competition with the potential for war. This is the so-called “Tragedy of Great Power Politics”: security-seeking states forced to engage in conflict to ensure their security.

Mearsheimer’s offensive realist theory starts out with similar assumptions as Kenneth Waltz’s defensive realist theory, but reaches dissimilar conclusions (see Waltz (1979, Ch. 6, especially 114-115) for the anarchy assumption Waltz (1979, 105) for the capabilities assumption Waltz (1979, 105) for the uncertain intentions assumption Waltz (1979, 117) for the survival assumption and Waltz (1986, 330) for the rationality assumption). A central conclusion reached by Waltz is that of a balance-of-power. The theory postulates that a recurrent pattern of balancing occurs wherein states ally with weaker states to balance stronger states (Waltz 1979, 117). This balancing should prevent states from pursuing hegemony as it would lead other states to join together against the bidder for hegemony (Waltz 1979, 126). Waltz (1989, 40) consequently argued that states were not power maximizers but rather security maximizers. Once states had enough power to be secure, they were content and would not pursue greater power (Waltz 1989, 40). After all, given the inevitability of a balance-of-power, states bidding for hegemony would provoke other states in the international system to join an encircling alliance against the rising power, compromising the bidder’s security.

Mearsheimer rejects this conclusion and argues instead that states can never truly be secure and that only through power maximization can states ensure their survival (Mearsheimer 2001, 61). Contrary to the defensive realist logic, there is no amount of power that a state can be content with (Mearsheimer 2001, 2). The reason why Mearsheimer rejects the inevitability of balance-of-power is due to the collective action problems involved in balancing. As states are wary of incurring the costs of challenging strong states by allying with weaker states, they will buck-pass (meaning that they let other states balance the threatening power) until their own security is in grave danger (Mearsheimer 2001, 39-40). Consider, for instance, the US reluctance to get fully involved in World War II until the attack on Pearl Harbor. The Axis threat, which could have arguably been nipped in the bud earlier, had by then grown so as to pose a serious threat to the United States. As with collective action problems in the economic sense, rational behavior on an individual basis (in this instance, the US letting European and Asian powers deal first with Nazi Germany and Imperial Japan) may lead to a collectively inefficient outcome (Olson 1965, 1-2). The tragedy that Mearsheimer speaks of, could therefore simply be called an inefficient outcome.

This means that aggressive states cannot be as easily curtailed as Waltz thinks. As balancing is an unreliable constraint on great power ambitions, there are lower disincentives to bidding for hegemony in Mearsheimer’s world than in Waltz’s. Given these lower disincentives and the threats that other states pose, the best way to ensure a great power’s survival, Mearsheimer argues, is to pursue hegemony (Mearsheimer 2001, 61). While becoming hegemon is difficult, globally more so than regionally (Mearsheimer 2010, 387), Mearsheimer insists that power maximization is the best way to ensure states’ survival (Mearsheimer 2001, 61).

The implications of the theory for the rise of China can easily be inferred and as long as Mearsheimer’s assumptions apply, his conclusions should logically follow. While some would argue that his assumptions do not apply or are meaningless, whether they do is outside the scope of my specific enquiry. What this essay concerns itself with is whether these assumptions logically lead to the conclusion that the rise of China will be unpeaceful.

Mearsheimer writes at length about his theory’s implications regarding the rise of China in the Tragedy of Great Power Politics (2001) but more specifically in subsequent writings (2005, 2006, 2010). Mearsheimer argues that that there is no way to accurately predict China’s current or future intentions (Mearsheimer 2010, 382-383), that it is difficult to distinguish between China’s defensive and offensive military capabilities (Mearsheimer 2010, 383-384), and that China’s past peaceful behavior is an unreliable indicator of future behavior (Mearsheimer 2010, 384-385). These same points apply to the United States (Mearsheimer 2010, 385-387). Consequently, both states will react to this mutual uncertainty by assuming that the other has the worst intentions. In assuming the worst, both states, being rational, will attempt to amass power, which gives rise to a security competition with a potential for war (Mearsheimer 2010, 395-396). The rise of China can therefore not be peaceful. China will inevitably make a bid for regional hegemony while the US and most of China’s neighbors attempt to contain China (Mearsheimer 2010, 382).

CHAPTER TWO – The Theory’s Internal Coherence and Causal Logic

Mearsheimer’s first major point against the peaceful rise of China argues that it cannot be known for sure what China’s intentions are (Mearsheimer 2010, 382-383). Mearsheimer argues that “talk is cheap and leaders have been known to lie to foreign audiences” (Mearsheimer 2010, 383). While it is true that mere talk in international relations is untrustworthy, statements of intent can be made credible if the signaler incurs costs (Fearon 1994, 1995, 396-397 Kydd 1997). States are therefore capable of mitigating the uncertainty over their true intentions. For instance, Anwar Sadat incurred great costs to illustrate that Egypt was committed to peace when he visited Jerusalem in 1977. As Sadat’s gesture towards Israel was not popular with the Egyptian public and as he would have been seen as incompetent if Israel had not responded in a reciprocal fashion, he was seen as having incurred domestic audience costs, putting his political career and perhaps even his life on the line to build confidence between the two states (Shamir and Shikaki 2010, 32).

Sadat’s confidence-building measure preceded negotiations that ultimately led to a lasting peace between two states that had fought five wars since the end of World War II. Mearsheimer is entirely correct in arguing that there is no guarantee that a signal of intentions is correct. Sadat may have launched an attack after deceiving Israel to sign a peace agreement. However, doing so after incurring domestic audience costs in pursuing a peace agreement, as well as potentially suffering great international costs by reneging on an agreement would have made his actions risky, bordering on the mad.

Even though there is a possibility that a state may pose a threat to another state, the fact that states are rational (Mearsheimer 2001, 31), cost-benefit calculating units (Mearsheimer 2001, 21) should make them calculate the probability that a state poses a threat to another state. Mearsheimer essentially assumes that states always assume that other states have the worst intentions. The fact that “we have no way to know what [China’s intentions] will be in the future” (2010, 383), does not, however, give us reason to assume that they will have the worst intentions. Uncertainty about China’s intentions might make states fear China but how states deal with that fear cannot be predicted. States may react to that fear by increasing the costs of conflict for China and decreasing China’s fear about other states’ intentions. States’ may, for instance, increase trade with China and incorporate China into international organizations, making it costly for China to sever those institutional and trade ties by launching wars. States may also, like Sadat, make costly signals to build confidence and decrease distrust.

Being the Hegemon vs. Bidding for Hegemony

Mearsheimer is entirely correct in stating that hegemony provides the most security. After all, Mearsheimer defines a hegemon as a “state that is so powerful that it dominates all the other states in the system. No other state has the military wherewithal to put up a serious fight against it” (Mearsheimer 2001, 40). Being able to dominate other states to get what you want and facing no serious military threats to one’s survival is preferable to being an equal in an anarchical international system where your continued survival is at some level left to the whims of other states. However, it is important to distinguish between bidding for hegemony and being the hegemon.

“The central question for a great power mulling a bid for hegemony… is not ‘If I was the hegemon, will I be more likely to survive?’ It is, ‘If I make a bid for hegemony, will I be more likely to survive?’” (Kirshner 2012, 61).

The flawed thinking that underlies Mearsheimer’s argument is one that has been pervasive in the IR literature. Some scholars (Waltz 1959, 160 Mearsheimer 2001, 21) argue that states go to war when the expected utility of war is greater than the expected utility of not going to war (in effect, when the benefits exceed the costs). Such behavior would ultimately make states analogous to “compulsive gamblers” (Fearon 1995, 388) though, as they repeatedly put everything on the line until they inevitably lose it all. If we accept that a state has a 60% chance to succeed in each war it starts (which Mearsheimer (2001, 38) claims that the success rate for aggression is), the state may win a few wars in succession but once the state inevitably loses a war, it puts its survival at stake. So even if we accept Mearsheimer’s quantitative analysis, going to war every time it is deemed beneficial undermines a state’s survival in a way that defensive security-seeking behavior would not.

Mearsheimer’s claim that offensive action succeeds in 60% of cases is, however, misleading as he only counts individual wars, even though they may be part of one bid for regional hegemony (Mearsheimer 2001, 39). For instance, Napoleonic France, Nazi Germany and Imperial Japan all appear to be success stories, as they won more wars than they lost. The glaring problem with this to any student of history is that once they lost, they were ultimately destroyed. Their territorial integrity and domestic autonomy, the essence of survival according to Mearsheimer (2001, 31), were lost.

In fact, of all the bidders for regional hegemony, there is only one successful state: the United States. Mearsheimer consequently admits that only one in five states have succeeded in bidding for regional hegemony and that while it “is not an impressive success rate… the American case illustrates that it is possible to achieve regional hegemony” (Mearsheimer 2001, 212-213). In earlier writings, the success rate is even more dire, as Mearsheimer (1990, 19) included not only Vilhelmine Germany, Napoleonic France, the United States, Nazi Germany and Imperial Japan (the five bidders for hegemony listed in Mearsheimer (2001)) but also the Habsburg Empire under Charles V, Spain under Philip II and France under Louis XIV. The success rate could therefore arguably be as poor as one in eight.

The Poster Child for Offensive Realism

What does the the rise of the United States, the poster child for offensive realism, tell us about Mearsheimer’s theory and its application to the rise of China? The US rise to regional hegemony (a position of dominance and military superiority in the Western hemisphere) is important to offensive realism (it is, after all, the case that shows that it is possible to achieve regional hegemony) and Mearsheimer repeatedly uses it as a model for what will China will do (2005, 2006a, 161-162 2010, 389-390). However, there are clear limits to the comparison. Important factors are left out of Mearsheimer’s telling of the US rise to regional hegemony. These factors illustrate why China cannot imitate Uncle Sam.

China’s backyard simply does not look the same as the US did when it rose to regional hegemony. First, there were no credible indigenous balancers to the US in Northern America (native tribes, as well as future Mexican and Canadian states posed no credible threat to the US). Second, the European great powers lacked sufficient incentives to prevent US expansion. The European powers, consumed with power politics in Europe, prioritized power maximization at home over containment of the United States in the Western hemisphere. Colin Elman’s (2004) examination of the Louisiana Purchase (1803), which doubled the territory of the US and gave the it an open path of expansion to the South and West, illustrates this. Due to complex geopolitical reasons, Louisiana had become a geopolitical burden for France (Elman 2004, 568-570). Consequently, its options were to hold onto Louisiana, sell the territory to the US, sell part of it to the US or sell it all to Spain (Elman 2004, 571). By holding onto Louisiana, France’s position in the European distribution of capabilities would have worsened, as it would have likely encountered a UK-US alliance in a war over the territory (which would have drained France’s resources), but it would have contained the US (Elman 2004, 572). Selling the territory to Spain or part of it to the US would have partly contained the US but only slightly improved France’s position in the European distribution of capabilities (Elman 2004, 572-573). The option that France took was to sell the entire territory to the US at a hefty price, which significantly improved France’s position in the Europe (as it lost a geopolitical burden and got paid handsomely for it) but did nothing whatsoever to contain the US (Elman 2004, 571-572).

The reason why the US became a hegemon is therefore not due to balancing inefficiencies as Mearsheimer argues but due to the absence of balancers in the region. The same should therefore not apply to China which has balancers in the region. In China’s backyard there are currently two great powers (Russia and Japan), one emerging giant (India) and at least two militarily adept states (South Korea and Vietnam), as well as a foreign balancer (the United States) which has the capabilities to project military power across the world and provide military support to China’s neighbors. Both Russia and India have nuclear weapons, and Japan and South Korea could likely develop them quickly if they needed to. In contrast to US expansion, it would be suicidal for China to make a bid for regional hegemony in such a neighborhood.

Aggression and Pre-emption

A second major point that Mearsheimer makes against a peaceful rise is that we cannot know for sure that China’s military capabilities are meant solely for defensive purposes (Mearsheimer 2010, 383-384), which is an entirely legitimate point and one which I will not challenge. However, what Mearsheimer fails to note is that the nature of some of China’s and other great powers’ weapons, specifically nuclear weapons, should decrease the intensity of the insecurity created by others’ offensive military capabilities (Jervis 1978, 205-209). After all, the possession of nuclear weapons deters external aggression and makes China safer. A doctrine of mutually assured destruction (MAD) effectively ensures that China cannot make a bid for hegemony. Russia, India and the US already have nuclear weapons, and South Korea and Japan are capable of developing them quickly. Any Chinese bid for hegemony and external aggression would make some states target their nuclear weapons on China while other states would start developing them. Similarly, a nuclear China deters any other state, even the sole hegemon, from compromising China’s survival. Mutually assured destruction therefore alleviates the insecurity that China and its neighbors face as China’s power grows. Credible nuclear deterrence renders uncertainty about the nature of other states’ military capabilities irrelevant.

A third point that Mearsheimer makes against a peaceful rise is that past and current behavior cannot be a reliable indicator of future behavior, which makes China’s peaceful behavior in recent decades irrelevant (Mearsheimer 2010, 384-385). Clearly, past behavior cannot be a perfect indicator of future behavior. However, given that states are rational, concerned with survival and power maximizers, it does not make sense that they should not use past behavior as a way to calculate the severity of the threat posed by another state’s existence. After all, it would be foolhardy to argue that there are not varying degrees by which states consider each other threats and that these judgments are made partly as a result of past relations (Wendt 1995, 78-79).

Mearsheimer also pays no heed to the importance of showing consistency and reliability in international relations. Considering that China’s peaceful behavior has given it strengthened relations across the world, membership in international organizations and beneficial treaties, it is flawed to suggest that past behavior is irrelevant. Erratic and hostile behavior does not attract friends. For China to start to engage in erratic expansionist behavior would compromise all that has been built up in recent decades.

If the world community were to contain and isolate China, hostile Chinese behavior would make sense, as there would be no incentives for China to play along. However, as the world has opened to China with open arms, which has allowed China to increase its power and security, one finds it hard to understand why China would take the first steps to break this up. Mearsheimer certainly does not provide an internally coherent, logical argument for why China would do so.

Preemptive American aggression does not make much sense either. First, due to the unlikelihood of a rational China bidding for regional hegemony (for reasons that I have outlined above). Second, because China, even as a regional hegemon, does not threaten American regional hegemony. Mearsheimer proposes that China will meddle in the US backyard which would compromise its status as regional hegemon. However, as Kirshner (2012, 65) notes, China could meddle in the US’ backyard whether China is a regional hegemon or not. Even if China were to try to undermine the US’ position as regional hegemon, hegemony (as defined by Mearsheimer) should be robust enough to cope with such attacks. Tang (2008, 461-462) also notes that neither the US nor China can engage in preemptive unilateral aggression without appearing unreliable and threatening, which loses them allies and carries heavy diplomatic costs. This precludes preemptive offensive action by either party.

For rational, security-seeking states that consider the costs and benefits and pursue the strategy most likely to ensure a state’s survival, neither China nor the US in Mearsheimer’s prediction actually appear to consider the costs and benefits and they do not appear to prioritize survival above all else. Like Waltz, Mearsheimer does not fully flesh out how his assumptions lead to the conclusion that states engage in aggressive behavior.

Mearsheimer only assumes that states are security-seekers. The conflicts that he concludes result from his assumptions are a tragedy in which security-seeking states are brought into conflict even though they do not want to. However, there is absolutely no reason why security-seeking states should resort to aggression as a consequence of there being anarchy in the international system and uncertainty regarding others states’ intentions and capabilities. Just as how “the Waltzian train never gets out of the station” (Mearsheimer 2006c, 231), referring to Waltz’s failure to assume that a threat needed to exist for balance-of-power to emerge (Schweller 1996, 91-92), the theory that was supposed to correct Waltz’s flaws does not seem to do so either. While Mearsheimer (2001) is fairly ambiguous as to the relationship between aggression and his assumptions, Mearsheimer (2006b, 121-122) clears it up by explicitly stating that his theory “does not assume that states are aggressive” and that aggression is simply a logical consequence of his assumptions.

While anarchy leads to uncertainty about other’s intentions and fear about one’s survival, there is no reason why states should make the first hostile move even if there is an intense security dilemma. While anarchy means that there is nothing to prevent war, there is no cause for why a security-seeking state that fears other states’ intentions and capabilities should resort to aggression. At no point is it clear that security-seeking states would always respond to the possibility of war by becoming aggressive. If anything, fear is more likely to result in a defensive response. As Jack Donnelly notes, “fear is an essentially defensive motive the central aim is to preserve what one already has” rather than to act offensively and preemptively (Donnelly 2000, 44). Pashakhanlou’s (2013, 207) examination of the psychology literature on fear confirms that individuals tend to respond to fear with defensive behavior. Aggression is not the logical consequence of fear that Mearsheimer claims it is.

If states were irrational, if leaders of states were less concerned about a state’s survival than their own bank accounts or re-election prospects, if states were assumed to be aggressive or if power maximization was inherent in man’s nature, one could understand the tendency to risk it all for hegemony. Rational, security-seeking states “not assumed to be aggressive” (Mearsheimer 2006b, 121-122) have no reason to engage in such bids, however.

Assuming that China is a rational, security-seeking actor, does the prospect of a bid for dominance in Asia seem likely to enhance its chances of survival, given the well-known historical precedent of such revisionist behavior? After all, only one in five states (or perhaps one in eight) have successfully bid for hegemony. That sole hegemon achieved hegemony under circumstances that do not apply at all to China today. A nascent United States found itself on a continent without any serious indigenous challengers and contained only by European powers that prioritized politics in Europe over US containment. China finds itself surrounded by regional and external balancers, some of which have nuclear weapons.

Given the unlikelihood that China will bid for hegemony and compromise its security, does the prospect of “strangling the Confucian baby in its cradle” (Kirshner 2012, 61) seem likely to enhance the US’ survival? Since a rational, security-seeking China has no reason to pursue hegemony, it would not seem as if the US, being a rational, security-seeking state, would have any incentive to crush China or otherwise provoke it.

Ultimately, Mearsheimer’s theory is internally incoherent, as the conclusions he draws contradict the assumptions he makes and, consequently, his assumptions cannot logically lead to the conclusion that states will bid for hegemony. Mearsheimer’s theory of offensive realism therefore does not provide a logically coherent basis for the view that the rise of China will be unpeaceful. This is not to say that China’s rise will turn out peacefully. Mearsheimer’s theory may very well predict how the rise of China will turn out, but since it fails to explain why in a logically coherent fashion, the theory is useless.

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Waltz, Kenneth N. 1979. Theory of International Politics. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.

Waltz, Kenneth N. 1986. “Reflections on Theory of International Politics: A Response to My Critics.” in Neorealism and Its Critics, edited by Robert O. Keohane, 322-345. New York: Columbia University Press.

Waltz, Kenneth N. 1989. “The Origins of War in Neorealist Theory.” in The Origin and Prevention of Major Wars, edited by Robert Rotberg and Theodore Rabb, 39-52. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Wendt, Alexander. 1995. “Constructing International Politics.” International Security 20(1): 71-81.


Written by: Sverrir Steinsson
Written at: University of Iceland
Written for: Jón Gunnar Ólafsson
Date written: December 2013


POWERS Genealogy

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Personality

"You know, I was. I was forced to become Hank Henshaw out of desperation, but now I choose this face. I like it. And I wouldn't want to live in a world where I need to change the color of my skin to feel safe, to feel seen, to feel like I'm not a target. I'd rather change the world." —J'onn J'onzz [src] Under the disguise of Hank Henshaw, J'onn appeared cold and calculating, believing that Kara using her powers would only add to the public unrest caused by her cousin's heroics.

J'onn as Martian Manhunter.

"The more time I spend as Hank Henshaw, the less I have to face what I've lost. But when I change my state, shapeshift into someone new, call upon new powers, I get one step closer to becoming the Martian Manhunter forever. And he creates panic and hysteria. I know, I have seen it. It's not only that I'm better off as human. Everyone is." —J'onn J'onzz to Alex Danvers [src]

After J'onn revealed his true identity to Alex and Kara respectively, he is actually kind, caring, selfless, intelligent, has a sense of justice, honor and has good morals. He does also have a very sharp wit and has been proven to care for Alex and Kara as if they were his own daughters to the point when Clark accused him of not caring for Kara's well-being, J'onn lashed out, telling Clark to watch his mouth as he deeply cares about Kara however, despite this, J'onn quickly back down when Clark threatened him, in an intimidating manner proving that he is terrified of the kryptonian superhero and is unwilling to get into a confrontation with him.

Normally, J'onn is very calm, level-headed and patient, as he rarely loses his temper, however, he has no tolerance for those who disrespect his comrades. J'onn is also cold towards individuals that he dislikes for good reasons like Sam Lane, due to the latter's arrogant, rude, ungrateful, selfish and immoral traits.

J'onn was initially very reluctant to use his powers, as he believes individuals will get hurt if he does use them. However, after his identity as the Martian Manhunter was revealed to the D.E.O., he gradually become more confident in his powers and alien heritage, as J'onn has starts to use his powers more frequently.

There is a dark side to J'onn's personality as he can be cold, cruel, ruthless and vengeful towards his enemies who he has a personal grudge against, this is evidenced by the fact when he comes face-to-face with a White Martian, he would have killed the latter, if Kara and Alex had not convinced him to spare it's life. J'onn has a deep hatred for the White Martians due to the fact that they wiped out his entire race and killed his entire family for no clear reason simply to indulge their own warmongering desires. This made it hard for J'onn to accept that not all White Martians, like M'gann M'orzz are evil.

J'onn is cautious but simultaneously short-sighted, as he resolved to store Kryptonite in the D.E.O. as a contingency, to safeguard against potentially rogue Kryptonians, thus leading to a falling out between him and Clark Kent, who believed that the Kryptonite the D.E.O. had could fall in the wrong hands and would eventually be used against him or his cousin Kara, a fact J'onn did not consider. This fear of Clark's proved to be correct, though the situation was resolved when all the D.E.O.'s Kryptonite was entrusted to him.

Despite J'onn being an alien himself and wanting the planet Earth to be a safe place where humans and aliens alike can live in peace, he is a hypocrite and has problems trusting other aliens, when president Olivia Marsdin was planning to initiate the alien amnesty act, a decree on granting aliens the rights of U.S. citizens, he was unsure about it, claiming that some aliens would take advantage of Olivia's goodwill however, the latter put J'onn in his place, reminding him that the same thing was once said about him, when his identity as "Martian Manhunter" was revealed to the D.E.O., as J'onn was being hypocritical.


John J. Pershing

Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article.

John J. Pershing, in full John Joseph Pershing, byname Black Jack, (born September 13, 1860, Laclede, Missouri, U.S.—died July 15, 1948, Washington, D.C.), U.S. Army general who commanded the American Expeditionary Force (AEF) in Europe during World War I.

Pershing graduated from the United States Military Academy at West Point, New York, in 1886. He was commissioned a second lieutenant and assigned to the 6th Cavalry, which was then conducting operations against Geronimo and the Chiricahua Apache in the Southwest. In 1890 Pershing served in the campaign to suppress the Ghost Dance movement and an uprising among the Sioux in the Dakota Territory, but his unit did not participate in the massacre at Wounded Knee. In 1891 he became an instructor in military science at the University of Nebraska, Lincoln. While there he also earned a law degree (1893). He was appointed as an instructor in tactics at West Point in 1897.

The Spanish-American War gave Pershing an opportunity for rapid promotion. He served in Cuba through the Santiago campaign (1898) and was appointed ordnance officer with the rank of major of volunteers. In June 1899 he was made adjutant general. He organized the Bureau of Insular Affairs in the War Department and acted as head of that bureau for several months. Pershing was dispatched to the Philippines as adjutant general of the department of Mindanao in November 1899. He was made a captain in the regular army in 1901 and conducted a campaign against the Moros until 1903. In 1905 he was sent to Japan as military attaché to the U.S. embassy, and during the Russo-Japanese War he spent several months as an observer with the Japanese army in Manchuria. In recognition of his service in the Philippines, U.S. Pres. Theodore Roosevelt promoted Pershing to brigadier general from the rank of captain in 1906, passing over 862 more-senior officers in doing so. Pershing returned to the Philippines and remained there until 1913, serving as commander of the department of Mindanao and governor of Moro Province. He next gained attention as commander of the punitive expedition sent against the Mexican revolutionary Pancho Villa, who had raided Columbus, New Mexico, in 1916. After the death of Maj. Gen. Frederick Funston in 1917, Pershing succeeded him as commander on the U.S.-Mexican border.

After the United States declared war on Germany (April 1917), Pres. Woodrow Wilson selected Pershing to command the American troops being sent to Europe. The transition from the anti-insurgency campaigns that had characterized much of Pershing’s career to the vast stagnant siege of the Western Front was an extreme test, but Pershing brought to the challenge a keen administrative sense and a knack for carrying out plans in spite of adversity. With his staff, Pershing landed in France on June 9, 1917, and that month he submitted a “General Organization Report” recommending the creation of an army of one million men by 1918 and three million by 1919. Earlier American planning had not contemplated such a large army. Having assumed that the AEF could not be organized in time to support military operations on the Western Front, the Allies had asked only for financial, economic, and naval assistance. Pershing’s recommendations regarding the numbers and disposition of troops prevailed, however, especially after Allied fortunes worsened during 1917. By early 1918, American plans had called for concentrating an independent army on the Western Front, which Pershing hoped would spearhead a decisive offensive against Germany.

The exhaustion of the Allies, stemming from the setbacks of 1917, increased their dependence on U.S. arms. It also engendered pressure on Pershing to condone the “amalgamation” of small units of American troops into European armies, as the Allies desperately wanted replacements for their depleted formations to resist expected attacks. From the start, Pershing insisted that the integrity of the American army be preserved, making a firm stand against French tutelage and the French desire to infuse the new American blood into their ranks. Pershing also opposed proposals to divert some U.S. troops to secondary theatres. The Supreme War Council, an institution established to coordinate the political-military strategy of the Allies, continually recommended amalgamation and that diversionary operations be conducted elsewhere than in France, but Pershing remained unmoved. If Pershing’s stance imposed a strain on the exhausted Allies, it was justified by the oft-cited warning against “pouring new wine into old bottles.” Pershing also felt that such an arrangement would represent an unprecedented sacrifice of national prestige. He argued that the fielding of an independent American army would be a serious blow to German morale and provide a permanent uplift to American self-confidence.

The disasters of early 1918 seemed to demonstrate the great risk that had been taken in pursuit of Pershing’s ideal. The Germans, their Western Front armies having been strongly reinforced because of the armistice recently concluded between the German-led Central Powers and Russia, embarked on a fresh wave of attacks designed to break the Allies’ will before the Americans could deploy in strength. At the Second Battle of the Somme, German armies advanced 40 miles (64 km) and captured some 70,000 Allied prisoners. When the German offensives of March–June 1918 threatened Paris, Pershing placed all his resources firmly at the disposal of French Marshal Ferdinand Foch. These pressures subsided when the Allies assumed the offensive during the summer, however, and Pershing reverted to his previous policy.

Pershing’s army never became entirely self-sufficient, but it conducted two significant operations. In September 1918 the AEF assaulted the Saint-Mihiel salient successfully. Then, at Foch’s request, later that month Pershing quickly regrouped his forces for the Meuse-Argonne offensive, despite his original plans to advance toward Metz. Though incomplete preparations and inexperience slowed the Meuse-Argonne operations, the inter-Allied offensive in France destroyed German resistance in early October and led to the Armistice the following month.

Pershing was criticized for operational and logistic errors, but his creation of the AEF was a remarkable achievement. He returned home with a sound reputation, and, on September 1, 1919, he was given the rank of general of the armies of the United States. Pershing’s nickname, “Black Jack,” derived from his service with a black regiment early in his career, had come to signify his stern bearing and rigid discipline. His determination and dedication had gained him the respect and admiration of his men, if not their affection. Eschewing politics, Pershing remained in the army, serving as chief of staff from 1921 until his retirement three years later. Pershing’s memoirs were published as My Experiences in the World War, 2 vol. (1931).


Footnotes

1 Thomas A. Johnson, “A Man of Many Roles,” 5 April 1972, New York Times: 1. “Keep the faith, baby” was one of Powell’s more memorable responses to questions regarding the move by the House to exclude him from Congress. He later used the phrase as the title for a book of his sermons.

2 Peter Wallenstein, “Powell, Adam Clayton, Jr.,” American National Biography 17 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1999): 771–773 (hereinafter referred to as ANB).

3 Charles V. Hamilton, Adam Clayton Powell, Jr.: The Political Biography of an American Dilemma (New York: Atheneum, 1991): 47–50.

4 Simon Glickman, “Adam Clayton Powell, Jr.,” Contemporary Black Biography 3 (Detroit: Gale Research Inc., 1992) (hereinafter referred to as CBB).

5 Wallenstein, “Powell, Adam Clayton, Jr.,” ANB Shirley Washington, Outstanding African Americans of Congress (Washington, DC: U.S. Capitol Historical Society, 1998): 71 Ilene Jones–Cornwell, “Adam Clayton Powell, Jr.,” in Jessie Carney Smith, ed., Notable Black American Men (Farmington Hills, MI: Gale Research, Inc., 1999): 954–957 (hereinafter referred to as NBAM).

6 Johnson, “A Man of Many Roles” Wallenstein, “Powell, Adam Clayton, Jr.,” ANB Bruce A. Ragsdale and Joel D. Treese, Black Americans in Congress, 1870–1989 (Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1990): 196.

7 Richard L. Lyons, “Adam Clayton Powell, Apostle for Blacks,” 6 April 1972, Washington Post: B5.

8 Washington, Outstanding African Americans in Congress: 68 Hamilton, Adam Clayton Powell, Jr: 144.

9 “Powell Declares ‘Negro First’ Aim,” 9 April 1944, New York Times: 25 “Powell Revises Pledge,” 30 April 1944, New York Times: 40.

10 “Election Statistics, 1920 to Present,” available at http://clerk.house.gov/member_info/electionInfo/index.aspx Hamilton, Adam Clayton Powell, Jr.: 149–156 Glickman, “Adam Clayton Powell, Jr.,” CBB Johnson, “A Man of Many Roles.”

11 Jones–Cornwell, “Adam Clayton Powell, Jr.,” NBAM: 956 Wil Haygood, King of the Cats: The Life and Times of Adam Clayton Powell, Jr. (New York: Amistad, 2006): 113.

12 Haygood, King of the Cats: 115.

13 Washington, Outstanding African Americans of Congress: 70.

14 Wallenstein, “Powell, Adam Clayton, Jr.,” ANB.

15 William J. Brady, “Bailey Punches Powell in Row Over Segregation,” 21 July 1955, Washington Post: 1 John D. Morris, “Powell Is Punched by House Colleague,” 21 July 1955, New York Times: 1 Hamilton, Adam Clayton Powell, Jr.: 235.

16 Wallenstein, “Powell, Adam Clayton, Jr.,” ANB.

17 Congressional Record, House, 78th Cong., 1st sess. (1 July 1943): A3371.

18 Adam Clayton Powell, Jr., Adam by Adam: The Autobiography of Adam Clayton Powell, Jr. (New York: Dial Press, 1971): 73 Washington, Outstanding African Americans of Congress: 69–70 Alfred Friendly, “Jefferson and Rankin,” 14 April 1947, Washington Post: 7.

19 Hamilton, Adam Clayton Powell, Jr.: 178.

20 Congressional Record, House, 79th Cong., 1st sess. (13 February 1945): 1045 Wil Haygood, “Power and Love When Adam Clayton Powell Jr. Met Hazel Scott, Sparks Flew,” 17 January 1993, Washington Post Magazine: W14.

21 Hamilton, Adam Clayton Powell, Jr.: 186–187.

22 Ibid., 165 “Powell Demand for D.A.R. Snub Draws Refusal,” 13 October 1945, Los Angeles Times: 2 Glickman, “Adam Clayton Powell, Jr.,” CBB.

23 “Congress Debates D.A.R. Hall Row,” 17 October 1945, New York Times: 19 “Rankin Calls DAR Attacks ‘Communist,’” 18 October 1945, Washington Post: 4 Haygood, “Power and Love.”

24 For more on Powell and the Bandung Conference, see Brenda Gayle Plummer, Rising Wind: Black Americans and U.S. Foreign Affairs, 1935–1960 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1996): 248–253. For the “bad” quote in a telephone conversation between Secretary of State John Foster Dulles and a CIA official, see U.S. Department of State, Office of the Historian, Foreign Relations of the United States, 1955–1957, Volume 21: Asian Security, Cambodia, and Laos (Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1989): 77.

25 Washington, Outstanding African Americans of Congress: 71 Haygood, King of the Cats: 200–204.

26 Throughout his career, Powell made many of these speeches. For an example see, Congressional Record, House, 91st Cong., 1st sess. (29 July 1969): 21212.

27 Glickman, “Adam Clayton Powell, Jr.,” CBB.

28 Hamilton, Adam Clayton Powell, Jr.: 276–279.

29 “Powell Gives Innocent Plea in Tax Case,” 17 May 1958, Washington Post: A2 “Tax–Charge Deadlock Dismisses Powell Jury,” 23 April 1960, Washington Post: A3.

30 For more on Powell’s rift with Tammany Hall, see Hamilton, Adam Clayton Powell, Jr.: 299–312. “Powell Gives Innocent Plea in Tax Case” Leo Egan, “Powell, Lindsay Win in Primaries by Wide Margins,” 13 August 1958, New York Times: 1 “Powell Victory Is an Old Story,” 13 August 1958, New York Times: 18.

31 Johnson, “A Man of Many Roles.”

32 Wallenstein, “Powell, Adam Clayton, Jr.,” ANB.

33 Richard F. Fenno, Jr., Congressmen in Committees (Boston: Little, Brown, and Company, 1973): 128.

34 “‘Think Big, Black,’ Powell Urges,” 29 March 1965, Washington Post: D3. For more on Powell’s relationship with President Johnson, see Hamilton, Adam Clayton Powell, Jr.: 369–374.

35 Fenno, Congressmen in Committees: 130–131.

36 Hamilton, Adam Clayton Powell, Jr.: 434–437 John J. Goldman, “Adam Clayton Powell, 63, Dies Politician, Preacher and Playboy,” 5 April 1972, Los Angeles Times: A1.

37 Hamilton, Adam Clayton Powell, Jr.: 485.

38 Johnson, “A Man of Many Roles.”

39 Glickman, “Adam Clayton Powell, Jr.,” CBB.

40 David Shipler, “Powell, in Race, Has Faith in Himself,” 16 June 1970, New York Times: 50 Thomas Ronan, “Rangel, Calling Powell a Failure, Says He Will Seek Congressional Post,” 21 February 1970, New York Times: 24.

41 Michael J. Dubin et al., United States Congressional Elections, 1788–1997 (Jefferson, NC: McFarland Publishing Company, Inc., 1998): 672 Hamilton, Adam Clayton Powell, Jr.: 473–478.

42 “Powell Defeat Confirmed by Recount,” 28 June 1970, New York Times: 29 “Powell Loser in Recount of Primary Vote,” 28 June 1970, Chicago Tribune: A3.

43 Jones–Cornwell, “Adam Clayton Powell, Jr.,” NBAM Hamilton, Adam Clayton Powell, Jr.: 478.


CURRICULUM VITAE

Published Things — Books and Articles

“Anthony Coronel and Knowledge Arising from Natural Causation.” Documenti e Studi sulla Tradizione Filosofical Medievale. 17 (2009) 395-418.

Demonstration and Scientific Knowledge in William of Ockham: A Translation of Summa Logicae III-II: De Syllogismo Demonstrativo, and selections from the Prologue to the Ordinatio. Notre Dame, Indiana: University of Notre Dame Press, 2007. This includes a long introductory study of medieval work on demonstration from Grosseteste and some of his predecessors through Albertus Magnus, Thomas Aquinas, and Duns Scotus, as well as additional translations from Giles of Rome and John of Cornwall. Reviews: “His careful translation, compilation of relevant documents, and impressive history of medieval empiricism should interest any scholar studying the history of philosophy of science.” *Alexander Hall, Journal of the History of Philosophy 46 (2008). *Anne Davenport, Isis 99:4 (2008). “In sum, this is an outstanding introduction to and translation of Ockham’s treatises on or related to the demonstrative syllogism. The commentary is illuminating, especially in those cases where Longeway makes abundantly clear why Ockham thought that the causal powers of things and causal relations can be known only by experience, and why he maintained that qualities can have causal powers. These views support Longeway’s conclusion about Ockham as the founder of empiricism in the European tradition.” Andre Goddu, Notre Dame Philosophical Reviews, 2014.

“Aegidius Romanus and Albertus Magnus vs. Thomas Aquinas on the Highest Sort of Demonstration (demonstratio potissima).” Documenti e Studi sulla Tradizione Filosofica Medievale. 13 (2002) 373-434.

William Heytesbury: On Maxima and Minima. Chapter 5 of Regulae solvendi sophsmata with an anonymous fourteenth-century discussion. Translated with an introduction and study. Synthese Historical Series. Dordrecht, Holland: Reidel Press, 1984. Reviews: Eleanore Stump, History and Philosophy of Logic 8 (1987) 85-87, “Longeway’s excellent presentation… gives us an important part of the puzzle as we continue to piece together the history of philosophy in this period.” Peter King, Philosophical Review 96 (1987) 146-149, “A solid contribution in a neglected field.” A. Pattin, Tijdschrift Voor Philosophie 49 (3): 539. Edith Sylla, Isis 77 (1986) 710-711.

With Ebbesen (Supervising Editor), Del Punta, Izbicki, Serene and Stump. Simon of Faversham: Quaestiones super librum Elenchorum. Toronto: Pontifical Institute of Medieval Studies, 1984.

Papers Read

“The Place of Demonstratio Potissima in Some sixteenth-Century Accounts of Mathematics,” presented at the Colloque sur Les traditions médiévales des Seconds Analytiques (Centre d’ études supérieures de la Renaissance, Université François-Rabelais, Tours, France), 15-17 October 2012. Arranged by Joel Biard.

“Antony Coronel and Knowledge Arising from Natural Causation,” presented at Workshop on Ancient and Medieval Commentaries on the Posterior Analytics. Scuola Normale Superiore, Pisa, Italy , 6-9 July 2008. Arranged by Francesco Del Punta.

“Ekthesis in Aristotelian Demonstration,” presented at Marquette University conference on the Posterior Analytics, July, 2006.

“Mathematical Proof and Aristotelian Demonstration,” presented to “the Greeks,” a reading group in Greek Philosophy at University of Wisconsin at Madison led by Professor Paula Gottlieb, Spring 2002.

“William of Ockham on the Possibility of a Demonstrative Science of Demonstration.” Presented at the 34th International Congress on Medieval Studies, Western Michigan University , Kalamazoo, Michigan, May 6, 1999.

Articles in Reference Works

“Simon of Faversham.” “Commentaries on Posterior Analytics.” “William of Heytesbury.” In Springer Encyclopedia of Medieval Philosophy, edited by Henrik Lagerlund (Springer, 2011).

“Simon of Faversham,” “William Heytesbury,” “William of Sherwood.” In Blackwell Companion to Philosophy in the Middle Ages, edited by Jorge J.E. Gracia and Timothy B. Noone, (Blackwell, 2003).

Reviews and Notes

With Kretzmann, Van Dyke and Stump. “Notes and Discussions: L.M. De Rijk on Peter of Spain.” Journal of the History of Philosophy 16 (July 1978) 325-333.

With Kretzmann, Van Dyke and Stump. Review of Peter of Spain (Petrus Hispanus Portugalensis): Tractatus called afterwards Summule Logicales, First Critical Edition from the Manuscripts with an introduction, by L.M. De Rijk, (Assen: Van Gorcum, 1972). The Philosophical Review 84 (1975) 560-567.

Unpublished Things:


6. Further Reading

Beyond the texts by Rawls cited above, readers may wish to consult Rawls&rsquos lectures on Hume, Leibniz, Kant, and Hegel (LHMP) and on Hobbes, Locke, Hume, Mill, Marx, Sidgwick, and Butler (LHPP) to see how Rawls&rsquos interpretations of these authors informed his own theorizing. Reath, Herman, and Korsgaard (1997) is a collection of essays by Rawls&rsquos students on his work in the history of philosophy.

The scholarly literature on Rawls is vast below are some entry points that may be useful.

Voice (2011) is a summary and defense of Rawls&rsquos three main books that is accessible to those with some undergraduate philosophical training. More advanced students wanting a guide to A Theory of Justice may wish to read Mandle (2009). Mandle and Reidy (2014) is a lexicon with short entries on important concepts, issues, influences, and critics, from Abortion to Maximin to Wittgenstein.

Freeman (2007) sets out in a single volume the historical development of Rawls&rsquos theories, as well as sympathetic elaborations of many of his central arguments. Weithman (2011) details the evolution of Rawls&rsquos thought from A Theory of Justice to Political Liberalism. Pogge (2007) is an explication of Rawls&rsquos domestic theories, which also contains a biographical sketch and brief replies to libertarian and communitarian critics (for which see also Pogge (1989)). Maffettone (2011) and Audard (2007) are critical introductions to Rawls&rsquos three major works.

Historically, the most influential volume of essays on justice as fairness has been Daniels (1975). Freeman (2003) is a collection of articles on major themes in Rawls&rsquos domestic theories it also contains an introductory overview of all of Rawls&rsquos work. Brooks and Nussbaum (2015) collects articles on Rawls&rsquos political liberalism. Older collections on political liberalism include Davion and Wolf (1999), Griffin and Solum (1994) and Lloyd (1994). Martin and Reidy (2006) focuses on the law of peoples. Hinton (2015) is a collection on the original position.

Mandle and Reidy (2013) and Reidy (2008) are volumes of scholarly essays spanning a wide range of issues arising from Rawls&rsquos work. Young (2016) is a selection of more critical articles. Mandle and Roberts-Cady (2020) pairs authors in debates over major issues in Rawls&rsquos writings.

A debate over Rawls and race is between Mills (2017, chs. 8 and 9) and Shelby (2004, 2013). Abbey (2013) is a volume on feminist engagements with Rawls&rsquos work. Bailey and Gentile (2014) is an anthology that explore how extensively religious believers can engage in the political life of a Rawlsian society. Brooks (2012) and Fleming (2004) are collections on Rawls and the law. O&rsquoNeill and Williamson (2012) is on the institutional design of a Rawlsian property-owning democracy. Edmundson (2017) argues that Rawlsian justice requires socialism.

Galisanka (2019) is an intellectual history leading up to A Theory of Justice, that also details Rawls&rsquos experiences in World War II. Gregory (2007) and Nelson (2019, ch. 3) examine Rawls&rsquos early religious writings. Bok (2017) emphasizes the Wittgensteinian influences on Rawls&rsquos early thought. Botti (2019) situates Rawls within American pragmatism. Recent historicist treatments of Rawls&rsquos work include Forrester (2019) and some of the essays in Smith, Bejan, and Zimmerman (2021). In this last volume, Terry (2021) discusses Rawls&rsquos condemnation of the racism of the Vietnam draft.


Books

John J. Abt. Who Has the Right to Make War? The Constitutional Crisis. New York: International Publishers, 1970. LCCN: 74148515.
KF5060 .Z9 A2

American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research. The War Powers Bill. Washington: AEI, 1972. Series: Its Legislative Analysis, 92nd Cong., No. 19. LCCN: 72192536.
KF5060 .Z9 A94

Clarence A. Berdahl. War Powers of the Executive in the United States. Buffalo, N.Y.: William S. Hein, 2003. LCCN: 2003045294
JK558 .B4 2003

Alan I. Bigel. The Supreme Court on Emergency Powers, Foreign Affairs, and Protection of Civil Liberties, 1935-1975. Lanham, MD: University Press of America, 1986. LCCN: 85022572.
KF5060 .B54 1986

Randall Walton Bland. The Black Robe and the Bald Eagle: The Supreme Court and the Foreign Policy of the United States, 1789-1953. San Francisco: Austin & Winfield, 1996. LCCN: 93031327.
KF5060 .B55 1996

Edward DeV. Bunn. Presidential War Powers on Domestic Soil: a History and Analysis of Presidential Emergency Powers Exercised on Domestic Soil. Gainesville, Fla.: Cambridge Lighthouse Press, 2005. LCCN: 2005903919.
KF5060 .B86 2005

Susan R. Burgess. Contest for Constitutional Authority: The Abortion and War Powers Debates. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas, 1992. LCCN: 91034979.
KF8700 .B87 1991

Robert D. Clark, Andrew M. Egeland, Jr., and David B. Sanford. The War Powers Resolution: Balance of War Powers in the Eighties. Washington: National Defense University Press: U.S. GPO, 1985. Series: A National War College Strategic Study. LCCN: 85600614.
KF5060 .C5 1985

Charles M. Clode. The Administration of Justice under Military and Martial Law, as Applicable to the Army, Navy, Marines, and Auxiliary Forces. 2d ed. rev. and enl. London: J. Murray, 1874. LCCN: ltf91025900.
KD6290 .C56 1874

Charles M. Clode. The Administration of Justice under Military and Martial Law. London: J. Murray, 1872. LCCN: 12011075.
KD6290 .C56 1872

Congress and United States Foreign Policy: Controlling the Use of Force in the Nuclear Age. Edited by Michael Barnhart. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1987. LCCN: 86023057.
KF5060 .A75 C66 1987

The Constitution and the Conduct of Foreign Policy: An Inquiry by a Panel of the American Society of International Law. Edited by Francis O. Wilcox, Richard A. Frank published under the auspices of the American Society of International Law. New York: Praeger, 1976. LCCN: 75023999.
KF4651 .A5 C6

The Constitution in Wartime: Beyond Alarmism and Complacency. Edited by Mark V. Tushnet. Durham [N.C.]: Duke University Press, 2005. LCCN: 2004015809.
KF5060 .C58 2005

Edward Samuel Corwin. Total War and the Constitution Five Lectures Delivered at the University of Michigan, March 1946. New York: A. A. Knopf, 1947. Series: William W. Cook Foundation Lectures v. 2. LCCN: 47000777.
KF5060 .C6 1947

Patrick T. Conley. The Military Legislation of the First and Second Sessions of the Thirteen Congress: A Study of War-Time Leadership. United States?: s.n. 1963. LCCN: 99194550.
KF7221.Z9 C66 1963

Brian R. Dirck. Waging War on Trial: a Sourcebook with Cases, Laws, and Documents. 1st ed. Indianapolis: Hackett Pub., 2003. LCCN: 2004012026.
KF5060.Z9 D573 2003

John Hart Ely. War and Responsibility: Constitutional Lessons of Vietnam and Its Aftermath. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1993. LCCN: 92045769.
KF5060 .E58 1993

John E. Finn. Constitutions in Crisis: Political Violence and the Rule of Law. New York: Oxford Univ. Press, 1991. LCCN: 90031794.
K5256 .F56 1991

First Use of Nuclear Weapons: Under the Constitution, Who Decides? Edited by Peter Raven- Hansen. New York: Greenwood Press, 1987. Series: Contributions in Legal Studies No. 38. LCCN: 86033655.
KF5060.A75 F57 1987

Louis Fisher. Presidential War Power. 2nd ed., rev. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas, 2004. LCCN: 2004001962.
KF5060 .F57 2004

Leon Friedman and Burt Neuborne. Unquestioning Obedience to the President: The ACLU Case Against the Illegal War in Vietnam. New York: Norton, 1972. 284 p. LCCN: 76169044.
KF5060 .F7

Michael J. Glennon. Constitutional Diplomacy. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1990. LCCN: 89039071.
KF4651 .G59 1990

Nathan D. Grundstein. Presidential Delegation of Authority in Wartime. Pittsburgh, PA: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1961. LCCN: 61009398.
KF5660.Z9 G7

David Locke Hall. The Reagan Wars: A Constitutional Perspective on War Powers and the Presidency. Boulder: Westview Press, 1991. LCCN: 91013127.
KF5060 .H35 1991

Brien Hallett. The Lost Art of Declaring War. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press, 1998.
LCCN: 98008926.
KF5060 .H355 1998

Ryan C. Hendrickson. The Clinton Wars: The Constitution, Congress, and War Powers. 1st ed. Nashville Vanderbilt University Press, 2002. LCCN: 2002003863.
KF5060 .H46 2002

Pat M. Holt. The War Powers Resolution: The Role of Congress in U.S. Armed Intervention. Washington: American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research, 1978. Series: Studies in foreign policy, AEI studies 197. LCCN: 78009571.
KF5060 .A25 1978

Peter Irons. War Powers: How the Imperial Presidency Hijacked the Constitution, New York : Metropolitan Books, 2005. LCCN: 2005041488
KF5060 .I76 2005

Jacob K. Javits. Who Makes War: The President Versus Congress. New York, Morrow, 1973. LCCN: 73009354.
KF5060 .J38

Edward Keynes. Undeclared War: Twilight Zone of Constitutional Power. University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1991. LCCN: 92153083.
KF5060 .K48 1982

John F. Lehman. Making War: The 200-Year-Old Battle Between the President and Congress Over How America Goes to War. New York: Scribner's Toronto: Maxwell Macmillan Canada New York: Maxwell Macmillan International, 1992. LCCN: 91039228.
KF5060 .L44 1992

Charles A. Lofgren. "Government from Reflection and Choice": Constitutional Essays on War, Foreign Relations, and Federalism. New York: Oxford University Press, 1986. LCCN: 86002357.
KF4651 .L64 1986

Maeva Marcus. Truman and the Steel Seizure Case: The Limits of Presidential Power. New York: Columbia University Press, 1977. LCCN: 77004095.
KF5060 .M37

Christopher N. May. In the Name of War: Judicial Review and the War Powers Since 1918. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1989. LCCN: 88009444.
KF4575 .M39 1989

Clinton Lawrence Rossiter. The Supreme Court and the Commander in Chief. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1951.LCCN: 51010308.
KF7220.Z9 R6

Clinton Lawrence Rossiter. The Supreme Court and the Commander in Chief. Expanded ed. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1976. LCCN: 76012815.
KF7220.Z9 R6 1976

Arthur Meier Schlesinger. War and the American Presidency. 1st ed. New York : W.W. Norton, 2004. LCCN: 2004009872.
JZ1480 .S35 2004

Martin S. Sheffer. The Judicial Development of Presidential War Powers. Westport, CT: Praeger, 1999. LCCN: 98038287.
KF5060.A68 S53 1999

Marc E. Smyrl. Conflict or Codetermination?: Congress, the President, and the Power to Make War. Cambridge, MA: Ballinger Pub. Co., 1988. LCCN: 88019237.
KF5060 .S57 1988

Abraham D. Sofaer. War, Foreign Affairs, and Constitutional Power. Cambridge, MA: Ballinger Pub. Co., 1976-1984. LCCN: 76015392.
KF5060 .S6

Paul Schott Stevens. U.S. Armed Forces and Homeland Defense: The Legal Framework. Washington, DC: Center for Strategic and International Studies, 2001. Series: CSIS report. LCCN: 2001006308.
KF5060 .S74 2001

Ann Van Wynen Thomas and A.J. Thomas, Jr. The War-Making Powers of the President: Constitutional and International Law Aspects. Dallas: SMU Press, 1982. LCCN: 82010541.
KF5060 .T48 1982

Robert F. Turner. Repealing the War Powers Resolution: Restoring the Rule of Law in U.S. Foreign Policy. Washington: Brassey's, 1991. LCCN: 90024467.
KF5060 .T86 1991

Robert F. Turner. The War Powers Resolution: Its Implementation in Theory and Practice. Philadelphia, PA: Foreign Policy Research Institute, 1983. LCCN: 82024192.
KF5060 .T87 1983

The U.S. Constitution and the Power to Go to War: Historical and Current Perspectives. Edited by Gary M. Stern and Morton H. Halperin, prepared under the auspices of the Center for National Security Studies. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1994. LCCN: 93015840.
KF5060.A75 U8 1994

Frank Everson Vandiver. How America Goes to War. Westport, Conn.: Praeger, 2005. LCCN: 2005004212.
E181 .V36 2005

Lawrence R. Velvel. Undeclared War and Civil Disobedience: The American System in Crisis. New York, Dunellen Co., 1970. LCCN: 75125541.
KF5060 .V4

War Powers and the Constitution. John Charles Daly, moderator Dick Cheney . [et al.] with an appendix by Gerald R. Ford held on December 6, 1983, and sponsored by the American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research. Washington: AEI, 1984. LCCN: 84070313.
KF5060.Z9 W36 1984

Earl Warren. The Bill of Rights and the Military. New York: New York University Law Center, 1962. LCCN: 65006815.
KF5060.Z9 W37

Donald L. Westerfield. War Powers: The President, the Congress, and the Question of War. Westport, CT: Praeger, 1996. LCCN: 95043774.
KF5060 .W457 1996

Alan F. Westin. The Anatomy of a Constitutional Law Case: Youngstown Sheet and Tube Co. v. Sawyer the Steel Seizure Decision. New York, Macmillan, 1958. LCCN: 58009839.
KF5060 .W46

Alan F. Westin. The Anatomy of a Constitutional Law Case: Youngstown Sheet and Tube Co. v. Sawyer, the Steel Seizure Decision. Morningside ed. New York: Columbia University Press, 1990. LCCN: 90039178.
KF5060 .W46 1990

William Whiting. War Powers under the Constitution of the United States: Military Arrests, Reconstruction and Military Government. 43d ed. Boston, Lee and Shepard New York, Lee, Shepard and Dillingham, 1871. LCCN: 09023595. Microfilm 01291 reel 182, no. 4 E.
KF5060 .W55 1871

W. Scott Wilkinson. Little Rock Case: Authority of the President to Use Federal Troops in a State of the Union. [s.l.]: Wilkinson, 1957. LCCN: 77363418.
KF5060.Z9 W5

Francis Dunham Wormuth and Edwin B. Firmage. To Chain the Dog of War: The War Power of Congress in History and Law. 2nd ed. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press, 1989. LCCN: 88020808.
KF4941 .W67 1989

John Yoo. The Powers of War and Peace: the Constitution and Foreign Affairs after 9/11. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2005. LCCN: 2005004222
KF5060 .Y66 2005


John J. Powers DE-258 - History

LIST OF UNCLAIMED UNION CIVIL WAR MEDALS M-Z AT THE WEST VIRGINIA STATE ARCHIVES

Questions should be addressed to Randy Marcum

Last Updated 19 March 2021

Mace, Jacob C 7th Reg Cav Vols
Mack, John C 10th Reg Inf Vols
Mackey, Horatio N. 1st Lt. 1st Reg Cav Vols
Madden, Ml. D 5th Reg Cav Vols
Maddons, William L. K 4th Reg Cav Vols
Madison, George 45th US
Maer, Berthold C 1st Reg Inf Vols
Maffitt, Isaac H 10th Reg Inf Vols
Mahan, Daniel C 7th Reg Inf Vols
Mahaney, Stephen K 17th Reg Inf Vols
Mail, William H. K 2nd Reg Inf Vols
Main, Daniel N 6th Reg Inf Vols
Main, Simon A 7th Reg Inf Vols
Major, Joseph G 4th Reg Cav Vols
Malcolm, William T. G 3rd Reg Cav Vols
Mallory, James M 1st Reg Cav Vols
Malone, Emery G 6th Reg Cav Vols
Malone, James H. H 12th Reg Inf Vols
Malone, John H. 45th US
Malone, Joseph B. G 15th Reg Inf Vols
Maloney, George D 1st Reg Cav Vols
Maloney, Ml. K 2nd Reg Inf Vols
Maloney, William G 3rd Reg Inf Vols
Malry, John F. F 1st Reg Cav Vols
Malsed, Andrew J. I 15th Reg Inf Vols
Mane, Stephenson G 17th Reg Inf Vols
Maneer, Francis I 6th Reg Inf Vols
Mank, Harrison A 1st Reg Cav Vols
Mann, John D 5th Reg Inf Vols
Mann, Patrick B 3rd Reg Inf Vols
Manners, Alexander K 1st Reg Inf Vols
Manners, James H 1st Reg Lt Art Vols
Manning, Andrew H 1st Reg Cav Vols
Mansell, Samuel Sgt. H 6th Reg Cav Vols
Mantney, Jackson 1st Lt. 5th Reg Inf Vols
Manuel, John J. M 6th Reg Inf Vols
Maple, John J. D 1st Reg Lt Art Vols
Marckel, James G 2nd Reg Cav Vols
Mariner, Josiah K 3rd Reg Cav Vols
Markey, Thomas H 1st Reg Lt Art Vols
Markley, George W. N 6th Reg Inf Vols
Markly, Isaiah O 6th Reg Inf Vols
Marple, George W. F 10th Reg Inf Vols
Marr, John G 6th Reg Inf Vols
Marsh, James M. D 8th Reg Inf Vols
Marsh, Solomon M 4th Reg Cav Vols
Marsh, Thaddeus F 3rd Reg Cav Vols
Marshall, Alexander Adjutant 7th Reg Inf Vols
Marshall, Andrew A 1st Reg Inf Vols
Marshall, George 45th US
Marshall, George M 7th Reg Cav Vols
Marshall, George L. F 3rd Reg Cav Vols
Marshall, James W. H 17th Reg Inf Vols
Marshall, John D 17th Reg Inf Vols
Marshall, Moses M. I 5th Reg Inf Vols
Marshall, Thomas L. Cpl. F 6th Reg Cav Vols
Marshall, Walter S. H 6th Reg Cav Vols
Marshall, Washington 45th US
Marshall, William H 2nd Reg Vet Inf Vols
Marshall, William A. G 1st Reg Inf Vols
Martin, Alexander B 1st Reg Inf Vols
Martin, David K 1st Reg Vet Inf Vols
Martin, Edward K 2nd Reg Cav Vols
Martin, George I 10th Reg Inf Vols
Martin, George C. Cpl. F 3rd Reg Cav Vols
Martin, Hugh K 2nd Reg Cav Vols
Martin, J. W. D 2nd Reg Inf Vols
Martin, James M. F 11th Reg Inf Vols
Martin, John K 2nd Reg Cav Vols
Martin, John K 6th Reg Inf Vols
Martin, John B. E 7th Reg Cav Vols
Martin, Jos. F 1st Reg Inf Vols
Martin, Ml. W. G 7th Reg Inf Vols
Martin, Robert A 1st Reg Cav Vols
Martin, Thomas I 4th Reg Inf Vols
Martin, William D. B 7th Reg Inf Vols
Mason, George 45th US
Mason, George W. B 6th Reg Inf Vols
Mason, Horatio F 2nd Reg Cav Vols
Mason, Mansfield B. D 2nd Reg Inf Vols
Mason, Peter I 10th Reg Inf Vols
Massey, Joseph Cpl. F 5th Reg Cav Vols
Masterson, George K 1st Reg Inf Vols
Matheny, Elias B 7th Reg Inf Vols
Mather, Alexander Musician G 1st Reg Inf Vols
Mathers, Lazarus M 1st Reg Cav Vols
Mathews, John I 5th Reg Inf Vols
Matthews, David E 6th Reg Cav Vols
Matthews, Thomas C 11th Reg Inf Vols
Maxwell, B. W. B 5th Reg Cav Vols
Maxwell, Bernard M 2nd Reg Cav Vols
Maxwell, John B. F 4th Reg Cav Vols
Maxwell, Richard G 6th Reg Cav Vols
Maxwell, William A 1st Reg Inf Vols
May, John W. B 7th Reg Inf Vols
Maybee, Jame T. G 13th Reg Inf Vols
Mayfield, Sylvanus A 3rd Reg Cav Vols
Mayfield, W. M. V. E 7th Reg Inf Vols
Mays, William C 5th Reg Inf Vols
Maze, Jos. W. B 11th Reg Inf Vols
McAllister, John A 6th Reg Inf Vols
McAnany, Peter B 11th Reg Inf Vols
McAneny, Francis P 6th Reg Inf Vols
McAtee, Richard H. K 2nd Reg Inf Vols
McAvoy, Ml. A 3rd Reg Cav Vols
McCabe, Benjamin E 1st Reg Inf Vols
McCafferty, William B 1st Reg Inf Vols
McCaine, Henry H 1st Reg Lt Art Vols
McCallister, William Cpl. M 4th Reg Cav Vols
McCann, Moses I 6th Reg Inf Vols
McCann, Samuel G 1st Reg Inf Vols
McCanna, Frank B 10th Reg Inf Vols
McCanner, James A 3rd Reg Cav Vols
McCannon, Sampson G 1st Reg Vet Inf Vols
McCarl, George N 6th Reg Inf Vols
McCart, Edward C 4th Reg Inf Vols
McCartney, A. C 1st Reg Cav Vols
McCarty, John W. G 1st Reg Cav Vols
McCarty, Ml. C 7th Reg Cav Vols
McCarty, Thomas C 1st Reg Cav Vols
McCarty, William H. Cpl. E 2nd Reg Cav Vols
McCaslin, George G 2nd Reg Cav Vols
McCaukey, Alexander L. Cpl. B 6th Reg Cav Vols
McCauslin, Robert K 1st Reg Inf Vols
McCay, Daniel F 5th Reg Cav Vols
McCay, James H. F 4th Reg Cav Vols
McClay, George F 5th Reg Cav Vols
McCleane, Francis H. A 5th Reg Cav Vols
McCleanon, Robert K 5th Reg Cav Vols
McCleanon, Thomas W. K 5th Reg Cav Vols
McClellan, William D. N 6th Reg Inf Vols
McClintock, J. F. Musician I 1st Reg Inf Vols
McCloskey, James L 6th Reg Inf Vols
McCloud, Thomas H 7th Reg Inf Vols
McCloy, John I 3rd Reg Cav Vols
McCloy, William I 3rd Reg Cav Vols
McClure, William E 5th Reg Inf Vols
McCon, James W. C 12th Reg Inf Vols
McConahey, A. S. C 1st Reg Cav Vols
McConnell, George W. D 1st Reg Cav Vols
McConnell, James H 11th Reg Inf Vols
McConnell, James Cpl. G 2nd Reg Cav Vols
McConnis, Ralph K 5th Reg Inf Vols
McCord, Robert D 1st Reg Inf Vols
McCordal, Owen I 5th Reg Inf Vols
McCorkle, Charles M. D 7th Reg Cav Vols
McCormack, James C 1st Reg Inf Vols
McCormack, John K 1st Reg Cav Vols
McCormack, William I 7th Reg Cav Vols
McCormick, Frank A 1st Reg Inf Vols
McCormick, Robert F 5th Reg Cav Vols
McCormick, Thomas Sgt. D 9th Reg Inf Vols
McCoun, James I 2nd Reg Vet Inf Vols
McCoy, Charles D. C 1st Reg Inf Vols
McCoy, Jeremiah 45th US
McCoy, John E 7th Reg Cav Vols
McCoy, John L. L 7th Reg Cav Vols
McCoy, Samuel G 1st Reg Inf Vols
McCoy, Samuel H 1st Reg Inf Vols
McCray, Joshua G 1st Reg Cav Vols
McCrea, Robert D 1st Reg Inf Vols
McCroby, Henry C. B 3rd Reg Cav Vols
McCully, Willace Cpl. D 4th Reg Inf Vols
McDade, Edward E 8th Reg Inf Vols
McDaniel, Caleb D 5th Reg Inf Vols
McDaniel, James I 9th Reg Inf Vols
McDaniel, Milton D 5th Reg Inf Vols
McDaniel, William G 1st Reg Cav Vols
McDermot, Roger B 6th Reg Cav Vols
McDonald, Allen F 1st Reg Inf Vols
McDonald, Archibald B 5th Reg Cav Vols
McDonald, David A 15th Reg Inf Vols
McDonald, John A 7th Reg Inf Vols
McDonald, William I 1st Reg Cav Vols
McDondle, Daniel H. C. F 14th Reg Inf Vols
McDowe, John M. I 1st Reg Cav Vols
McDowell, James F 11th Reg Inf Vols
McDowell, Richard B. Cpl. A 1st Reg Cav Vols
McEntee, Matthew C 1st Reg Inf Vols
McFadden, Elias B. I 3rd Reg Cav Vols
McFadden, James L. B 10th Reg Inf Vols
McFarlane, Johnson C 1st Reg Inf Vols
McGafin, William K 4th Reg Cav Vols
McGarvey, Matthew Sgt. A 1st Reg Cav Vols
McGee, George W. Bugler K 6th Reg Cav Vols
McGhee, John F 1st Reg Cav Vols
McGill, Armstrong G 1st Reg Lt Art Vols
McGill, David F. A 6th Reg Inf Vols
McGill, Henry F 5th Reg Cav Vols
McGill, John G 1st Reg Inf Vols
McGilvery, John D 1st Reg Cav Vols
McGinnis, Thomas K 4th Reg Inf Vols
McGlone, Patrick K 2nd Reg Cav Vols
McGlynn, Patrick K 17th Reg Inf Vols
McGoffin, Joshua M 7th Reg Cav Vols
McGowan, Edward F 1st Reg Inf Vols
McGraw, James F 6th Reg Cav Vols
McGraw, William E 2nd Reg Cav Vols
McGreary, George I 1st Reg Inf Vols
McGuigan, John G. Sgt. D 14th Reg Inf Vols
McGuire, John H 4th Reg Inf Vols
McGuire, Joseph C 2nd Reg Vet Inf Vols
McGuire, William E 14th Reg Inf Vols
McGunigal, James K 4th Reg Inf Vols
McGurgen, Peter D 5th Reg Cav Vols
McHenry, William N 6th Reg Inf Vols
McIntosh, Alexander R. Sgt. A 2nd Reg Cav Vols
McIntosh, James G 1st Reg Lt Art Vols
McIntyre, John W. G 1st Reg Cav Vols
McJilton, Nelson H 2nd Reg Vet Inf Vols
McKee, John T. A 7th Reg Inf Vols
McKeefer, Thomas F 5th Reg Cav Vols
McKelly, James H 13th Reg Inf Vols
McKendry, Isaac A. 1st Lt. 5th Reg Inf Vols
McKennan, T. M. T. F 1st Reg Cav Vols
McKenon, Patrick F 7th Reg Inf Vols
McKenzie, Alexander G 1st Reg Lt Art Vols
McKenzie, James A. B 1st Reg Cav Vols
McKingley, John D 7th Reg Inf Vols
McKinn, Augustus E 1st Reg Cav Vols
McKinney, Alexander G 1st Reg Vet Inf Vols
McKinney, Thomas B 6th Reg Cav Vols
McKinney, William L 1st Reg Cav Vols
McKinsey, George W. K 4th Reg Inf Vols
McKirahan, W. D. Sgt. D 1st Reg Cav Vols
McKnight, William T. K 1st Reg Vet Inf Vols
McLain, Henry A 1st Reg Cav Vols
McLaughlin, Ed. Sgt. G 2nd Reg Cav Vols
McLelland, Thomas W. D 7th Reg Inf Vols
McMannon, Thomas C 3rd Reg Inf Vols
McManus, James Cpl. D 1st Reg Cav Vols
McManus, Patrick B 15th Reg Inf Vols
McMillan, Charles M. Cpl. F 4th Reg Inf Vols
McMillan, Samuel H 7th Reg Cav Vols
McMillan, William J. Cpl. A 3rd Reg Cav Vols
McMillen, E. B. D 1st Reg Cav Vols
McMillion, John T. K 11th Reg Inf Vols
McMullen, Angus K 4th Reg Inf Vols
McMullen, William Sgt. G 13th Reg Inf Vols
McMurray, William B. D 2nd Reg Inf Vols
McNabb, John B 1st Reg Inf Vols
McNally, Patrick Major 2nd Reg Inf Vols
McNemar, B. A. M 6th Reg Inf Vols
McNemar, John H. A 3rd Reg Inf Vols
McNickle, John B. H 2nd Reg Vet Inf Vols
McOllister, David F 4th Reg Cav Vols
McOrmick, Francis E 1st Reg Inf Vols
McQuown, Albert F 1st Reg Cav Vols
McQuown, Albert H 1st Reg Lt Art Vols
McQuown, Robert D 12th Reg Inf Vols
McSmith, Daniel Sgt. A 6th Reg Cav Vols
McSwords, James G 1st Reg Inf Vols
McVicker, William K 17th Reg Inf Vols
McWand, Patrick D 5th Reg Cav Vols
McWilliams, Harvey B 17th Reg Inf Vols
Meaker, Jackson G 1st Reg Vet Inf Vols
Meckling, John D 7th Reg Inf Vols
Meddick, James H. A 9th Reg Inf Vols
Meddick, William R. A 9th Reg Inf Vols
Meddock, Charles I 11th Reg Inf Vols
Meder, Lewis I 2nd Reg Vet Inf Vols
Megan, Owen K 2nd Reg Inf Vols
Meighan, James K 14th Reg Inf Vols
Melvin, Edward K 5th Reg Cav Vols
Menser, William H. C 17th Reg Inf Vols
Meny, James C 15th Reg Inf Vols
Mequillet, David Capt. 1st Reg Cav Vols
Mercer, Lewis D. H 1st Reg Inf Vols
Mercer, William W. B 4th Reg Cav Vols
Meredith, Robert C. E 5th Reg Cav Vols
Merriman, James F 4th Reg Inf Vols
Merryman, Nicholas H 1st Reg Lt Art Vols
Mertz, Rudolph A 1st Reg Cav Vols
Merz, Rudolph A 1st Reg Lt Art Vols
Metheny, Joseph M. B 4th Reg Cav Vols
Meyer, H. H. A 1st Reg Lt Art Vols
Michael, John A. Cpl. E 1st Reg Cav Vols
Michael, William Cpl. D 15th Reg Inf Vols
Michael, William B 3rd Reg Cav Vols
Middleton, John T. L 2nd Reg Cav Vols
Mier, Jacob H 1st Reg Inf Vols
Milam, Attison H 7th Reg Cav Vols
Miles, Francis M. Capt. 5th Reg Inf Vols
Miley, Joseph F 7th Reg Inf Vols
Millbeck, William D 2nd Reg Cav Vols
Millegan, G. W. Com. Sgt. 9th Reg Inf Vols
Millegan, George W. C 9th Reg Inf Vols
Miller, Allen T. I 1st Reg Cav Vols
Miller, Andrew A 4th Reg Inf Vols
Miller, Conrad C 5th Reg Cav Vols
Miller, David K. L 6th Reg Inf Vols
Miller, Elijah G 6th Reg Cav Vols
Miller, Enos H 17th Reg Inf Vols
Miller, Gabrl. F 1st Reg Inf Vols
Miller, George I 10th Reg Inf Vols
Miller, George T. D 13th Reg Inf Vols
Miller, George W. G 14th Reg Inf Vols
Miller, Jacob G 10th Reg Inf Vols
Miller, Jacob H. Farrier B 4th Reg Cav Vols
Miller, James M. Cpl. A 7th Reg Inf Vols
Miller, James M. G 10th Reg Inf Vols
Miller, John F. A 3rd Reg Cav Vols
Miller, Morgan L 1st Reg Cav Vols
Miller, Moses K 4th Reg Inf Vols
Miller, Stewart D 7th Reg Inf Vols
Miller, Thomas G. A 1st Reg Cav Vols
Miller, William K 1st Reg Vet Inf Vols
Miller, William H 17th Reg Inf Vols
Miller, William A 1st Reg Cav Vols
Miller, William D 6th Reg Cav Vols
Miller, William I 2nd Reg Cav Vols
Miller, William I 2nd Reg Vet Inf Vols
Miller, William J. B 1st Reg Inf Vols
Mills, Anderson I 2nd Reg Cav Vols
Mills, William A. Sgt. E 1st Reg Inf Vols
Minke, Christn. P 6th Reg Inf Vols
Minker, William D. A 3rd Reg Inf Vols
Minness, Calihill 45th US
Miskell, John A Ind Exempt Inf Vols
Mitchell, Andrew J. A 1st Reg Inf Vols
Mitchell, Ellis B. F 10th Reg Inf Vols
Mitchell, George E 7th Reg Cav Vols
Mitchell, Isaac C 10th Reg Inf Vols
Mitchell, Lewis 45th US
Mitchell, Ml. H 1st Reg Cav Vols
Mitchell, Moses M. A 17th Reg Inf Vols
Mitchell, Phelps H 2nd Reg Vet Inf Vols
Mitchell, Robert I 8th Reg Inf Vols
Mitchell, Roseberry Cpl. C 2nd Reg Cav Vols
Mitchell, William A 4th Reg Inf Vols
Mitchell, William B 2nd Reg Cav Vols
Mitchem, Isaac M. A 1st Reg Cav Vols
Mobley, John E. Cpl. H 1st Reg Lt Art Vols
Moffitt, Will A. E 5th Reg Cav Vols
Moffitt, Will O. K 6th Reg Cav Vols
Mollohan, John H. B 10th Reg Inf Vols
Molly, Edward C. Cpl. K 2nd Reg Inf Vols
Moloy, John H 9th Reg Inf Vols
Monegan, Thomas I 1st Reg Inf Vols
Moninger, Adam D 5th Reg Cav Vols
Monohan, Patrick G 6th Reg Inf Vols
Monroe, James 45th US
Monroe, James M. B 2nd Reg Cav Vols
Monroe, Jefferson 45th US
Monroe, Richard M. B 2nd Reg Cav Vols
Monrough, John T. I 2nd Reg Vet Inf Vols
Montay, James C 1st Reg Cav Vols
Montgomery, Andrew J. A 3rd Reg Cav Vols
Montgomery, George B. 1st Lt. 2nd Reg Cav Vols
Moody, John I 5th Reg Inf Vols
Moon, Nathaniel G 1st Reg Cav Vols
Mooney, Andrew L. P 6th Reg Inf Vols
Mooney, George W. B 1st Reg Cav Vols
Mooney, James K 2nd Reg Cav Vols
Moore, Abraham O 6th Reg Inf Vols
Moore, Dan K 7th Reg Cav Vols
Moore, Eli D 17th Reg Inf Vols
Moore, Franklin I 15th Reg Inf Vols
Moore, Ira C. I 10th Reg Inf Vols
Moore, Isaac A. F 7th Reg Inf Vols
Moore, Isaac W. QM Sgt. F 1st Reg Cav Vols
Moore, Jefferson G 6th Reg Inf Vols
Moore, Jesse D 2nd Reg Cav Vols
Moore, John H. P 6th Reg Inf Vols
Moore, John W. B 5th Reg Cav Vols
Moore, Josephus D 17th Reg Inf Vols
Moore, Lee M. Farrier C 4th Reg Cav Vols
Moore, Marion E 5th Reg Cav Vols
Moore, Martin P. F 1st Reg Cav Vols
Moore, Moses E 2nd Reg Inf Vols
Moore, Robert I 4th Reg Cav Vols
Moore, Robert C. I 10th Reg Inf Vols
Moore, Rufus C 8th Reg Inf Vols
Moore, Thomas C. G 4th Reg Inf Vols
Moore, William F 10th Reg Inf Vols
Moore, William Sgt. A 5th Reg Inf Vols
Moore, William K 4th Reg Inf Vols
Moore, William H. F 6th Reg Cav Vols
Moore, William H. C 10th Reg Inf Vols
Moose, George W. B 7th Reg Inf Vols (medal shows Moore)
Moplington, John G. 45th US
Moral, Philip I 7th Reg Inf Vols
Morehart, John A. 1st Lt. 8th Reg Inf Vols
Moreland, E. N. J. M 2nd Reg Cav Vols
Morgan, Thomas W. Sgt. C 1st Reg Inf Vols
Morgan, William Capt. 1st Reg Inf Vols
Morley, Alamander K 5th Reg Inf Vols
Morris, Alfred H 5th Reg Inf Vols
Morris, Charles L. B 2nd Reg Cav Vols
Morris, Dewitt Cpl. B Ind Exempt Inf Vols
Morris, Jos. B 1st Reg Inf Vols
Morris, Levi C 7th Reg Inf Vols
Morris, Richard H 5th Reg Inf Vols
Morrison, Daniel E 1st Reg Inf Vols
Morrison, F. A. M. C 1st Reg Cav Vols
Morrison, Patrick B 1st Reg Cav Vols
Morrison, William F. I 2nd Reg Vet Inf Vols
Morse, Harrison F 5th Reg Inf Vols
Morse, Wilkinson M. G 6th Reg Cav Vols
Mosslander, Joseph E. D 7th Reg Inf Vols
Mouls, Henry G 7th Reg Cav Vols
Mozier, Anthony H 1st Reg Lt Art Vols
Mullen, Ebenezer B. E 1st Reg Cav Vols
Mullen, John W. K 2nd Reg Cav Vols
Mullenax, Robert D 6th Reg Inf Vols
Muller, Thomas J. D 17th Reg Inf Vols
Mulligan, John R. K 3rd Reg Cav Vols
Mundle, Frederick T. B 17th Reg Inf Vols
Murdock, William D 1st Reg Inf Vols
Murphy, Daniel D. I 11th Reg Inf Vols
Murphy, George K 3rd Reg Cav Vols
Murphy, George W. K 1st Reg Cav Vols
Murphy, Jeremiah D 7th Reg Cav Vols
Murphy, John K 4th Reg Inf Vols
Murphy, John F 2nd Reg Cav Vols
Murphy, Thomas I 2nd Reg Vet Inf Vols
Murphy, William H. 2nd Lt. 1st Reg Cav Vols
Murray, Martin H 6th Reg Cav Vols
Murray, Rufus P. Musician 4th Reg Inf Vols
Murray, William A 2nd Reg Cav Vols
Murriner, John E 1st Reg Inf Vols
Murriner, William H 2nd Reg Vet Inf Vols
Murry, David K 4th Reg Inf Vols
Musta, Henry G 1st Reg Inf Vols
Myers, Benton H 4th Reg Cav Vols
Myers, Finley T. F 1st Reg Inf Vols
Myers, Henry H 1st Reg Cav Vols
Myers, Jacob A 7th Reg Inf Vols
Myers, Jacob A. Sgt. K 2nd Reg Cav Vols
Myers, James H 9th Reg Inf Vols
Myers, Joseph C 7th Reg Inf Vols

Nance, Aaron G 1st Reg Vet Inf Vols
Nance, George H 9th Reg Inf Vols
Naylor, Adam B 11th Reg Inf Vols
Neal, Andrew D. I 7th Reg Cav Vols
Neal, John B. O. E 7th Reg Inf Vols
Neal, Thomas S. Surgeon 2nd Reg Cav Vols
Nease, Elijah D. H 2nd Reg Vet Inf Vols
Nee, Thomas O 6th Reg Inf Vols
Needham, Alfred I 4th Reg Inf Vols
Neice, James F 5th Reg Inf Vols
Nelson, Ephraim K 11th Reg Inf Vols
Nelson, Hiram K 2nd Reg Inf Vols
Nelson, Lafayette A 3rd Reg Cav Vols
Nelson, Milton F 5th Reg Inf Vols
Nelson, William L. E 7th Reg Inf Vols
Neumann, Frederick 1st Lt. 8th Reg Inf Vols
Neville, William T. B 13th Reg Inf Vols
Newcomb, John B 15th Reg Inf Vols
Newland, George 45th US
Newlitt, George D 2nd Reg Inf Vols
Newman, Edward E 2nd Reg Cav Vols
Newman, Henry C. K 4th Reg Inf Vols
Newman, James D 1st Reg Cav Vols
Newman, Samuel G. F 6th Reg Cav Vols
Nicholas, George A 10th Reg Inf Vols
Nichols, George 45th US
Nichols, William T. G 4th Reg Inf Vols
Nicholson, Francis A 6th Reg Cav Vols
Nickel, Harrison L. Sgt. C 2nd Reg Cav Vols
Niece, Alexander F 5th Reg Inf Vols
Nixon, William M 7th Reg Cav Vols
Nixon, William E 2nd Reg Cav Vols
Nixon, William H 6th Reg Inf Vols
Noble, James L 2nd Reg Cav Vols
Nolan, Charles P. K 17th Reg Inf Vols
Nolen, James W. 1st Lt. 8th Reg Inf Vols
Nolen, John R. M 4th Reg Cav Vols
Nolte, Henry D 2nd Reg Inf Vols
Noon, Thomas G 1st Reg Inf Vols
Norfolk, William A 15th Reg Inf Vols
Nose, Samuel C 10th Reg Inf Vols
Nunnemaker, John Cpl. D 2nd Reg Cav Vols
Nuzum, Charles A. K 17th Reg Inf Vols
Nye, Otis J. B 5th Reg Cav Vols

O'Brien, John H 1st Reg Lt Art Vols
O'Bryan, John K 1st Reg Vet Inf Vols
O'Callahan, Thomas B 3rd Reg Cav Vol
O'Connel, Michael D 1st Reg Inf Vols
O'Donnell, Dominic D 2nd Reg Cav Vols
O'Donnell, Edward O 6th Reg Inf Vols
O'Donnell, James D 1st Reg Inf Vols
O'Haro, John A 3rd Reg Cav Vols
O'Neal, Hugh K 4th Reg Inf Vols
O'Neal, John D 1st Reg Inf Vols
Oaks, John K 2nd Reg Inf Vols
Ogle, Samuel H. H 1st Reg Lt Art Vols
Oldfield, George H 2nd Reg Vet Inf Vols
Oliver, James B. M 7th Reg Cav Vols
Oliver, Jos. Sgt. I 1st Reg Inf Vols
Oliver, Joseph D 1st Reg Inf Vols
Oliver, Zepeniah E 5th Reg Inf Vols
Ollem, Robert W. E 4th Reg Cav Vols
Ollryche, Silas G. D 4th Reg Cav Vols
Otis, Thomas H 7th Reg Inf Vols
Ott, William H 2nd Reg Vet Inf Vols
Otte, William H 6th Reg Inf Vols
Otterson, John F 5th Reg Cav Vols
Otto, William Capt. 2nd Reg Inf Vols
Owens, James W. C 10th Reg Inf Vols

Padden, Henry Farrier A 3rd Reg Cav Vols
Page, Stephen 45th US
Palmer, Arthur S. A 3rd Reg Cav Vols
Panner, Philip F 5th Reg Cav Vols
Papp, John Saddler F 2nd Reg Cav Vols
Parcell, Theo. D 4th Reg Cav Vols
Pariott, Robert A. G 17th Reg Inf Vols
Parish, Anderson 45th US
Parish, James 45th US
Parish, Reuben 45th US
Park, John P 6th Reg Inf Vols
Parker, James I 5th Reg Inf Vols
Parker, John F. B 2nd Reg Cav Vols
Parker, Oliver B 7th Reg Inf Vols
Parks, George Cpl. H 1st Reg Lt Art Vols
Parmer, George B. E 2nd Reg Cav Vols
Parsons, Eleazer Cpl. F 9th Reg Inf Vols
Parsons, John G 8th Reg Inf Vols
Parsons, Philander C 9th Reg Inf Vols
Partlow, Morgan D 2nd Reg Cav Vols
Pascol, Thomas Sgt. H 2nd Reg Vet Inf Vols
Pasters, Robert A 4th Reg Cav Vols
Pastores, James D. Cpl. A 3rd Reg Cav Vols
Pastors, Robert E 1st Reg Cav Vols
Patlow, David McG. L 7th Reg Cav Vols
Patterson, Amaziah B. E 7th Reg Inf Vols
Patterson, Carey E. B 4th Reg Inf Vols
Patterson, James H. G 1st Reg Cav Vols
Patterson, John A 4th Reg Cav Vols
Patterson, Nathaniel I 2nd Reg Vet Inf Vols
Patterson, Samuel Wagoner K 2nd Reg Cav Vols
Patton, Henry W. E 2nd Reg Cav Vols
Patton, James P 6th Reg Inf Vols
Patton, Milton M. Cpl. N 6th Reg Inf Vols
Patton, Washington B 2nd Reg Cav Vols
Paugh, Alexander A. G 6th Reg Cav Vols
Paugh, John C. L 1st Reg Cav Vols
Paxton, Francis M. I 1st Reg Cav Vols
Paxton, Samuel 45th US
Payne, William A. C 7th Reg Inf Vols
Peacemaker, Ml. I 5th Reg Inf Vols
Pearson, James L. G 7th Reg Cav Vols
Peck, Isaac D 1st Reg Inf Vols
Peden, Hezekiah I 1st Reg Inf Vols
Peirson, James C. 1st Lt.12th Reg Inf Vols
Pemberton, Lewis D 5th Reg Inf Vols
Pemberton, Solomon H 5th Reg Inf Vols
Pence, David D 9th Reg Inf Vols
Pendelton, John 45th US
Peppers, James G 7th Reg Cav Vols
Peppers, James M. D 10th Reg Inf Vols
Perkins, James B. D 5th Reg Inf Vols
Perry, Armstrong H. Cpl. F 2nd Reg Cav Vols
Perry, James R. I 7th Reg Cav Vols
Persinger, John L. G 10th Reg Inf Vols
Petchell, Clemens A 1st Reg Lt Art Vols
Peterman, Ralph I 9th Reg Inf Vols
Peters, Benjamin F. K 6th Reg Inf Vols
Peters, John I 2nd Reg Inf Vols
Petry, Christian 2nd Lt. 2nd Reg Inf Vols
Petticord, Dawson I 2nd Reg Vet Inf Vols
Pettinger, James Cpl. L 1st Reg Cav Vols
Pettit, Jeremiah H 1st Reg Inf Vols
Pettitt, Jerry L 1st Reg Cav Vols
Pew, Alpheus E 17th Reg Inf Vols
Peyton, John H. I 2nd Reg Vet Inf Vols
Peyton, Lewis I 1st Reg Cav Vols
Peyton, William M. G 7th Reg Cav Vols
Pfieffer, Henry I 2nd Reg Vet Inf Vols
Pfisterer, Ernest Sgt. A 1st Reg Lt Art Vols
Phelps, Hugh D 4th Reg Cav Vols
Phelps, Matthew F 4th Reg Inf Vols
Philben, M. C 1st Reg Cav Vols
Philips, Thomas E 14th Reg Inf Vols
Phillips, Charles S. D 4th Reg Cav Vols
Phillips, Lewis A 1st Reg Inf Vols
Phillips, Louis D 1st Reg Cav Vols
Phillips, Marshall Cpl. I 6th Reg Inf Vols
Phillips, Randolph D 17th Reg Inf Vols
Phillips, Randolph D 6th Reg Cav Vols
Phillips, Samuel Cpl. A 8th Reg Inf Vols
Phillips, Stephen K 8th Reg Inf Vols
Phillips, Thomas F 7th Reg Inf Vols
Phillips, Thomas B. L 2nd Reg Cav Vols
Phillips, Thomas S. C 7th Reg Inf Vols
Pickenpaugh, Jacob H 6th Reg Inf Vols
Pickett, Charles W. Sgt. B 2nd Reg Inf Vols
Pifer, George B 2nd Reg Cav Vols
Pigman, Martin C 2nd Reg Vet Inf Vols
Pilcher, George A 3rd Reg Cav Vols
Pine, George W. Cpl. D 9th Reg Inf Vols
Pinnell, James C 6th Reg Inf Vols
Piper, Peter D 1st Reg Inf Vols
Pipes, John H. Hosp. Steward 4th Reg Cav Vols
Pitts, Simon I 6th Reg Inf Vols
Pixley, George W. C 1st Reg Cav Vols
Playford, Robert W. 1st Lt. 1st Reg Cav Vols
Plummer, Jos. K 12th Reg Inf Vols
Plunkett, James B 15th Reg Inf Vols
Poe, Nathan H. B 6th Reg Inf Vols
Poehm, Charles K 4th Reg Inf Vols
Pointer, William K 7th Reg Cav Vols
Poland, John I 10th Reg Inf Vols
Pool, James J. D 7th Reg Inf Vols
Pool, Thomas E 6th Reg Inf Vols
Pool, William R. H 6th Reg Inf Vols
Poole, R. W. G. A 1st Reg Inf Vols
Porter, Bellamy S. G 1st Reg Inf Vols
Porter, George T. H 6th Reg Inf Vols
Porter, James D 1st Reg Inf Vols
Porter, John I 13th Reg Inf Vols
Porter, William L 4th Reg Cav Vols
Porter, William H. Saddler E 2nd Reg Cav Vols
Porterfield, Thomas D 1st Reg Cav Vols
Potter, Hinton B 15th Reg Inf Vols
Potter, Newton Sgt. H 3rd Reg Inf Vols
Powell, Bailey L 1st Reg Cav Vols
Powell, George W. 2nd Lt. 7th Reg Inf Vols
Powell, Henry C. H 4th Reg Cav Vols
Powell, Henry C. E 5th Reg Inf Vols
Powell, Henry C. G 5th Reg Cav Vols
Powell, John M. K 1st Reg Vet Inf Vols
Powell, John R. D 6th Reg Inf Vols
Powell, Luther H. F 3rd Reg Inf Vols
Powell, Malon D 5th Reg Inf Vols
Powell, Thomas L 1st Reg Cav Vols
Powell, W. Angelo Capt. 1st Reg Cav Vols
Powell, William B. D 17th Reg Inf Vols
Powelson, Charles T. I 10th Reg Inf Vols
Powers, Edw. D. I 1st Reg Inf Vols
Powers, Isaac L. B 7th Reg Inf Vols
Powers, John F. G 10th Reg Inf Vols
Powers, Joseph T. F. C 9th Reg Inf Vols
Powers, Woodson Capt. 5th Reg Inf Vols
Pratt, Charles D 4th Reg Cav Vols
Pratt, Ezra G 4th Reg Inf Vols
Pratt, Henry A 10th Reg Inf Vols
Pratt, John D. C 10th Reg Inf Vols
Pratt, William C. D 5th Reg Inf Vols
Presley, William I 2nd Reg Cav Vols
Preston, Morgan K 1st Reg Vet Inf Vols
Price, Anthony 45th US
Price, Archibald G 5th Reg Inf Vols
Price, B. F. A 2nd Reg Cav Vols
Priester, Solomon 1st Lt. 7th Reg Cav Vols
Prim, Benjamin H 2nd Reg Cav Vols
Primbur, George Cpl. D 1st Reg Inf Vols
Prince, Henry J. H 10th Reg Inf Vols
Prince, John W. Blacksmith K 2nd Reg Cav Vols
Profhater, James D 1st Reg Inf Vols
Prophater, Jackson I 1st Reg Inf Vols
Prothers, Reese K 6th Reg Inf Vols
Provance, Joseph Sgt. L 2nd Reg Cav Vols
Pry, James D. F 1st Reg Cav Vols
Puffinberger, Christain E 17th Reg Inf Vols
Pugh, John B 2nd Reg Cav Vols
Pugh, William T. E 9th Reg Inf Vols
Pullins, Wesley "Honorably Discharged" H 10th Reg Inf Vols
Pullins, Wesley "Killed in Battle" H 10th Reg Inf Vols
Pumphrey, William D 10th Reg Inf Vols
Purcell, Harvey H 10th Reg Inf Vols

Quest, James D 2nd Reg Inf Vols
Quimby, George A. M 2nd Reg Cav Vols
Quinn, John F 5th Reg Cav Vols
Quinn, Thomas K 2nd Reg Cav Vols

Raber, Enos M. G 7th Reg Inf Vols
Radell, Jacob C 1st Reg Inf Vols
Raffle, Ralf, Sr. I 1st Reg Inf Vols
Raffle, Ralph 2nd Lt. 2nd Reg Vet Inf Vols
Rahrla, Adam D 6th Reg Inf Vols
Rakin, Adia H 7th Reg Inf Vols
Ralston, Jeremiah K 10th Reg Inf Vols
Ramer, Benjamin A 7th Reg Inf Vols
Ramsbottom, Simeon D 10th Reg Inf Vols
Ramsey, George O 6th Reg Inf Vols
Ramsey, George W. A 13th Reg Inf Vols
Ramsey, James D 1st Reg Inf Vols
Ramsey, Milton R. Wagoner B 7th Reg Inf Vols
Rand, Jasper B 11th Reg Inf Vols
Rankin, Hezikiah Cpl. C 7th Reg Inf Vols
Rankin, John K 4th Reg Inf Vols
Ranste, Morton 45th US
Ratcliff, William G 10th Reg Inf Vols
Rater, Robert A 7th Reg Inf Vols
Ratliff, James G 13th Reg Inf Vols
Ratliff, John E. C 6th Reg Inf Vols
Rauss, August Cpl. G 5th Reg Inf Vols
Ray, Alexander L 4th Reg Cav Vols
Ray, James Comm. Sgt. 12th Reg Inf Vols
Ray, John D. H 1st Reg Lt Art Vols
Ray, Samuel F 2nd Reg Cav Vols
Rayburn, Henry H. E 9th Reg Inf Vols
Rayl, James H 17th Reg Inf Vols
Rea, Hirman H. A 4th Reg Cav Vols
Reader, John K 6th Reg Cav Vols
Readman, David H 1st Reg Cav Vols
Ready, Eli H 10th Reg Inf Vols
Ready, John Cpl. D 7th Reg Inf Vols
Ready, John H. D 1st Reg Cav Vols
Reagan, Henry R. F 14th Reg Inf Vols
Reamer, Jacob F. A 7th Reg Inf Vols
Redmond, Arthur B 4th Reg Inf Vols
Reece, Henry G 7th Reg Cav Vols
Reed, Columbus F 4th Reg Inf Vols
Reed, Jacob H 1st Reg Lt Art Vols
Reed, John H. D 1st Reg Cav Vols
Reed, John P. C 15th Reg Inf Vols
Reed, Richard 45th US
Reed, Samuel K 2nd Reg Cav Vols
Reed, Thomas A. H 17th Reg Inf Vols
Reeves, William H. Sgt. I 4th Reg Inf Vols
Reid, William O. G 1st Reg Cav Vols
Remy, William D 2nd Reg Cav Vols
Reniff, John A. K 1st Reg Cav Vols
Renshaw, George H. A 15th Reg Inf Vols
Revels, George 45th US
Rexroad, Isaiah H. QM Sgt. 6th Reg Inf Vols
Reynolds, Charles W. Sgt. M 4th Reg Cav Vols
Reynolds, G. D. K 1st Reg Inf Vols
Reynolds, Harvey 2nd Lt. 7th Reg Cav Vols
Reynolds, Henry A. D 11th Reg Inf Vols
Reynolds, John F 10th Reg Inf Vols
Rhoader, Jacob I 1st Reg Inf Vols
Rhoades, William J. H 7th Reg Cav Vols
Rhoads, Benjamin K 13th Reg Inf Vols
Rhoads, Peter M. B 13th Reg Inf Vols
Rhodes, Joseph W. C 8th Reg Inf Vols
Rice, Charles K 1st Reg Vet Inf Vols
Rice, Monterville I 5th Reg Inf Vols
Richards, Alfred O 6th Reg Inf Vols
Richards, Ernest O 6th Reg Inf Vols
Richards, Samuel A 14th Reg Inf Vols
Richardson, Alex M. F 1st Reg Cav Vols
Richardson, Morgan A 2nd Reg Cav Vols
Richardson, Ralph F 4th Reg Inf Vols
Richardson, Robert D 1st Reg Inf Vols
Richardson, Thomas I 5th Reg Inf Vols
Richbaugh, John H. H 2nd Reg Cav Vols
Rickard, William H 6th Reg Inf Vols
Riddle, Ransler E 5th Reg Inf Vols
Rider, Granville D 14th Reg Inf Vols
Riffle, Benjamin F. D 6th Reg Inf Vols
Riffle, Granville C 2nd Reg Vet Inf Vols
Riffle, John W. G 13th Reg Inf Vols
Riffle, Joseph A. I 4th Reg Inf Vols
Rigger, George W. C 4th Reg Cav Vols
Riley, Elias F. C 7th Reg Inf Vols
Riley, James I 1st Reg Cav Vols
Riley, James H. K 4th Reg Inf Vols
Riley, Martin B 1st Reg Cav Vols
Riley, Robert A 7th Reg Inf Vols
Riser, Charles G 6th Reg Cav Vols
Riser, Charles L 4th Reg Cav Vols
Ritchards, John 45th US
Ritters, Carl H. D 1st Reg Lt Art Vols
Roach, Jesse C. D 6th Reg Inf Vols
Roach, Martin G. H 6th Reg Inf Vols
Roane, Gibson G. B 3rd Reg Inf Vols
Robbins, Charles P. H 15th Reg Inf Vols
Robbins, Joseph M. E 1st Reg Inf Vols
Roberts, Daniel J. H. N 6th Reg Inf Vols
Roberts, David E 6th Reg Inf Vols
Roberts, Enoch D 7th Reg Inf Vols
Roberts, George K 10th Reg Inf Vols
Roberts, Richard G 7th Reg Cav Vols
Roberts, Thomas Musician E 1st Reg Inf Vols
Robinson, Jack 45th US
Robinson, James C. A 7th Reg Inf Vols
Robinson, James T. N 6th Reg Inf Vols
Robinson, James W. E 6th Reg Inf Vols
Robinson, John B. E 1st Reg Cav Vols
Robinson, Joseph K 2nd Reg Cav Vols
Robinson, Thomas G 1st Reg Cav Vols
Robinson, Thomas C 17th Reg Inf Vols
Robinson, Washington D 1st Reg Inf Vols
Robinson, Washington P. B 1st Reg Inf Vols
Robisn.(Robinson)?, John V. D 1st Reg Inf Vols
Roby, William E 7th Reg Inf Vols
Rochenbaugh, C. H. F 1st Reg Lt Art Vols
Rockenbaugh, James J. B 11th Reg Inf Vols
Rodeheaver, John A. O 6th Reg Inf Vols
Rodgers, Benjamin A. 1st Lt. 5th Reg Inf Vols
Rogers, Elisha L. 45th US
Rogers, John W. E 6th Reg Cav Vols
Rogers, Martin V. D 1st Reg Lt Art Vols
Rogers, Milo 45th US
Rogers, Robert M. A 3rd Reg Cav Vols
Rogers, Samuel F 9th Reg Inf Vols
Rogers, William J. Sgt. E 7th Reg Inf Vols
Rollins, Joseph E 2nd Reg Cav Vols
Rollston, Charles A. F 1st Reg Inf Vols
Romine, Stephen M. Blacksmith K 2nd Reg Cav Vols
Rommey, George W. I 4th Reg Inf Vols
Roney, John F 10th Reg Inf Vols
Root, Benjamin B Ind Exempt Inf Vols
Rose, George D 8th Reg Inf Vols
Rose, Hamilton L 1st Reg Cav Vols
Rose, Israel D 5th Reg Inf Vols
Rose, James H. A 5th Reg Inf Vols
Rose, Ludum G 6th Reg Cav Vols
Rose, Thomas 45th US
Ross, Thomas L 6th Reg Inf Vols
Ross, William C 17th Reg Inf Vols
Ross, William J. C 17th Reg Inf Vols
Roush, John E 4th Reg Inf Vols
Roush, William A 2nd Reg Cav Vols
Rovo, Samuel E 1st Reg Cav Vols
Rowe, Frederick G 1st Reg Lt Art Vols
Roy, William S. K 11th Reg Inf Vols
Ruby, Sylvanus H 10th Reg Inf Vols
Ruediger, John L. P 6th Reg Inf Vols
Rugg, John T. Sgt. C 9th Reg Inf Vols
Ruggles, Dwight Asst. Surgeon 12th Reg Inf Vols
Runer, Henderson J. K 11th Reg Inf Vols
Runnion, Jacob M 1st Reg Cav Vols
Runnion, James D 1st Reg Cav Vols
Runyan, George G 5th Reg Inf Vols
Runyan, James G 1st Reg Inf Vols
Rush, James F 4th Reg Cav Vols
Rush, Thomas V. Cpl. L 2nd Reg Cav Vols
Rush, William K 2nd Reg Cav Vols
Rusk, Asa C. 1st Sgt. E 2nd Reg Cav Vols
Russell, Benjamin F. I 7th Reg Cav Vols
Russell, Charles B. A 2nd Reg Cav Vols
Russell, Henry Sgt. G 1st Reg Inf Vols
Russell, Thomas I 15th Reg Inf Vols
Russell, William G 1st Reg Inf Vols
Russler, Christopher C 14th Reg Inf Vols
Rutter, George D 7th Reg Inf Vols
Ryan, Asa A Ind Exempt Inf Vols
Ryan, Jefferson A 1st Reg Cav Vols
Ryan, Richard D 2nd Reg Inf Vols
Ryne, John G 1st Reg Inf Vols
Ryner, Henry G. H 1st Reg Lt Art Vols


Saddler, Lewis I 2nd Reg Cav Vols
Safford, Corban C 4th Reg Cav Vols
Safford, George A. D 6th Reg Cav Vols
Salyards, Daniel H. I 2nd Reg Vet Inf Vols
Salzman, John A 1st Reg Lt Art Vols
Sanders, Daniel W. A 2nd Reg Cav Vols
Sanders, Elisha Sgt. E 2nd Reg Cav Vols
Sanders, Emerson Sgt. A 2nd Reg Cav Vols
Sanders, Ezra 1st Sgt. A 2nd Reg Cav Vols
Sanders, James C. F 1st Reg Inf Vols
Sanders, John B 7th Reg Inf Vols
Sanders, John A. M 7th Reg Cav Vols
Sanders, Oscar W. B 2nd Reg Cav Vols
Sands, Charles D 2nd Reg Inf Vols
Sands, William G 4th Reg Inf Vols
Sandy, Vincent 45th US
Sangston, Moses H. L 2nd Reg Cav Vols
Sarger, William H. P 6th Reg Inf Vols
Sarver, George A 7th Reg Inf Vols
Savage, James F 4th Reg Inf Vols
Savage, William F 4th Reg Inf Vols
Sawers, John T. A 6th Reg Inf Vols
Sayre, Richard W. Comm. Sgt. 2nd Reg Cav Vols
Scarbrough, Noah H 7th Reg Cav Vols
Sceill, Martin O 6th Reg Inf Vols
Schaerffe, Robert P 6th Reg Inf Vols
Schalch, Martin A 1st Reg Lt Art Vols
Schammahorn, David C 17th Reg Inf Vols
Schegskhie, Goodhelp E 1st Reg Cav Vols
Schilling, M. A 1st Reg Lt Art Vols
Schilling, William 1st Lt. 5th Reg Inf Vols
Schlozer, Henry D 13th Reg Inf Vols
Schmidt, Bernhardt A 1st Reg Lt Art Vols
Schmitz, Charles A 5th Reg Cav Vols
Schmoltz, Levi E 1st Reg Cav Vols
Schneider, C. A 1st Reg Lt Art Vols
Schockey, Francis G 7th Reg Inf Vols
Schofield, Jos. A 1st Reg Inf Vols
Scholand, Peter M 1st Reg Cav Vols
Schondt, Jacob A 6th Reg Inf Vols
Schroder, Agustus M 1st Reg Cav Vols
Schumann, Henry A 1st Reg Lt Art Vols
Schwedns, Christian Sgt. C 2nd Reg Inf Vols
Schwindig, F. C 5th Reg Cav Vols
Scott, Aaron 45th US
Scott, James A 3rd Reg Inf Vols
Scott, Thomas K 2nd Reg Cav Vols
Scott, William P. Cpl. G 7th Reg Inf Vols
Scott, Willis W. B 6th Reg Cav Vols
Scott, Zachariah Sgt. D 7th Reg Cav Vols
Scritchfield, William W. C 4th Reg Cav Vols
Scritchfield, William W. N 6th Reg Inf Vols
Sealock, John F. D 4th Reg Cav Vols
Sears, Stephen S. K 12th Reg Inf Vols
Sebastipol, Leman 45th US
Seeley, Joseph D 1st Reg Inf Vols
Seeley, William D 1st Reg Inf Vols
Seery, Andrew F 1st Reg Cav Vols
Seir, Israel C 6th Reg Cav Vols
Sellers, James W. I 2nd Reg Cav Vols
Sevarin, John H 6th Reg Inf Vols
Severance, Henry A 4th Reg Inf Vols
Severs, William J. H 3rd Reg Cav Vols
Sevier, David G 12th Reg Inf Vols
Seyock, S. H. V. G 6th Reg Inf Vols
Shafer, David H. E 6th Reg Cav Vols
Shafer, Frederick K 6th Reg Cav Vols
Shafer, John L 2nd Reg Cav Vols
Shafer, John E 2nd Reg Cav Vols
Shafer, Ml. B 6th Reg Inf Vols
Shaffer, Charles L 1st Reg Cav Vols
Shaffer, Henry F 3rd Reg Cav Vols
Shahn, Joseph N. N 6th Reg Inf Vols
Shannon, Edward 45th US
Sharks, Solomon G 15th Reg Inf Vols
Sharp, Alfred K 3rd Reg Cav Vols
Sharp, Arnold C. I 4th Reg Inf Vols
Sharp, Jacob B 6th Reg Inf Vols
Sharp, William G 4th Reg Cav Vols
Sharp, William K 3rd Reg Cav Vols
Sharp, William B 3rd Reg Cav Vols
Shaw, David G 1st Reg Cav Vols
Shay, Peter M 1st Reg Cav Vols
Shear, John O. O 6th Reg Inf Vols
Shearer, Samuel J. 2nd Lt. 1st Reg Lt Art Vols
Sheets, Benjamin F. E 1st Reg Cav Vols
Shelding, Hyelmer I 6th Reg Inf Vols
Shennan, Adam D 4th Reg Cav Vols
Shepherd, Hezekiah D 7th Reg Inf Vols
Sheppard, John B. I 9th Reg Inf Vols
Sheppard, Lewis G 7th Reg Inf Vols
Sherman, Harry F. Sgt. Major 13th Reg Inf Vols
Sherman, Leroy Cpl. H 3rd Reg Cav Vols
Sherrer, Washington G 6th Reg Inf Vols
Shields, John W. G 3rd Reg Inf Vols
Shillin, Alexander E 1st Reg Inf Vols
Shilling, David L 6th Reg Inf Vols
Shipman, George H 1st Reg Cav Vols
Shisler, Stephen N 6th Reg Inf Vols
Shively, Henry S. A 4th Reg Cav Vols
Shoemaker, Charles F 3rd Reg Cav Vols
Shopp, William W. D 17th Reg Inf Vols
Short, Leander F 5th Reg Cav Vols
Shortridge, John K 5th Reg Inf Vols
Shoulder, Jacob L. B 15th Reg Inf Vols
Shown, Samuel I 13th Reg Inf Vols
Shriner, Andrew G 6th Reg Inf Vols
Shriver, William 1st Sgt. L 1st Reg Cav Vols
Shront, James V. O 6th Reg Inf Vols
Shry, Jacob D 2nd Reg Cav Vols
Shuler, William D 1st Reg Inf Vols
Shumate, Benjamin F. H 9th Reg Inf Vols
Sibole, Robert S. A 10th Reg Inf Vols
Siggans, Isaac N. H 4th Reg Cav Vols
Sills, Nathan K 7th Reg Inf Vols
Silver, William H. Sgt. Major 5th Reg Cav Vols
Simmons, Henry 45th US
Simmons, John J. F 7th Reg Cav Vols
Simmons, L. D. E 5th Reg Inf Vols
Simms, John S. 45th US
Simms, William H. Cpl. A 2nd Reg Cav Vols
Simpkins, Daniel B 1st Reg Inf Vols
Simpkins, William H. A 3rd Reg Cav Vols
Simpson, Charles W. H 9th Reg Inf Vols
Simpson, Frederick M. I 2nd Reg Vet Inf Vols
Simpson, John H. Cpl. C 1st Reg Inf Vols
Simpson, Roberts J. I 1st Reg Inf Vols
Sims, Alfred D 4th Reg Cav Vols
Sims, Robert D. K 12th Reg Inf Vols
Singer, John O 7th Reg Inf Vols
Sisley, Lewis A. I 14th Reg Inf Vols
Sisson, William H. H. 1st Lt. 4th Reg Inf Vols
Siuer, John 45th US
Sivert, John G 2nd Reg Vet Inf Vols
Skelton, John C. B 2nd Reg Cav Vols
Skillington, Thomas U. D 4th Reg Cav Vols
Skinnard, Edward D 4th Reg Cav Vols
Skinner, Adolphus C 1st Reg Cav Vols
Slack, John W. B 5th Reg Inf Vols
Slack, Samuel F 13th Reg Inf Vols
Slater, Albert C. K 6th Reg Cav Vols
Slater, William H 17th Reg Inf Vols
Slaughter, Henry 45th US
Slaven, Daniel H 1st Reg Lt Art Vols
Slavens, Harvey E 5th Reg Inf Vols
Slaver, Daniel F 5th Reg Cav Vols
Slayer, Jacob A 5th Reg Cav Vols
Sloan, Granville G 2nd Reg Cav Vols
Sluder, David I 2nd Reg Cav Vols
Smallfoot, Edward D 1st Reg Cav Vols
Smarr, Matthew M. L 1st Reg Cav Vols
Smith, Alfred C. Jr. A 1st Reg Cav Vols
Smith, Andrew J. Cpl. L 2nd Reg Cav Vols
Smith, Armstead B. B 1st Reg Cav Vols
Smith, Arthur B. F 7th Reg Inf Vols
Smith, Charles A. Capt. 7th Reg Cav Vols
Smith, Charles A. B Ind Exempt Inf Vols
Smith, Edward E 6th Reg Inf Vols
Smith, Elias M. Sgt. H 1st Reg Cav Vols
Smith, Elisha H 2nd Reg Cav Vols
Smith, Ephraim K 5th Reg Inf Vols
Smith, Frederick D 4th Reg Cav Vols
Smith, Gabriel P 6th Reg Inf Vols
Smith, George B 11th Reg Inf Vols
Smith, George I 2nd Reg Vet Inf Vols
Smith, George W. K. 1st Lt. 1st Reg Lt Art Vols
Smith, Harrison Sgt. A 5th Reg Cav Vols
Smith, Henry H 1st Reg Lt Art Vols
Smith, Henry A. B 4th Reg Cav Vols
Smith, Henry S. D 9th Reg Inf Vols
Smith, Hugh F 5th Reg Cav Vols
Smith, Irwin M. K 2nd Reg Inf Vols
Smith, Isaac 1st Sgt. D 7th Reg Inf Vols
Smith, Isaiah F 4th Reg Cav Vols
Smith, Jacob H 1st Reg Cav Vols
Smith, Jacob F 2nd Reg Cav Vols
Smith, James C 17th Reg Inf Vols
Smith, James H 1st Reg Cav Vols
Smith, James G 1st Reg Inf Vols
Smith, James Blacksmith L 7th Reg Cav Vols
Smith, James H. B 1st Reg Cav Vols
Smith, James W. 45th US
Smith, John F 5th Reg Inf Vols
Smith, John H. D 13th Reg Inf Vols
Smith, John J. F 11th Reg Inf Vols
Smith, John J. C 7th Reg Inf Vols
Smith, John W. G 7th Reg Cav Vols
Smith, Jos. O. B 11th Reg Inf Vols
Smith, Milton C 1st Reg Cav Vols
Smith, Oscar D. H 1st Reg Lt Art Vols
Smith, Otis B. E 9th Reg Inf Vols
Smith, Peter G 5th Reg Inf Vols
Smith, Reuben 45th US
Smith, Samuel J. B Ind Exempt Inf Vols
Smith, Samuel P. C 7th Reg Inf Vols
Smith, Simeon B. E 5th Reg Cav Vols
Smith, Thomas J. G 6th Reg Cav Vols
Smith, William F 4th Reg Inf Vols
Smith, William C 2nd Reg Cav Vols
Smith, William D 17th Reg Inf Vols
Smith, William M 1st Reg Cav Vols
Smith, William D 7th Reg Inf Vols
Smith, William A. F 2nd Reg Cav Vols
Smith, William B. Sgt. E 7th Reg Inf Vols
Smith, William H. H. H 6th Reg Inf Vols
Smith, William O. L 1st Reg Cav Vols
Smith, Zach. T. E 7th Reg Cav Vols
Smolley, John C 5th Reg Inf Vols
Smyth, James D 7th Reg Inf Vols
Smythe, Douglass G. 2nd Lt. 2nd Reg Inf Vols
Smytthe, Thomas G. Sgt. D 2nd Reg Inf Vols
Snider, Edgar C. W. Cpl. A 3rd Reg Cav Vols
Snider, Isaac H 4th Reg Cav Vols
Snider, Perry J. C 6th Reg Inf Vols
Snider, Samuel I 6th Reg Inf Vols
Snodgrass, Benjamin F. K 4th Reg Cav Vols
Snyder, David H 15th Reg Inf Vols
Snyder, George L. I 4th Reg Inf Vols
Snyder, George W. 1st Lt. 2nd Reg Cav Vols
Snyder, John A. G 7th Reg Inf Vols
Sonenburg, Louis K 4th Reg Inf Vols
Soulsby, Matthew E 4th Reg Inf Vols
South, George S. Commissary 2nd Reg Cav Vols
South, Joseph G 15th Reg Inf Vols
Southerland, David G 5th Reg Inf Vols
Sowers, Richard B. Adjutant 1st Reg Cav Vols
Spacht, Frank B 5th Reg Inf Vols
Spain, Joseph H 1st Reg Cav Vols
Spangler, Daniel B 3rd Reg Inf Vols
Speaker, William B 1st Reg Cav Vols
Spears, James G 3rd Reg Cav Vols
Specer, William G. H 4th Reg Cav Vols
Speilker, Peter H. P 6th Reg Inf Vols
Spence, Ezra E 8th Reg Inf Vols
Spence, William K 2nd Reg Cav Vols
Spence, William H. K 1st Reg Vet Inf Vols
Spencer, Henry I 5th Reg Inf Vols
Spencer, Thomas G 1st Reg Inf Vols
Sponholtz, August E 2nd Reg Inf Vols
Sprague, Samuel S. A 2nd Reg Cav Vols
Spray, Francis Cpl. M 6th Reg Inf Vols
Springer, John B 4th Reg Cav Vols
Springer, William Saddler M 2nd Reg Cav Vols
Sprouse, Calvin G 6th Reg Inf Vols
Sprouse, William S. B 11th Reg Inf Vols
Staffon, Thomas G 5th Reg Inf Vols
Stafford, James P. A 15th Reg Inf Vols
Stahl, Jonathan Capt. 3rd Reg Cav Vols
Stanford, Bernard C 4th Reg Inf Vols
Stanford, Edward F 1st Reg Cav Vols
Stanford, Lewis V. Asst. Surgeon 7th Reg Cav Vols
Stanley, John D 7th Reg Inf Vols
Stanton, Fuller E 11th Reg Inf Vols
Star, Charles G 1st Reg Cav Vols
Stark, George 45th US
Stark, John Cpl. H 5th Reg Inf Vols
Starkey, Robert K. A 5th Reg Inf Vols
Start, Leander I 15th Reg Inf Vols
State, James K 2nd Reg Cav Vols
Statler, Harmon C 17th Reg Inf Vols
Statton, Marshall D 13th Reg Inf Vols
Staub, John H 1st Reg Cav Vols
Stave, Benjamin 45th US
Stearns, Robert A 1st Reg Cav Vols
Steed, George V. K 3rd Reg Cav Vols
Steed, John B. C 13th Reg Inf Vols
Steel, Frederick G. Cpl. A 3rd Reg Cav Vols
Steel, Perry E 11th Reg Inf Vols
Steel, Samuel I 13th Reg Inf Vols
Steele, Thomas G. Sgt. G 6th Reg Cav Vols
Steetler, Joseph N. B 6th Reg Cav Vols
Steiger, John C 1st Reg Inf Vols
Stell, Amos H 13th Reg Inf Vols
Stephens, Daniel H 11th Reg Inf Vols
Stephens, David E. C 4th Reg Cav Vols
Stephens, E. J. C 1st Reg Cav Vols
Stephenson, Joseph K 8th Reg Inf Vols
Stephenson, Thomas E 8th Reg Inf Vols
Sterling, Robert F 2nd Reg Inf Vols
Stetler, William C 1st Reg Inf Vols
Stevens, George 45th US
Stevens, Henry C. A 5th Reg Cav Vols
Stevens, James D 7th Reg Inf Vols
Stevens, Joseph R. E 2nd Reg Cav Vols
Stevens, Thomas F 2nd Reg Inf Vols
Stevens, Thomas M. H 14th Reg Inf Vols
Stevenson, Christopher D 7th Reg Inf Vols
Stevenson, John W. B 7th Reg Inf Vols
Stevenson, William T. Cpl. I 1st Reg Cav Vols
Steward, A. C 1st Reg Cav Vols
Steward, Gerard K 1st Reg Inf Vols
Steward, Hiram D 7th Reg Inf Vols
Steward, Jefferson A 11th Reg Inf Vols
Steward, Robert Cpl. B 1st Reg Lt Art Vols
Steward, Samuel I 10th Reg Inf Vols
Stewart, Alexander J. Cpl. A 7th Reg Inf Vols
Stewart, George 45th US
Stewart, Samuel B. I 12th Reg Inf Vols
Stewart, William E. Musician 4th Reg Inf Vols
Stiles, John Bugler G 4th Reg Cav Vols
Stillar, David F 1st Reg Cav Vols
Stillings, Thomas J. Sgt. A 6th Reg Cav Vols
Stilly, John D 2nd Reg Inf Vols
Stimson, Albin B. B 2nd Reg Cav Vols
Stoddard, Milton F 2nd Reg Cav Vols
Stoffer, Jonathan E. I 7th Reg Inf Vols
Stogden, John W. E 8th Reg Inf Vols
Stone, Cornelius N. C 7th Reg Inf Vols
Stone, Thomas E 7th Reg Cav Vols
Stoops, Jernice I 11th Reg Inf Vols
Stot, Thomas J. D 6th Reg Inf Vols
Stotler, William C 15th Reg Inf Vols
Stout, Robert K 4th Reg Cav Vols
Stoy, Frederick A. F 1st Reg Cav Vols
Strader, Thomas N. D 7th Reg Inf Vols
Strait, Urias M. Sgt. A 3rd Reg Cav Vols
Street, Jeremiah G 5th Reg Inf Vols
Strobel, Gottfried P 6th Reg Inf Vols
Strobridge, John U. A 3rd Reg Cav Vols
Strosneider, Fred A Ind Exempt Inf Vols
Strosnider, Ulrich N 6th Reg Inf Vols
Strosnyder, William A. Sgt. G 4th Reg Cav Vols
Strother, Erastus 45th US
Stroud, Henry L 1st Reg Cav Vols
Stroud, Joshua G 1st Reg Inf Vols
Strouse, Philip F 2nd Reg Cav Vols
Stuart, John A 7th Reg Inf Vols
Stullers, Thomas E 14th Reg Inf Vols
Stump, Adam G 17th Reg Inf Vols
Sturgel, James I 5th Reg Inf Vol
Sturgiss, Phineas P. Cpl. L 2nd Reg Cav Vols
Sturm, Joshua L. A 6th Reg Inf Vols
Sturrit, James W. G 7th Reg Inf Vols
Stutson, Butler L 7th Reg Cav Vols
Stypes, Samuel H 2nd Reg Cav Vols
Suddarth, Josiah H 10th Reg Inf Vols
Suel, Parker 45th US
Sullivan, Isaac G 7th Reg Inf Vols
Sullivan, Thomas E. Cpl. E 7th Reg Inf Vols
Summerfield, Isaac I 7th Reg Inf Vols
Summers, James L 1st Reg Cav Vols
Summers, James W. M 4th Reg Cav Vols
Summers, John R. L 2nd Reg Cav Vols
Summerville, J. W. E 1st Reg Cav Vols
Sutcliff, William V. A 4th Reg Cav Vols
Sutton, Benjamin K 7th Reg Inf Vols
Sutton, Harrison C 1st Reg Inf Vols
Sutton, John E 12th Reg Inf Vols
Sutton, Thomas P. N 6th Reg Inf Vols
Swartenalter, H. A. I 2nd Reg Cav Vols
Swearingen, James I 12th Reg Inf Vols
Swearingen, Thomas A. A 6th Reg Inf Vols
Swearingen, William W. I 12th Reg Inf Vols
Swearinger, Isaac D 7th Reg Inf Vols
Sweatland, Joel G. E 2nd Reg Cav Vols
Sweeney, Terrance B 1st Reg Inf Vols
Swesey, John K 6th Reg Inf Vols
Swin, Samuel H. C 15th Reg Inf Vols
Switzer, Daniel W. Sgt. G 4th Reg Inf Vols
Syfers, Abraham E 1st Reg Cav Vols
Synar, James K 6th Reg Inf Vols
Sypult, Andrew W. M 4th Reg Cav Vols

Taite, George W. L 2nd Reg Cav Vols
Talford, John K 4th Reg Inf Vols
Talman, Rudolph R. I 3rd Reg Cav Vols
Tannehill, Z. A. A 3rd Reg Cav Vols
Taylor, Benjamin M 1st Reg Cav Vols
Taylor, Charles B. I 4th Reg Inf Vols
Taylor, Richard A 7th Reg Inf Vols
Taylor, Samuel B. B 8th Reg Inf Vols
Taylor, Thomas H 6th Reg Cav Vols
Taylor, Timothy 45th US
Tenner, John 45th US
Terrill, David H 2nd Reg Vet Inf Vols
Terry, Vincent F. G 7th Reg Cav Vols
Terwileger, Joseph B 1st Reg Inf Vols
Thaxton, Henry 45th US
Thomas, Charles 45th US
Thomas, James W. Sgt. L 1st Reg Cav Vols
Thomas, Joel A. H 3rd Reg Inf Vols
Thomas, Joseph N. A 14th Reg Inf Vols
Thomas, Philip E 1st Reg Cav Vols
Thomas, Samuel 45th US
Thomisson, R. S. H 10th Reg Inf Vols
Thompson, Charles Cpl. E 1st Reg Inf Vols
Thompson, Dallas 45th US
Thompson, James D 9th Reg Inf Vols
Thornbury, Barney A 3rd Reg Cav Vols
Thorne, Henry C. I 14th Reg Inf Vols
Throckmorton, Brewer G 2nd Reg Cav Vols
Tignor, Thomas F 2nd Reg Cav Vols
Tiller, Abraham Sgt. G 6th Reg Cav Vols
Tilton, Thomas D 1st Reg Cav Vols
Tiplady, Edmund I 2nd Reg Cav Vols
Tolbert, Archibald H 13th Reg Inf Vols
Toles, Edwin J. E 7th Reg Inf Vols
Toner, Barney F 5th Reg Cav Vols
Towney, David J. H 2nd Reg Vet Inf Vols
Towns, John L. K 3rd Reg Cav Vols
Townsell, James K 1st Reg Vet Inf Vols
Townsend, William E. I 2nd Reg Cav Vols
Traman, Thomas K 2nd Reg Inf Vols
Travis, Orvil E 6th Reg Cav Vols
Trimble, Thomas D 7th Reg Inf Vols
Trisler, Charles Musician B 1st Reg Inf Vols
Trout, James H. E 2nd Reg Cav Vols
Truman, James M. B 12th Reg Inf Vols
Truman, Jehu G 6th Reg Inf Vols
Truman, Robert S. B 12th Reg Inf Vols
Trunkponeer, J. C 1st Reg Cav Vols
Truslow, James I 13th Reg Inf Vols
Tryon, Reuben F. D 17th Reg Inf Vols
Tucker, Francis M. I 10th Reg Inf Vols
Tucker, Girard R. E 5th Reg Inf Vols
Tucker, Grove A 14th Reg Inf Vols
Tucker, James M. M 7th Reg Cav Vols
Tucker, Ml. E 7th Reg Inf Vols
Tucker, William E. H 2nd Reg Cav Vols
Tuesh, John G 1st Reg Inf Vols
Turley, Charles H. Prin. Musician 5th Reg Inf Vols
Turner, David Sgt. H 1st Reg Cav Vols
Turner, David Saddler Sgt. 1st Reg Cav Vols
Turner, David Farrier D 4th Reg Cav Vols
Turner, John R. C 4th Reg Cav Vols
Turner, John W. G 4th Reg Inf Vols
Turner, Lemuel H. B 4th Reg Cav Vols
Turner, Milan K 2nd Reg Cav Vols
Turner, Peter E. B 7th Reg Inf Vols
Turner, Robert T. C 4th Reg Cav Vols
Turner, William J. D 1st Reg Cav Vols
Turney, John A 11th Reg Inf Vols
Tuttle, James K 14th Reg Inf Vols
Tuttle, Joel G 17th Reg Inf Vols
Tyler, Samuel 45th US

Ullom, Stephen A 11th Reg Inf Vols
Ullum, Stephen I 2nd Reg Vet Inf Vols
Underwood, T. A 10th Reg Inf Vols
Upperman, Theo. F. G 7th Reg Cav Vols
Utterback, John T. F 7th Reg Inf Vols

Valentine, Timothy K 6th Reg Cav Vols
Vanaman, John W. H 17th Reg Inf Vols
Vanatter, Anthony G 7th Reg Cav Vols
Vance, Chapman H 7th Reg Cav Vols
Vance, James S. I 1st Reg Inf Vols
Vanderbilt, John I 4th Reg Inf Vols
Vandergraft, George D 5th Reg Inf Vols
VanEvery, Martin Sgt. B 2nd Reg Cav Vols
Vanhern, William N 6th Reg Inf Vols
Vannatter, William D 5th Reg Inf Vols
Variani, Charles G. Saddler I 2nd Reg Cav Vols
Varner, James W. Blacksmith B 3rd Reg Cav Vols
Varran, Daniel I 2nd Reg Cav Vols
Vass, Frederick 45th US
Venus, William L 6th Reg Inf Vols
Vernatter, William B 8th Reg Inf Vols
Verner, Sylvester I 10th Reg Inf Vols
Vernon, John C 6th Reg Inf Vols
Verry, William C 1st Reg Cav Vols
Veth, John C. B 7th Reg Inf Vols
Vincent, Charles D 4th Reg Cav Vols
Vining, James L. A 9th Reg Inf Vols
Vinson, James 45th US
Vogt, Augustus I 1st Reg Inf Vols

Wade, Benjamin 45th US
Wade, James M. K 10th Reg Inf Vols
Wade, John 45th US
Wades, Wesley 45th US
Wakely, Samuel G 13th Reg Inf Vols
Walch, Anthony A 1st Reg Inf Vols
Walcott, Henry H. 1st Lt. 5th Reg Inf Vols
Waldo, Newton G. H 4th Reg Cav Vols
Waldron, Henry I 7th Reg Inf Vols
Waldron, Thomas B 5th Reg Cav Vols
Walford, James A 6th Reg Inf Vols
Walker, Eugenius F 17th Reg Inf Vols
Walker, James G 6th Reg Inf Vols
Walker, Joseph G 6th Reg Inf Vols
Walker, N. R. L 2nd Reg Cav Vols
Wallace, George M. B 4th Reg Inf Vols
Wallace, John D 5th Reg Inf Vols
Wallace, John F. H 1st Reg Lt Art Vols
Wallace, Robert G 1st Reg Inf Vols
Wallace, Robert F 11th Reg Inf Vols
Wallace, Thomas H. C 2nd Reg Vet Inf Vols
Waller, Colman B. 1st Sgt. K 5th Reg Inf Vols
Walls, Archibald E 7th Reg Inf Vols
Walls, Franklin D 4th Reg Cav Vols
Walsh, Coza G. 2nd Lt. 1st Reg Cav Vols
Walsh, Joseph A. Q.M. Sgt. 2nd Reg Vet Inf Vols
Walsh, Thomas G 2nd Reg Inf Vols
Walters, Isaac S. F 1st Reg Cav Vols
Walters, John H 6th Reg Cav Vols
Walton, Samuel C 9th Reg Inf Vols
Ward, John C 5th Reg Inf Vols
Ward, Robert Capt. 1st Reg Cav Vols
Ward, William L 7th Reg Cav Vols
Warneke, August G 2nd Reg Cav Vols
Warner, George P. F 2nd Reg Cav Vols
Warner, William H. D 17th Reg Inf Vols
Warnicke, Edward D 5th Reg Cav Vols
Warren, Charles D. E 1st Reg Cav Vols
Warthen, Henry A. F 1st Reg Cav Vols
Washington, Granville 45th US
Washington, John A 5th Reg Cav Vols
Wasson, Edward M. H 15th Reg Inf Vols
Wasson, James I 2nd Reg Vet Inf Vols
Wasson, Thomas I 1st Reg Inf Vols
Wasson, Thomas I 12th Reg Inf Vols
Waters, Aaron M 6th Reg Inf Vols
Watkins, James A 6th Reg Cav Vols
Watkins, John C 15th Reg Inf Vols
Watkins, Martin A 3rd Reg Inf Vols
Watkins, Samuel D 2nd Reg Cav Vols
Watkins, Wilford K 7th Reg Inf Vols
Watkins, William W. Sgt. E 7th Reg Inf Vols
Watson, David K 7th Reg Inf Vols
Watson, Frederick 45th US
Watson, John I 6th Reg Inf Vols
Watson, Thomas H 3rd Reg Cav Vols
Watterman, Charles Sgt. D 4th Reg Cav Vols
Watts, Felix G 6th Reg Inf Vols
Waugh, Arthur G 6th Reg Inf Vols
Waugh, Charles C. G 4th Reg Inf Vols
Waxler, John T. Cpl. D 4th Reg Cav Vols
Waybright, Cyrus K 8th Reg Inf Vols
Wayne, George W. I 10th Reg Inf Vols
Weaver, Arthur J. 1st Lt. 2nd Reg Inf Vols
Weaver, David D 1st Reg Inf Vols
Weaver, George E 2nd Reg Cav Vols
Webb, Francis C 5th Reg Inf Vols
Webb, John D. E 5th Reg Cav Vols
Webb, Milton K 5th Reg Inf Vols
Webb, Thompson C 5th Reg Inf Vols
Webb, William H 8th Reg Inf Vols
Webster, James G 13th Reg Inf Vols
Weddle, James D 7th Reg Inf Vols
Weedon, William H. B 1st Reg Inf Vols
Week, William Sgt. A 5th Reg Inf Vols
Weekley, Solomon A 14th Reg Inf Vols
Weekly, John C 7th Reg Inf Vols
Weekly, Lorenzo C 7th Reg Inf Vols
Weekly, Solomon H 4th Reg Cav Vols
Wehei, Julius L 1st Reg Cav Vols
Weir, William C. F 2nd Reg Cav Vols
Weisman, William D 1st Reg Inf Vols
Weitzel, William 1st Lt. 1st Reg Lt Art Vols
Welch, Edwin L. A 6th Reg Cav Vols
Welch, James D 2nd Reg Cav Vols
Welch, James W. C 1st Reg Cav Vols
Welch, Loman Farrier H 4th Reg Cav Vols
Welch, Owen I 7th Reg Cav Vols
Welch, Robert B 1st Reg Cav Vols
Wells, Elliott H 7th Reg Cav Vols
Wells, James I 5th Reg Inf Vols
Wells, John L. C 6th Reg Inf Vols
Wells, Richard A. Wagoner H 4th Reg Cav Vols
Welsh, Anthony I 1st Reg Inf Vols
Welsh, Thomas E. I 2nd Reg Vet Inf Vols
Weltner, John M. I 14th Reg Inf Vols
Weltner, Thomas N. L 2nd Reg Cav Vols
Wender, Charles E 1st Reg Inf Vols
West, David E 7th Reg Inf Vols
West, Isaac H 13th Reg Inf Vols
West, John R. E 1st Reg Cav Vols
West, Thomas F. K 5th Reg Cav Vols
West, William A. Capt. 1st Reg Cav Vols
Weston, Isaiah Sgt. B 1st Reg Inf Vols
Wetzell, Jonathan G 6th Reg Inf Vols
Whalen, James E 9th Reg Inf Vols
Wharton, John W. I 10th Reg Inf Vols
Wheekly, James K. G 7th Reg Inf Vols
Wheeler, Samuel D. Cpl. G 7th Reg Inf Vols
Whety, John D. G 6th Reg Inf Vols
Whetzel, Joseph E 6th Reg Inf Vols
Whipkey, Freeman B 7th Reg Inf Vols
Whipkey, Freeman A 10th Reg Inf Vols
Whirley, Ceprian B 7th Reg Inf Vols
White, Alfred M 1st Reg Cav Vols
White, Andrew D 1st Reg Inf Vols
White, Benjamin F. F 4th Reg Inf Vols
White, Charles L 3rd Reg Cav Vols
White, David H. L 7th Reg Cav Vols
White, Francis J. Cpl. I 5th Reg Inf Vols
White, Henry 45th US
White, Isaac K 7th Reg Inf Vols
White, James A Ind Exempt Inf Vols
White, James C 1st Reg Cav Vols
White, James J. D 10th Reg Inf Vols
White, James W. E 6th Reg Inf Vols
White, John W. F 4th Reg Inf Vols
White, John W. F 5th Reg Cav Vols
White, Martin D 6th Reg Inf Vols
White, Philip F 1st Reg Cav Vols
White, Richard R. F 6th Reg Inf Vols
White, William H 1st Reg Inf Vols
White, William B 1st Reg Cav Vols
Whitehill, Rezin F 2nd Reg Cav Vols
Whiteman, William K 6th Reg Inf Vols
Whitham, Jos. I 1st Reg Inf Vols
Whiting, Theo. F. D 11th Reg Inf Vols
Whitlock, William E. N 6th Reg Inf Vols
Whitney, James G. D 4th Reg Cav Vols
Whitt, George G 2nd Reg Cav Vols
Whitt, Jesse F 5th Reg Inf Vols
Whitt, Solomon K. H 5th Reg Inf Vols
Whittlesey, Joseph H. F 4th Reg Inf Vols
Whitzel, John D. O 6th Reg Inf Vols
Whitzell, Peter D 11th Reg Inf Vols
Wiber, William H. D 7th Reg Inf Vols
Wilbur, Edward P. Capt. 7th Reg Cav Vols
Wilds, Franklin F. H 1st Reg Lt Art Vols
Wilds, William J. E 1st Reg Cav Vols
Wilford, Henry H 1st Reg Lt Art Vols
Wilgus, Daniel 2nd Lt. 9th Reg Inf Vols
Wilkes, Albert 45th US
Wilkie, Andrew J. B 7th Reg Inf Vols
Wilkinson, James 45th US
Wilkinson, Mordecai R. Sgt. F 1st Reg Cav Vols
Wilkinson, Samuel A. E 4th Reg Cav Vols
Willhide, Christian K 17th Reg Inf Vols
Williams, Abraham M 6th Reg Inf Vols
Williams, Abraham 45th US
Williams, Adolph I 2nd Reg Inf Vols
Williams, Alfred H 2nd Reg Cav Vols
Williams, Andrew J. F 1st Reg Inf Vols
Williams, Andrew J. E 6th Reg Inf Vols
Williams, Andrew J. H 1st Reg Lt Art Vols
Williams, Caleb C 4th Reg Inf Vols
Williams, Edward J. D 15th Reg Inf Vols
Williams, Elijah L 1st Reg Cav Vols
Williams, Enoch B 4th Reg Inf Vols
Williams, Hugh E 1st Reg Cav Vols
Williams, John E 2nd Reg Inf Vols
Williams, John K. 45th US
Williams, Lewis A 7th Reg Inf Vols
Williams, Lloyd H 7th Reg Cav Vols
Williams, Matthew F. K 8th Reg Inf Vols
Williams, McConnel Cpl. K 5th Reg Inf Vols
Williams, Owen Cpl. A 7th Reg Cav Vols
Williams, Peter 45th US
Williams, Peter E 2nd Reg Cav Vols
Williams, Preston 45th US
Williams, Samuel Cpl. L 3rd Reg Cav Vols
Williams, Samuel E. A 1st Reg Cav Vols
Williams, Samuel H. 45th US
Williams, Samuel H. C 12th Reg Inf Vols
Williams, Solomon A 14th Reg Inf Vols
Williams, Sylvester K 7th Reg Inf Vols
Williams, Walter G 1st Reg Inf Vols
Williams, William G 5th Reg Cav Vols
Williams, William 45th US
Williams, Wilson 45th US
Williams, Wyatt 45th US
Williamson, David F. Adjutant 2nd Reg Inf Vols
Williamson, George W. E 7th Reg Inf Vols
Willis, Andrew J. A 3rd Reg Cav Vols
Willis, Charles O. C 13th Reg Inf Vols
Willis, Cyrus H. Cpl. C 2nd Reg Cav Vols
Willis, Francis M. A 3rd Reg Cav Vols
Willis, George H. E 5th Reg Inf Vols
Willis, John I 2nd Reg Cav Vols
Willis, William T. E 5th Reg Inf Vols
Willison, George W. M 3rd Reg Cav Vols
Willoby, Thomas G 6th Reg Inf Vols
Wilson, Adam D 1st Reg Cav Vols
Wilson, Albert Sgt. G 7th Reg Inf Vols
Wilson, Amos G 17th Reg Inf Vols
Wilson, Charles I 2nd Reg Cav Vols
Wilson, Charles C 1st Reg Cav Vols
Wilson, Ephraim C 6th Reg Cav Vols
Wilson, George A 5th Reg Cav Vols
Wilson, George E 6th Reg Inf Vols
Wilson, George B. P 6th Reg Inf Vols
Wilson, Hannibal K 1st Reg Vet Inf Vols
Wilson, James F 3rd Reg Cav Vols
Wilson, John B 6th Reg Cav Vols
Wilson, John M 2nd Reg Cav Vols
Wilson, John E 7th Reg Inf Vols
Wilson, John C. L 1st Reg Cav Vols
Wilson, John W. I 1st Reg Cav Vols
Wilson, Jos. G. B 12th Reg Inf Vols
Wilson, Joseph Wagoner F 4th Reg Cav Vols
Wilson, Joseph Cpl. D 4th Reg Cav Vols
Wilson, Solomon H 9th Reg Inf Vols
Wilson, Thomas H 7th Reg Inf Vols
Wilson, Virginus B 17th Reg Inf Vols
Wilson, William 45th US
Wilson, William K. K 4th Reg Inf Vols
Wilt, Eli E 6th Reg Inf Vols
Windall, John H. H 9th Reg Inf Vols
Winders, Charles H 1st Reg Cav Vols
Winding, George W. M 2nd Reg Cav Vols
Windle, William K 5th Reg Inf Vols
Windsor, Henry H. I 4th Reg Cav Vols
Wine, James I 4th Reg Inf Vols
Winesburg, Oscar F. C 17th Reg Inf Vols
Winesburg, Samuel A 6th Reg Inf Vols
Winfield, Albert K 1st Reg Cav Vols
Winters, Jackson A. G 4th Reg Inf Vols
Winters, Thomas Capt. 1st Reg Cav Vols
Winters, William G 1st Reg Inf Vols
Wires, Lafayette D 14th Reg Inf Vols
Wires, Nathaniel D 14th Reg Inf Vols
Wise, Thomas S. N 6th Reg Inf Vols
Wiseman, John E 1st Reg Inf Vols
Wiseman, Joseph N. M 2nd Reg Cav Vols
Witam, James C 1st Reg Inf Vols
Withers, William 45th US
Wolf, Joseph S. E 8th Reg Inf Vols
Wolf, Luther B 6th Reg Cav Vols
Wolvington, Thomas J. C 1st Reg Inf Vols
Wood, Byron G. Cpl. F 4th Reg Inf Vols
Wood, Harvey H. H 6th Reg Inf Vols
Wood, James C.S. Sgt. M 7th Reg Cav Vols
Wood, James T. M 1st Reg Cav Vols
Wood, Jerier N 6th Reg Inf Vols
Wood, John T. B 6th Reg Cav Vols
Wood, Joseph K 6th Reg Inf Vols
Wood, Moses H. Capt. 8th Reg Inf Vols
Wood, Noah A 5th Reg Inf Vols
Wood, Thomas B. H 11th Reg Inf Vols
Wood, William D 1st Reg Inf Vols
Wood, William K 6th Reg Inf Vols
Wood, William B 6th Reg Cav Vols
Wood, William G 2nd Reg Cav Vols
Woodall, James I 4th Reg Inf Vols
Woodfield, Joseph L 3rd Reg Cav Vols
Woods, William Cpl. F 6th Reg Cav Vols
Woodward, R. M. B 5th Reg Cav Vols
Woodyard, M. E. G 13th Reg Inf Vols
Woodyard, Manly P. D 13th Reg Inf Vols
Wooton, George C. K 1st Reg Vet Inf Vols
Worman, Cornelius H 2nd Reg Cav Vols
Worman, Franklin E 2nd Reg Cav Vols
Worthington, James A. Cpl. G 6th Reg Cav Vols
Worthington, John P. K 3rd Reg Cav Vols
Worthington, William Blacksmith H 1st Reg Cav Vols
Worthington, William M. Asst. Surgeon 10th Reg Inf Vols
Wright, Gad G 4th Reg Inf Vols
Wright, Henry H. B 14th Reg Inf Vols
Wright, James G. H 4th Reg Cav Vols
Wright, Joseph L 3rd Reg Cav Vols
Wright, Major W. C 15th Reg Inf Vols
Wright, William B 7th Reg Inf Vols
Wroe, George N. N 6th Reg Inf Vols
Wroe, George N. N 6th Reg Inf Vols
Wroe, John W. N 6th Reg Inf Vols
Wyant, Henry M. C 6th Reg Inf Vols
Wyatt, Francis M. A 5th Reg Inf Vols
Wycoff, William G 17th Reg Inf Vols
Wyer, Alpheus G 12th Reg Inf Vols
Wyman, Jacob D 1st Reg Inf Vols

Yager, Henry D 1st Reg Cav Vols
Yates, Biddle G 2nd Reg Cav Vols
Yates, James A. C 13th Reg Inf Vols
Yates, John C 4th Reg Cav Vols
Yearian, Joseph K 5th Reg Cav Vols
Yearian, Joseph S. K 5th Reg Cav Vols
Yehs, Patterson F. Cpl. G 7th Reg Inf Vols
Yingst, David R. H 6th Reg Cav Vols
Yoder, Henry O 6th Reg Inf Vols
Yonkie, Lewis D 4th Reg Inf Vols
Young, Christopher D 1st Reg Inf Vols
Young, Edward P. E 7th Reg Inf Vols
Young, Isaac G 1st Reg Inf Vols
Young, John A 4th Reg Inf Vols
Young, John H. 45th US
Young, Joseph H 1st Reg Cav Vols
Young, Loyal G 1st Reg Cav Vols
Young, Philip I 1st Reg Inf Vols
Young, Robert D 4th Reg Inf Vols
Young, Samuel H. I 2nd Reg Cav Vols
Young, Thomas N 6th Reg Inf Vols
Yourley, Samuel Musician G 7th Reg Inf Vols

Zahn, William C. F 1st Reg Cav Vols
Zimmerman, Henry H 7th Reg Cav Vols
Zink, George W. F 4th Reg Cav Vols
Zinn, Joseph A 1st Reg Cav Vols



Comments:

  1. Ricard

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  3. Jaspar

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  4. Gace

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