Numidian Mausoleum of Thugga

Numidian Mausoleum of Thugga



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The Tomb of Thuuga

Thuuga was the chieftain of a small clan that can be traced back to the iksar Kylong Tribe. It was during the Age of Enlightenment that Thuuga's tribe existed in a small city in the Dreadlands. That city was called Drolakis. Thuuga's power of sorcery and his powerful tribe of warriors were subjugated by the resurrected Venril Sathir. Along with their subjugation came the curse that turned the people of Drolakis into an army of drolvarg. These beasts would become Venril's army in the south.

Thuuga's love of his homeland had him create a secret throne that was based on the architecture of the city of Drolakis. When the chieftain was slain in battle, his life force was spirited away to that hidden dwelling. That resting place was the only intact remainder of a secret throne of the drolvarg commander. His secrets of Sathirian betrayal and Chelsith history have been entombed here until recently when the drachnid discovered it.


Mausoleum of Dougga/Thugga, Tunisia and its Libyco-Punic inscription translated

نقش دقة (dougga) الشهير (تونس)، هو نص مزدوج بونيقي لوبي (اللوبية هي الأمازيغية القديمة) ، تمكن بفضله المختصون إلى حل الغاز الكتابة اللوبية. النقش كان موجودا في واجهة الضريح اللوبي البونيقي من الطراز النومدي الملكي. وهو متكون من نقشين مزدوجين.النقش الثاني تمت الإشارة إليه من قبل عدد من الرحالة في القرن السابع عشر والثامن عشر، لكنه مفقود ولا يعرف أين هو. النقش الأول انتزعه القنصل الإنكليزي توماس ريد سنة 1842 تسبب ذلك في تشويه كبير للمعلم الذي رمم لاحقا سنة 1910. النقش موجود في المتحف البريطاني و هو مؤرخ من القرن الثاني قبل الميلاد. سأقدم النقش المزدوج الأول وأشرحه بنصيه البونيقي واللوبي :

النقش البونيقي بالأحرف العربية :

1-منصبت ش أطبن بن يفمطت بن فلو

2-هبنم ش أدنم عبارش بن عبدشترت

3-زمر بن أطبن بن يفمطت بن فلو

5-و بإزرت ش بلا. ززي و طمن و ورسكن

6- هحرشم ش ير مدسل بن ننبسن وانكن بن أشي

7- هنسكم ش برزل شفط بن بلل و ففي بن ببي

1-منصبت شي أطبان بن يفمطت بن فالو

2-ها بنيم شي أدونيم أبارش بن عبدشترت/أبدشترت

3-زمر بن أطبان بن يفمطت بن فالو

5-و بإزرت شي بلا. ززي و طمن و ورسكن

6- ها حرشم شي ير مدسل بن ننبسن وانكن بن أشي

7- ها نسكم ش برزل شفط بن بلل و ففي بن ببي

1 -نصب / قبر أطبان بن يفمطت بن فالو

2-من بين ابنائه الأسياد أبارش بن عبدعشترت

3-زمر بن أطبان بن يفمطت بن فالو

5-و من أفراد عائلته الذين. ززي و طمن و ورسكن

6-حرفيو/مصممو/عمال الخشب مدسل بن ننبسن وانكن بن أشي

7-سكبة الحديد (الذين يسكبون الحديد) شفط بن بلل و ففي بن ببي

-شي = تأتي بمعنى OF بالإجليزية ،

- ها بنيم : جمع إبن : الأبناء ، هي موجودة أيضاً بنفس الصيغة بالعبرية ה בנים ، الياء والميم هي أدوات الجمع في الكنعانية و العبرية

ادونيم : جمع أدون : الأسياد

- ها حرشم شي ير : حرشم هنا جمع حرش : و مكن تعني حرث (الشين تقلب ثاء في العربية في كثير من الكلمات) ، وحرش تريد في النقوش الفينيقية والبونيقية بمعنى المعماري ، بعل حرش أي كبير المعماريين .

ير : أصلها يعر وتعني الخشب بالكنعانية في العبرية יער تعني غابة، وهنا إنتزعت العين بتأثير لوبي شمال إفريقي الذين لا ينطقون العين.

-ها نسكم ش برزل : نسكم هي جمع نسك : أي سكب/ صب :في العبرية نسك נסך بنفس المعنى ،

برزل : الحديد ، في العبرية ברזל برزل

-الملفت للإنتباه هنا الأسامي المذكورة منها البونيقي

-عبدعشترت : كتب عبدشترت : وإسقاط حرف العين أو إستعماله كحرف ألف هي من تأثير لوبي بربري .

-عبد أرش : كتب عبارش : إسم عبد أرش ذكر في نقوش بونيقية (مثلا نقش قرطاجي تحت رقم KAI81) و نقش فينيقي كنعاني عثر عليه في فلسطين في منطقة وادي الخليل Shephelah, Jar Inscription 20

-شفط : في الأصل شفط שׁופט قاضي نرى هنا كيف تحول إلى إسم

أطبن ،يفمطت ،ززي ، طمن ، ورسكن ،انكن، أشي، نبسن ، ففي. سأشرحها أكثر في النص اللوبي

أسماء لافتة للنظر : منجي، زمر ، بلل. نظرا لغياب إستعمال الحروف الصوتية ، فإن قراءة هذه الأسماء يمكن أن تسيل الكثير من الحبر

-منجي (يقرأ بالجيم المصرية) كتب في النص اللوبي MNGY ، لا نعرف كيف ينطق : MINGY MANGY MONGY ، MNIGI. هل هو ذو أصل لوبي أو يمكن ربطه بإسم منجي المتداول كثيرة في تونس فقط ؟ هل يعود سبب إنتشار الإسم الحالي ذو المعنى العربي لكونه يشبه إسما لوبي قديم في تونس؟ ممكن في الأمازيغية من أمنجي (am/ngy) مثل السيل اي هي صفة من الجذر ngy الذي يحمل معنى السيلان و الجريان . فعلا أمر محير

-زمر : ZMR ، يمكن إشتقاق معاني من العربية وزمري هو اسم فينيقي كنعاني معروف جدا يعني المنشد للالة وهو موجود في اسماء ملوك السلالة العمورية في ماري (الشكر للأستاذ تيسير خلف لهذه المعلومة( ، لكن هذه الكلمة موجودة في الأمازيغية ⵣⵎⴻⵔ ZEMER /ZMER بمعنى القدرة ، الإستطاعة ، القوة

-بلل : لانعرف هل يقرأ BILEL ،BALEL ، BOLAL . هل هو إسم لوبي قديم؟ أم يمكن ربطه بإسم بلال الحبشي؟ بلل: ربما من ابلال او تابلالت و في الدارجة مازال الاسم بلال (شدة فوق اللام الاولى ناتجة عن فقدان الالف في اول الكلمة ) مازال مستعمل الى يومنا هذا كلقب و ابلال هي الحصى او الحجر

النص اللوبي بالأحرف اللاتينية (النقش مكتوب من اليمين إلى اليسار) وهي عبارة عن دبلجة لنفس الأسطر المقابلة لها بالبونقية

6-NBBN NShQRh MDSL W NNFSN NKN

7-NBBN NZLh ShFT W BLL W FFY W BBY

النص اللوبي مترجم إلى العربية

2- . درشه (عبد ارش) إبن دشتر (عبدعشترت)

5-خدامه/ابنائه ززي طمن إبن ورسكن

6-من عمال/حملة الخشب مسدل إبن ننفسن انكن

7-من عمال/حملة الحديد شفط إبن بلل إبن ففي إبن ببي

النص كما سأبين ، كله تقريباً مفرداته موجودة في اللغة الأمازيغية ، وإستعنت بمعجم فرنسي أمازيغي كتب سنة 1907

- كلمة W و : تعني إبن بالأمازيغية، و نجد تلك الكلمة في القاب العديد من العائلات والقبائل التونسية : ورتاني ، وسلاتي، وشتاتي، ورهاني، ورفلي، ورغي . وفي الجزائر اويحيى ، أو لحلو . وجمعها ايت: اي أبناء

- كلمة KSL NS: لم أعرف لها إشتقاق . لكن الباحثين فسرو KSL بمعنى خدم/أبناء و NS بمعنى HIS في الإنكليزية و son في الفرنسية

- كلمة N BBN: مقطع متكون من ثلاثة ازجاء: حرف N الأول في الأمازيغية تعني OF في الإنكليزية و DE في الفرنسية ، مثال : TAFAT N TAFUKT تعني مترجمة حرفيا إلى الإنكليزية LIGHT OF THE SUN

كلمة BB : في الأمازيغية BIBB ⴱⵉⴱⴱ فعل بمعنى يحمل فوق الأكتاف (في اللهجة القبايلية) : إذا عرفنا أن الجدر قديم ، و مكن هنا تعني الذين جلبوا وحملوا، أو تعني العمال كمرادف

حرف N الأخير هي صيغة الجمع في الأمازيغية للعديد من المفردات مثل argaz ⴰⵔⴳⴰⵣ رجل، في الجمع irgzn ⵉⵔⴳⵣⵏ رجال

كلمة N BBN إذا هي بمعنى من بين حاملي / الذين جلبوا

- كلمة N ShQRh : نفهم هنا SQR هو جذر كلمة ASGHAR ⴰⵙⵖⴰⵕ أي الخشب في الأمازيغية (اللهجة القبايلية). تداخل الغين والقاف أمر شائع في الأمازيغية

إذاً المقطع N BBN NShQRh : من بين عمال/حاملي الخشب ، N ShQRh تترجم حرفيا OF WOOD.


The Royal Mausoleum of Mauretania – Algeria

The Maghreb and Land of the Atlas are common nicknames for Algeria. Incredible natural landscapes, which span from the Sahara Desert to the Kabylia Mountains and to the Mediterranean Sea, captivate travellers of the less-travelled country of Algeria.

The Royal Mausoleum of Mauretania is a funerary monument located on the road between Cherchell and Algiers, in Tipaza Province, Algeria. The mausoleum is the tomb where the Numidian Berber King Juba II (son of Juba I of Numidia) and the Queen Cleopatra Selene II, sovereigns of Numidia and Mauretania Caesariensis, were allegedly buried. However, their human remains have not been found at the site, perhaps due to tomb raiding.

The sepulcher is sometimes known as the Mausoleum of Juba and Cleopatra Selene. In French, it is called the Tombeau de la Chrétienne (“the tomb of the Christian woman”) because there is a Christian cross-like shape of the division lines on the false door.

The mausoleum was built in 3 BC by the last King of Numidia, and later King of Mauretania Caesariensis, Juba II (son of Juba I of Numidia) and his wife Cleopatra Selene II, She was an Egyptian-Greek Ptolemaic princess, the daughter of the Queen Cleopatra VII of Egypt and Roman Triumvir Mark Antony. Through her marriage to Juba II, she became the last Queen of Numidia and later Queen of Mauretania Caesariensis.

The human remains of Juba II and Cleopatra Selene have not been found at the site. This perhaps due to a grave robbery that occurred at an uncertain time (possibly shortly after the Mausoleum’s construction). It is also possible that the structure was simply meant to serve as a memorial and not an actual place of burial.


Catholic Encyclopedia (1913)/Thugga

Titular see of Numidia, perhaps the Numidian fortress of Tocai mentioned about 305 B.C. by Diodorus S iculus (XX, v, 4). King Masinissa probably captured Thugga from Carthage in the second century B.C. A pagus under Claudius I, Thugga was dependent on the Roman colony of Carthage. Under Marcus Aurelius it included a pagus and a civitas Septimius Severus erected it into the municipium, Septimianum Aurelium liberum Thugga, which became a colony in 261 under Gallian. Justinian built a fortress there which is still partly preserved (Procopius, "De Êdificiis", VI, 5). The existence of a pagus and a civitas explains why there were two bishops, Saturninus an Honoratus, who assisted at the Council of Carthage in 256. A Donatist bishop, Paschasius, went to the Council of Carthage in 411. Thugga is now Dougga, a village of Tunis, famous for Its ruins, among which are the temple of the Capitol Built under Marcus Aurelius, a theatre, three triumphal arches, Roman necropoli, and a Punic Mausoleum.

TOULOTTE, Géog, de l'Afrique chreétienne, Proconsulaire, 285-88 IDEM, Byzacéne et Tripolitaine, 208 SALADIN in Nouvelles archives des missions scientifiques, II 448-529 CARTON, Dougga (Tunis, 1911).


Dougga - A Roman Hilltop City In Tunisia (part One)

Tumbling down the Tunisian hillside in terraces of warm sandstone lies the magnificent remains of one of Rome&rsquos outpost cities, on the edge of the Empire. And one of the best preserved Roman cities of North Africa too &ndash so well preserved that it is rightfully listed on the UNESCO World Cultural Heritage list.

Nor was this a backwater, a drab place without the amenities of cities nearer the heart

The Numidian royal family adopted stone monumental architecture from their initially more advanced neighbours and it&rsquos here at Dougga that one of the few surviving Numidian monuments can the found: the mausoleum of Atban.

The mausoleum is well down the slopes of the hill, outside the city proper. It is in the form of a tower, decorated with Greek columns but also with Egyptian lotus flower capitals and topped with a pyramid. Here in stone is reflected the different influences on the Numidian kingdom. It is inscribed both in Carthaginian and in the native Libyan (rendered in Carthaginian alphabet) and that has allowed scholars to decipher the ancient Libyan language.

Note 1: the term capitoline temple means the main temple overlooking a Roman-style city&rsquos forum or central square.

This article first appeared on Trifter, here .

Article Written By BruceW

Electronic engineer and writer with a passion for history (especially the First World War) and photography.


Dougga

View all photos

Some call it Dougga, some call it Thugga. Either way, its pristine preservation has earned it World Heritage Site status from the UNESCO.

It sits on a craggy hillside, perched above fertile hills of groves in central Tunisia. Despite its status as a preserved Roman town, the settlement is actually quite a bit older than that: The discovery of dolmens (Bronze Age burial structures) within the city limits indicates a human presence since at least 2000 BCE. Though most of what remains of the city is from the Roman era, there are several significant Numidian structures, including the Punic-Libyan Mausoleum. It was during this time that the site was known as Thugga.

The site owes its state of preservation to remoteness and lack of modern encroachment. Among its structures is a theater that could seat practically the entire population of the town—around 3,500. There is also a circus for chariot racing, a large villa, several baths dating from 300 CE, and two triumphal arches.

The site contained a large number of elaborate mosaic floors. (Some are in situ but most are housed in the Bardo Museum in Tunis.) Most notable of all, however, are the twenty temples found, a truly disproportionate number of temples for the size of the population. At first it was thought that Dougga was a major religious site, but it has since been decided that the temples were erected by wealthy residents as tribute for their good fortune.

The most famous and most photographed of these temples is the Capitol, built in the 2nd century CE. It’s dedicated to Rome’s protective triad: Jupiter, Juno and Minerva. The capitol is exceptionally well preserved, owing to its inclusion within a later Byzantine fortification. Visitors to the site can wander through the hilly, cobblestoned streets and take in the serene atmosphere. Aside from the major sites, there is an interesting group latrine (the more, the merrier!).


Contents

Masinissa was the son of the chieftain Gaia of a Numidian tribal group, the Massylii. [8] He was brought up in Carthage, an ally of his father. [9] At the start of the Second Punic War, Masinissa fought for Carthage against Syphax, the king of the Masaesyli of western Numidia (present day Algeria), who had allied himself with the Romans. Masinissa, then about 17 years old, led an army of Numidian troops and Carthaginian auxiliaries against Syphax's army and won a decisive victory (215–212 BC). He was betrothed to the daughter of the Carthaginian general Hasdrubal Gisgo. [3] : 180

After his victory over Syphax, Masinissa commanded his skilled Numidian cavalry against the Romans in Spain, where he was involved in the Carthaginian victories of Castulo and Ilorca in 211 BC. After Hasdrubal Barca departed for Italy, Masinissa was placed in command of all the Carthaginian cavalry in Spain, where he fought a successful guerrilla campaign against the Roman general Publius Cornelius Scipio (Scipio Africanus) throughout 208 and 207, while Mago Barca and Hasdrubal Gisgo levied and trained new forces. In c.206 BC, with fresh reinforcements, Mago and Hasdrubal Gisgo—supported by Masinissa's Numidian cavalry—met Scipio at the Battle of Ilipa, where Carthage's power over Hispania was forever broken in arguably Scipio Africanus's most brilliant victory.

When Gaia died in 206 BC, his son Masinissa and his brother Oezalces quarreled about the inheritance, and Syphax was able to conquer considerable parts of eastern Numidia. Meanwhile, with the Carthaginians having been driven from Hispania, Masinissa concluded that Rome was winning the war against Carthage and therefore decided to defect to Rome. He promised to assist Scipio in the invasion of Carthaginian territory in Africa. This decision was aided by the move by Scipio Africanus to free Masinissa's nephew, Massiva, whom the Romans had captured when he had disobeyed his uncle and ridden into battle. Having lost the alliance with Masinissa, Hasdrubal started to look for another ally, which he found in Syphax, who married Sophonisba, Hasdrubal's daughter, who until the defection had been betrothed to Masinissa. The Romans supported Masinissa's claim to the Numidian throne against Syphax, who was nevertheless successful in driving Masinissa from power until Scipio invaded Africa in 204. Masinissa joined the Roman forces and participated in the victorious Battle of the Great Plains (203).

At the Battle of Bagbrades (203), Scipio overcame Hasdrubal and Syphax and, while the Roman general concentrated on Carthage, Gaius Laelius and Masinissa followed Syphax to Cirta, where he was captured and handed over to Scipio. After the defeat of Syphax, Masinissa married Syphax's wife Sophonisba, but Scipio, suspicious of her loyalty, demanded that she be taken to Rome and appear in the triumphal parade. To save her from such humiliation, Masinissa sent her poison, with which she killed herself. Masinissa was now accepted as a loyal ally of Rome, and was confirmed by Scipio as the king of the Massylii.

At the Battle of Zama, Masinissa commanded the cavalry (6,000 Numidian and 3,000 Roman) on Scipio's right wing, Scipio delayed the engagement long enough to allow for Masinissa to join him. With the battle hanging in the balance, Masinissa's cavalry, having driven the fleeing Carthaginian horsemen away, returned and immediately fell onto the rear of the Carthaginian lines. This decided the battle and at once Hannibal's army began to collapse. The Second Punic War was over and for his services Masinissa received the Kingdom of Syphax, and became King of Numidia.

Masinissa was now king of both the Massylii and the Masaesyli. He showed unconditional loyalty to Rome, and his position in Africa was strengthened by a clause in the peace treaty of 201 between Rome and Carthage prohibiting the latter from going to war even in self-defense without Roman permission. This enabled Masinissa to encroach on the remaining Carthaginian territory as long as he judged that Rome wished to see Carthage further weakened.


Thugga

Titular see of Numidia, perhaps the Numidian fortress of Tocai mentioned about 305 B.C. by Diodorus Siculus (XX, v, 4). King Masinissa probably captured Thugga from Carthage in the second century B.C. A pagus under Claudius I, Thugga was dependent on the Roman colony of Carthage. Under Marcus Aurelius it included a pagus and a civitas Septimius Severus erected it into the municipium, Septimianum Aurelium liberum Thugga, which became a colony in 261 under Gallian. Justinian built a fortress there which is still partly preserved (Procopius, "De ædificiis", VI, 5). The existence of a pagus and a civitas explains why there were two bishops, Saturninus and Honoratus, who assisted at the Council of Carthage in 256. A Donatist bishop, Paschasius, went to the Council of Carthage in 411. Thugga is now Dougga, a village of Tunis, famous for Its ruins, among which are the temple of the Capitol Built under Marcus Aurelius, a theatre, three triumphal arches, Roman necropoli, and a Punic Mausoleum.


Dougga

View all photos

Some call it Dougga, some call it Thugga. Either way, its pristine preservation has earned it World Heritage Site status from the UNESCO.

It sits on a craggy hillside, perched above fertile hills of groves in central Tunisia. Despite its status as a preserved Roman town, the settlement is actually quite a bit older than that: The discovery of dolmens (Bronze Age burial structures) within the city limits indicates a human presence since at least 2000 BCE. Though most of what remains of the city is from the Roman era, there are several significant Numidian structures, including the Punic-Libyan Mausoleum. It was during this time that the site was known as Thugga.

The site owes its state of preservation to remoteness and lack of modern encroachment. Among its structures is a theater that could seat practically the entire population of the town—around 3,500. There is also a circus for chariot racing, a large villa, several baths dating from 300 CE, and two triumphal arches.

The site contained a large number of elaborate mosaic floors. (Some are in situ but most are housed in the Bardo Museum in Tunis.) Most notable of all, however, are the twenty temples found, a truly disproportionate number of temples for the size of the population. At first it was thought that Dougga was a major religious site, but it has since been decided that the temples were erected by wealthy residents as tribute for their good fortune.

The most famous and most photographed of these temples is the Capitol, built in the 2nd century CE. It’s dedicated to Rome’s protective triad: Jupiter, Juno and Minerva. The capitol is exceptionally well preserved, owing to its inclusion within a later Byzantine fortification. Visitors to the site can wander through the hilly, cobblestoned streets and take in the serene atmosphere. Aside from the major sites, there is an interesting group latrine (the more, the merrier!).


Watch the video: Libyco-Roman ruins at Dougga Thugga UNESCO World Heritage Site, Tunisia, North Africa: travel VLOG